LedgerDB provides blockchain database services. LedgerDB takes advantage of blockchains and centralized systems. Blockchains offer non-repudiation and tamper-resistance features, and centralized systems deliver high performance with low latency. LedgerDB also reduces the costs and lowers the thresholds of adopting blockchain technologies. LedgerDB is suitable for a wide variety of scenarios, such as data notarization and data provenance.
LedgerDB ensures high data reliability and allows you to perform 300,000 transactions per second (TPS) on a single ledger for a single client. LedgerDB achieves a response delay of only a few milliseconds. LedgerDB also provides 100 times higher performance than traditional blockchains such as Hyperledger Fabric and Quorum.
LedgerDB uses a centralized architecture where multiple nodes are not required for multi-party participation. Compared with traditional consortium chains, LedgerDB helps you reduce deployment costs by at least 75%.
Malicious Data Modification or Deletion
A large number of media reports reveal that certain authorized workers in enterprises, companies, or government agencies modify or delete the service data for malicious purposes. This has significant adverse effects on the enterprises, the companies, and the government agencies. If the records of data changes are modified or deleted for malicious purposes, you must handle considerable challenges during subsequent investigation and punishment processes.
Data Authenticity Concerns
Users may have concerns about the authenticity of the data that is provided by their service providers. For example, an enterprise or an organization may have concerns about the authenticity of the data that is provided by a cloud service provider. The users of an enterprise or an organization may have concerns about the authenticity of the data that is provided by the enterprise or the organization. Traditional cloud databases have been facing this challenge for a long time but cannot provide a suitable solution to handle the challenge.
Joint Frauds and High Costs
If you use consortium chains to ensure data authenticity, you must handle certain challenges. For example, you must handle joint frauds among consortium members and the imbalance of interests among the consortium members that compete with each other. Another challenge is that the costs of using consortium chains are high.
How It Works
LedgerDB ensures data tamper-resistance and non-repudiation (in terms of the calendar time dimension) at multiple levels. Alibaba Cloud provides the LedgerDB service and cannot tamper with the data that is stored inside.
Storage layer: The storage layer uses a blockchain storage structure that uses digital cryptography technologies and an advanced Merkle transaction accumulator. This helps you ensure that no participants can tamper with the stored ledger data.
Application layer: The application layer uses a multi-party signature mechanism. Ledger data requires the signatures from ledger users, ledger service providers, and an independent third-party time authority. This ensures that participants cannot tamper with or repudiate the stored ledger data. LedgerDB records all the operations except read operations on ledgers, which ensures the authenticity of the ledger data throughout the entire lifecycle.
Internet layer: LedgerDB creates time anchors for all the ledger data at irregular intervals and adds the hash digests of time anchors to the time ledgers that can be accessed from the Internet. This provides trusted timestamps for the ledger data and improves data reliability in terms of the time dimension.
Multi-party Signatures for Ledger Data
Multi-party signatures are required for each data record to ensure the non-repudiation and tamper-resistance of ledger data.
Ledger users sign the data that is to be written in ledgers for endorsement.
After data is written in the LedgerDB service, the LedgerDB service provides signature receipts for ledger users to endorse the written data.
Trusted Third-party Time Authority
LedgerDB introduces a trusted third-party time authority to provide timestamps for the data that is written to ledgers. The timestamp-related operations are recorded in the ledgers. This helps you endorse the ledger data in terms of the time dimension. This feature is unavailable in the public preview stage.
Native Data Provenance
LedgerDB allows you to create custom data clues so that you can associate the data clues with ledger data and track the ledger data stored in the LedgerDB service.
Custom Data Clues
LedgerDB provides API operations for custom data clues. You can call these API operations to associate data clues with ledger data, which helps you track the ledger data and identify data lineage.
Quick Data Queries based on Data Clues
LedgerDB allows you to use data clues to query the ledger data that is associated with the data clues.
Quick Verification based on Data Clues
LedgerDB provides a quick method for you to verify the ledger data that is associated with specific data clues.
Data Authenticity and Publication
After LedgerDB implements hash locking for all the ledger data at irregular intervals, LedgerDB creates time anchors for the ledger data and makes the hash digests of the time anchors available to the general public. This helps you to ensure the authenticity of the ledger data.
LedgerDB adds timestamps to ledger data at irregular intervals. This improves the tamper-resistance capabilities of the ledger data in terms of the calendar time dimension.
The time ledger is an official public ledger that is provided by LedgerDB. Two-way anchoring is implemented between the LedgerDB time ledger and a third-party time authority. All the LedgerDB users can view the time ledger in their respective LedgerDB consoles, which improves the credibility of the ledger data. Two-way anchoring is implemented based on the hash digests of general ledgers. Therefore, the time ledger does not disclose any privacy data of users.
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