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Community Blog Get to Know Container Storage Interface (CSI)

Get to Know Container Storage Interface (CSI)

This article discusses Container Storage Interface (CSI) core processes and explores CSI’s internal working principles.

By Huizhi

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Background

Kubernetes natively supports some types of Persistent Volumes (PV) for storage, such as iSCSI, NFS, and CephFS (For more information, check the link. These in-tree storage codes are placed in the Kubernetes code repository. The problem here is the strong coupling between the Kubernetes code and the third-party storage vendor’s code. which may lead to the following challenges:

  • Users must update Kubernetes components to modify the in-tree storage codes, which is costly.
  • Bugs in the in-tree storage codes can cause instability in Kubernetes components.
  • Kubernetes community is responsible for maintaining and testing the functions of in-tree storage codes.
  • The in-tree storage plug-ins have the same privileges as the core Kubernetes components have, which may cause security problems.
  • Third-party storage developers must follow the rules of the Kubernetes community to develop in-tree storage codes.

The CSI standard has solved these problems by decoupling the third-party storage code from the Kubernetes code. As such, developers from a third-party storage vendor can implement the CSI without worrying about whether the container platform is Kubernetes or Swarm.

CSI Core Processes

Before we get into the details of the CSI and its components, let’s first look at the CSI storage procedure in Kubernetes. The article, Get to Know Kubernetes Persistent Storage Process, describes the three stages through which a Pod goes when mounting a volume in Kubernetes: Provision and Delete, Attach and Detach, Mount/Unmount. This section describes how Kubernetes uses CSI in these three stages.

1) Provisioning Volumes

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1) Cluster administrator creates a StorageClass that contains the CSI plug-in name (provisioner:pangu.csi.alibabacloud.com) and the required parameters (parameters: type = cloud_ssd). The sc.yaml file is as follows:

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2) User creates PersistentVolumeClaim, and PVC specifies the storage size and the StorageClass, as shown above. The pvc.yaml file is as follows:

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3) PersistentVolumeController cannot find the PV corresponding to the newly created PVC in the cluster whose storage type is out-of-tree. Therefore, it adds an annotation to the PVC: volume.beta.kubernetes.io/storage-provisioner=[out-of-tree CSI plug-in name]. The plug-in name in this example is provisioner: pangu.csi.alibabacloud.com.

4) External Provisioner component finds that the annotation of the PVC contains “volume.beta.kubernetes.io/storage-provisioner” and the value is itself. Then, it starts to provision a volume.

  • Obtain the relevant StorageClass and its parameters (as type=cloud_ssd in this example) for subsequent CSI function calls.
  • Call the CreateVolume function of the external CSI plug-in through Unix domain socket.

5) When the external CSI plug-in is successfully returned, the volume is provisioned. External Provisioner component will provision a PersistentVolume in the cluster.

6) PersistentVolumeController binds the PV and the PVC.

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2) Attaching Volumes

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1) AttachDetachController finds that the Pod that uses the CSI-type PV is scheduled to a node. At this time, the AttachDetachController will call the Attach function of the internal in-tree CSI plug-in (csiAttacher).

2) Internal in-tree CSI plug-in (csiAttacher) creates a VolumeAttachment object to the cluster.

3) External Attacher sees the VolumeAttachment object and calls the ControllerPublish function of the external CSI plug-in to connect the volume to the corresponding nodes. After the external CSI plug-in is successfully mounted, External Attacher will update the .Status.Attached of the VolumeAttachment object to true.

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4) The internal in-tree CSI plug-in (csiAttacher) of AttachDetachController finds that the .Status.Attached of the VolumeAttachment object is set to true. Then, it updates the internal status (ActualStateOfWorld) of AttachDetachController, which will be displayed in the .Status.VolumesAttached on Node.

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3) Mounting Volumes

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1) Volume Manager (Kubelet component) perceives that a new Pod that uses PV of CSI type is scheduled to the current node. Therefore, it calls the WaitForAttach function of the internal in-tree CSI plug-in (csiAttacher).

2) Internal in-tree CSI plug-in (csiAttacher) waits until the status of .Status.Attached of the VolumeAttachment object in the cluster is changed to true.

3) The internal in-tree CSI plug-in (csiAttacher) calls the MountDevice function, which internally calls the NodeStageVolume function of the external CSI plug-in through a UNIX domain socket. Then, the plug-in (csiAttacher) calls the SetUp function of the internal in-tree CSI plug-in (csiMountMgr). The SetUp function calls the NodePublishVolume function of the external CSI plug-in through a UNIX domain socket.

4) Unmounting Volumes

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1) User deletes related Pods.

2) Volume Manager (Kubelet component) perceives that the Pod containing the CSI storage volume is deleted. Then, it calls the TearDown function of the internal in-tree CSI plug-in (csiMountMgr). The TearDown function calls the NodeUnpublishVolume function of the external CSI plug-in through Unix domain socket.

3) Volume Manager (Kubelet component) calls the UnmountDevice function of the internal in-tree CSI plug-in (csiAttacher). The UnmountDevice function internally calls the NodeUnpublishVolume function of the external CSI plug-in through Unix domain socket.

5) Detaching Volumes

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1) AttachDetachController finds that the Pod containing the CSI storage volume is deleted, and then it calls the Detach function of the internal in-tree CSI plug-in (csiAttacher).

2) csiAttacher deletes the VolumeAttachment object in the cluster, which will not be deleted immediately because of the finalizer.

3) External Attacher perceives that the DeletionTimestamp field of the VolumeAttachment object in the cluster is not empty. Then, it calls the ControllerUnpublish function of the external CSI plug-in to remove the volume from the corresponding Node.

4) After the volume is removed by the external CSI plug-in, External Attacher will remove the finalizer field of the VolumeAttachment object. At this time, the VolumeAttachment object is completely deleted.

5) The internal in-tree CSI plug-in (csiAttacher) of AttachDetachController perceives that the VolumeAttachment object has been deleted. Then, it updates the internal status of the AttachDetachController; at the same time,

6) AttachDetachController updates the Node. Now, there is no mounted volume displayed on the .Status.VolumesAttached of Node.

6) Deleting Volumes

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1) User deletes the related PVC.

2) External Provisioner component finds that the PVC is deleted. Then, it performs different operations based on the reclaim policy of the PVC:

  • Delete: call the DeleteVolume function of the external CSI plug-in to delete the volume. Once the volume is successfully deleted, Provisioner deletes the corresponding PV in the cluster.

    • Retain: Provisioner does not delete the volume.

CSI Sidecar Component

To make Kubernetes adapt to the CSI standard, the community has integrated the storage logic related to Kubernetes into the CSI Sidecar component.

1) Node Driver Registrar

1.1) Function

Node-Driver-Registrar will register the external CSI plug-in to Kubelet, thus making Kubelet call external CSI plug-in functions (including NodeGetInfo, NodeStageVolume, NodePublishVolume, and NodeGetVolumeStats) through a specific unix domain socket.

1.2) Principle

After Node-Driver-Registrar successfully registers the external CSI plug-in to Kubelet:

  • Kubelet annotates the Node: Kubelet calls the NodeGetInfo function of the external CSI plug-in whose returned values, [nodeID] and [driverName], are used for the “csi.volume.kubernetes.io/nodeid” key.
  • Kubelet updates Node Label: it uses the [AccessibleTopology] value returned by the NodeGetInfo function for the Label of the Node.
  • Kubelet updates Node Status: it updates the maxAttachLimit (the maximum number of volumes that can be mounted) returned by the NodeGetInfo function to the Status.Allocatable of the Node. The value of this parameter is attachable-volumes-csi-[driverName]=[maxAttachLimit].

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  • Kubelet updates CSINode (create one if none is available): it updates [driverName], [nodeID], [maxAttachLimit], and [AccessibleTopology] to Spec (only retaining Key values for topology).

2) External Provisioner

2.1) Function

Create or delete the actual volume and the PV that represents the volume.

2.2) Principle

The parameter provisioner must be specified to enable External-Provisioner. The name of the Provisioner, which corresponds to the provisioner field in the StorageClass, is specified in this parameter.

External-Provisioner will watch the PVC and PV in the cluster after being enabled.

For the PVC in the cluster:

Use the following criteria to determine whether a PVC needs to create volumes dynamically:

1) Whether the annotation of the PVC contains the “volume.beta.kubernetes.io/storage-provisioner” key (created by the PersistentVolumeController) and its value is the same as the Provisioner name.

2) If the VolumeBindingMode field of the StorageClass corresponding to PVC is WaitForFirstConsumer, the annotation of the PVC must contain “volume.kubernetes.io/selected-node” key (for more information, see how the scheduler processes WaitForFirstConsumer), and its value is not null. If the value is Immediate, the Provisioner needs to provide dynamic storage volumes immediately.

  • Call the CreateVolume function of the external CSI plug-in through a specific UNIX domain socket.
  • Create a PV. The PV name is set to [the PV prefix specified by Provisioner] - [PVC uuid].

For the PV in the cluster:

Use the following criteria to determine whether the PV needs to be deleted:

1) Check whether the .Status.Phase is Release.

2) Check whether the .Spec.PersistentVolumeReclaimPolicy is Delete.

3) Check whether the PV contains the annotation (pv.kubernetes.io/provisioned-by), and the value is itself.

  • Call the DeleteVolume interface of the external CSI plug-in through a specific unix domain socket.
  • Delete the PV in the cluster.

3) External Attacher

3.1) Function

It is primarily used to attach or detach volumes.

3.2) Principle

External-Attacher internally watches the VolumeAttachment and PersistentVolume in the cluster at all times.

For VolumeAttachment:

  • Obtain all the PV information from VolumeAttachment, including the volume ID, node ID, and Mount Secret.
  • Determine whether it is volume attaching or detaching according to the DeletionTimestamp field of the VolumeAttachment. If it is volume attaching, call the ControllerPublishVolume interface of the external CSI plug-in through a specific unix domain socket; if it is volume detaching, call the ControllerUnpublishVolume interface of the external CSI plug-in through a specific unix domain socket.

For PersistentVolume:

  • Label the related PV with Finalizer in attaching: external-attacher/[driver name].
  • If a PV is deleted (that is, the DeletionTimestamp field is not null), delete the Finalizer:external-attacher/[driver name].

4) External Resizer

4.1) Function

It is primarily used to resize the storage volume.

4.2) Principle

External-Resizer internally watches the PersistentVolumeClaim in the cluster.

For PersistentVolumeClaim:

  • Check whether the PersistentVolumeClaim needs to be scaled up: the PVC state must be Bound.Status.Capacity and the.Spec.Resources.Requests are not equal.
  • Update the PVCs.Status.Conditions to indicate that it is resized.
  • Call the ControllerExpandVolume interface of the external CSI plug-in through a specific UNIX domain socket.
  • Update the PV’s .Spec.Capacity.
  • If the CSI supports online resizing of file systems, the NodeExpansionRequired field in the value returned by the ControllerExpandVolume interface is true. Then, External-Resizer updates the PVC’s.Status.Conditions to the FileSystemResizePending state. If not, the resizing operation is successful. Then, External-Resizer updates the PVCs.Status.Conditions to null and updates its.Status.Capacity at the same time.

Volume Manager (Kubelet component) perceives that the volume needs to be resized online. Then, it calls the NodeExpandVolume interface of the external CSI plug-in through a specific UNIX domain socket to implement file system resizing.

5) Livenessprobe

5.1 Function

Livenessprobe is used to check whether the CSI plug-in is normal.

5.2 Principle

It exposes a /healthz HTTP port to serve the probe of Kubelet and internally calls the Probe interface of the external CSI plug-in through a specific UNIX domain socket.

Introduction to CSI

Third-party storage vendors must implement the following three interfaces of CSI plug-ins: IdentityServer, ControllerServer, and NodeServer.

1) IdentityServer

The IdentityServer is mainly used to identify the ID information of CSI plug-ins.

// IdentityServer is the server API for Identity service.
type IdentityServer interface {
    // Obtain CSI plug-in information, such as name and version
    GetPluginInfo(context.Context, *GetPluginInfoRequest) (*GetPluginInfoResponse, error)
    // Obtain CSI plug-in capabilities, such as ControllerService capability
    GetPluginCapabilities(context.Context, *GetPluginCapabilitiesRequest) (*GetPluginCapabilitiesResponse, error)
    // Obtain CSI plug-in health status
    Probe(context.Context, *ProbeRequest) (*ProbeResponse, error)
}

2) ControllerServer

The ControllerServer is responsible for creating, deleting, attaching, and detaching volumes and snapshots.

// ControllerServer is the server API for Controller service.
type ControllerServer interface {
    // Create a volume
    CreateVolume(context.Context, *CreateVolumeRequest) (*CreateVolumeResponse, error)
    // Delete a volume
    DeleteVolume(context.Context, *DeleteVolumeRequest) (*DeleteVolumeResponse, error)
    // Attach the volume to a specific node
    ControllerPublishVolume(context.Context, *ControllerPublishVolumeRequest) (*ControllerPublishVolumeResponse, error)
    // Detach the volume from a specific node
    ControllerUnpublishVolume(context.Context, *ControllerUnpublishVolumeRequest) (*ControllerUnpublishVolumeResponse, error)
    // Verify the volume capacity, for example, whether it supports cross-node multi-read and write
    ValidateVolumeCapabilities(context.Context, *ValidateVolumeCapabilitiesRequest) (*ValidateVolumeCapabilitiesResponse, error)
    // List the information about all storage volumes
    ListVolumes(context.Context, *ListVolumesRequest) (*ListVolumesResponse, error)
    // Get the available capacity of the storage resource pool
    GetCapacity(context.Context, *GetCapacityRequest) (*GetCapacityResponse, error)
    // Obtain ControllerServer features, such as support for snapshots
    ControllerGetCapabilities(context.Context, *ControllerGetCapabilitiesRequest) (*ControllerGetCapabilitiesResponse, error)
    // Create a snapshot
    CreateSnapshot(context.Context, *CreateSnapshotRequest) (*CreateSnapshotResponse, error)
    // Delete a snapshot
    DeleteSnapshot(context.Context, *DeleteSnapshotRequest) (*DeleteSnapshotResponse, error)
    // Obtain the information about all snapshots
    ListSnapshots(context.Context, *ListSnapshotsRequest) (*ListSnapshotsResponse, error)
    // Resize the storage volume
    ControllerExpandVolume(context.Context, *ControllerExpandVolumeRequest) (*ControllerExpandVolumeResponse, error)
}

3) NodeServer

NodeServer takes charge of volume mounting and unmounting.

// NodeServer is the server API for Node service.
type NodeServer interface {
    // Format the volume and mount it to the temporary global directory
    NodeStageVolume(context.Context, *NodeStageVolumeRequest) (*NodeStageVolumeResponse, error)
    // Unmount the volume from the temporary global directory
    NodeUnstageVolume(context.Context, *NodeUnstageVolumeRequest) (*NodeUnstageVolumeResponse, error)
    //Bind-mount the volume from the temporary directory to the target directory
    NodePublishVolume(context.Context, *NodePublishVolumeRequest) (*NodePublishVolumeResponse, error)
    // Unmount the volume from the target directory
    NodeUnpublishVolume(context.Context, *NodeUnpublishVolumeRequest) (*NodeUnpublishVolumeResponse, error)
    // Obtain the capacity information of the storage volume
    NodeGetVolumeStats(context.Context, *NodeGetVolumeStatsRequest) (*NodeGetVolumeStatsResponse, error)
    // Resize the storage volume
    NodeExpandVolume(context.Context, *NodeExpandVolumeRequest) (*NodeExpandVolumeResponse, error)
    // Obtain NodeServer features, such as retrieving the storage volume capacity information
    NodeGetCapabilities(context.Context, *NodeGetCapabilitiesRequest) (*NodeGetCapabilitiesResponse, error)
    // Obtain CSI node information, such as the maximum number of supported volumes
    NodeGetInfo(context.Context, *NodeGetInfoRequest) (*NodeGetInfoResponse, error)
}

Kubernetes API Objects for CSI

To be compatible with CSI standard, Kubernetes contains the following APIs:

  • CSINode
  • CSIDriver
  • VolumeAttachment

1) CSINode

apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CSINode
metadata:
  name: node-10.212.101.210
spec:
  drivers:
  - name: yodaplugin.csi.alibabacloud.com
    nodeID: node-10.212.101.210
    topologyKeys:
    - kubernetes.io/hostname
  - name: pangu.csi.alibabacloud.com
    nodeID: a5441fd9013042ee8104a674e4a9666a
    topologyKeys:
    - topology.pangu.csi.alibabacloud.com/zone

Functions:

1) Check whether the external CSI plug-in is successfully registered. After the Node Driver Registry registers the plug-in with Kubelet, Kubelet will create a CSINode. Therefore, there is no need to create a CSINode explicitly.

2) Match the Node name in Kubernetes with the nodeID in the third-party storage system correspondingly. Here, Kubelet will call the GetNodeInfo function of the external CSI plug-in NodeServer to obtain the nodeID.

3) Display the volume topology information. In CSINode, topologyKeys indicates the topology information of the storage node. The volume topology information helps Scheduler select a proper storage node during Pod scheduling.

2) CSIDriver

apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CSIDriver
metadata:
  name: pangu.csi.alibabacloud.com
spec:
    # Whether the plugin supports volume attaching (VolumeAttach)
  attachRequired: true
  # Whether the CSI plug-in requires Pod information during the Mount phase
  podInfoOnMount: true
  # Specify the CSI-supported volume mode
  volumeLifecycleModes:
  - Persistent

Functions:

1) Simplify the external CSI plug-in discovery. Created by the cluster administrator, the CSIDriver can learn which CSI plug-ins are in the environment through kubectl get csidriver.

2) Customize Kubernetes behaviors. For example, some external CSI plug-ins do not require the VolumeAttach operation. In this case, the .spec.attachRequired can be set to false.

3) VolumeAttachment

apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1
kind: VolumeAttachment
metadata:
  annotations:
    csi.alpha.kubernetes.io/node-id: 21481ae252a2457f9abcb86a3d02ba05
  finalizers:
  - external-attacher/pangu-csi-alibabacloud-com
  name: csi-0996e5e9459e1ccc1b3a7aba07df4ef7301c8e283d99eabc1b69626b119ce750
spec:
  attacher: pangu.csi.alibabacloud.com
  nodeName: node-10.212.101.241
  source:
    persistentVolumeName: pangu-39aa24e7-8877-11eb-b02f-021234350de1
status:
  attached: true

Function:

The VolumeAttachment records the volume attaching, volume detaching, and node information.

Capabilities Supported

1) Topology Supported

The StorageClass contains the AllowedTopologies field:

apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1
kind: StorageClass
metadata:
  name: csi-pangu
provisioner: pangu.csi.alibabacloud.com
parameters:
  type: cloud_ssd
volumeBindingMode: Immediate
allowedTopologies:
- matchLabelExpressions:
  - key: topology.pangu.csi.alibabacloud.com/zone
    values:
    - zone-1
    - zone-2

After being deployed, external CSI plug-in labels each node with the [AccessibleTopology] value returned by NodeGetInfo function. For more information, see the Node Driver Registry section.

External Provisioner sets the AccessibilityRequirements in the request parameter before calling the CreateVolume interface of the CSI plug-in:

For WaitForFirstConsumer

  • When the annotation of the PVC contains “volume.kubernetes.io/selected-node” and its value is not null, obtain the TopologyKeys of the corresponding CSINode first, and then obtain the Values from the Label of the Node according to the TopologyKeys. Lastly, compare the Values with the AllowedTopologies of the StorageClass to determine whether the Values are included. If not, an error is reported.

For Immediately:

  • Fill in the AllowedTopologies value of the StorageClass. If AllowedTopologies is not set for the StorageClass, the values of all nodes that contain the TopologyKeys will be added.

How Does Scheduler Handle Volume Scheduling?

Based on the scheduler of community version 1.18

The scheduling process of the scheduler consists of three steps:

  • Filter: Filter the nodes that meet the Pod scheduling requirements.
  • Score: Score the nodes with an internal optimization algorithm. The node that obtains the highest score will be selected.
  • Bind: The scheduler notifies the kube-apiserver of the scheduling result and updates the. spec.nodeName field of the Pod.

The Filter Phase

Process the binding relationships between PVC and PV and dynamically allocates PVs (Dynamic Provisioning). In addition, the scheduler considers the node affinity of the PVs used by Pods during scheduling. The detailed process is as follows:

1) Skip the Pods without PVC.

2) FindPodVolumes

  • Obtain the boundClaims, claimsToBind, and unboundClaimsImmediate of the Pod.

    • boundClaims: the bound PVC
    • claimsToBind: the VolumeBindingMode of the StorageClass corresponding to the PVC is set to VolumeBindingWaitForFirstConsumer.
    • unboundClaimsImmediate: the VolumeBindingMode of the StorageClass corresponding to the PVC is set to VolumeBindingImmediate.
  • If len(unboundClaimsImmediate) is not null, the PVC needs to be bound to the PV immediately. (That is after the PVC is created, the PV is dynamically created at once and bound to the PVC. This process does not involve scheduling.) If the PVC is unbound, an error is reported.
  • If len(boundClaims) is not null, check whether the node affinity of the PV corresponding to the PVC conflicts with the Label of the current node. If so, an error is reported (users can also check the PV topology of Immediate type).
  • If len(claimsToBind) is not null

    • First, check whether the existing PVs in the environment match the corresponding PVCs by using findMatchingVolumes. Then, record the PVs that match the PVCs to the scheduler cache.
    • The PVCs that do not match the PVs are dynamically scheduled. The dynamic scheduling process checks whether the current scheduling nodes meet the topology requirements based on the AllowedTopologies field of the StorageClass (for PVCs of the WaitForFirstConsumer type).

The Score phase is not discussed.

The Assume Phase

The scheduler will first assume the PV and PVC and then the Pod.

1) Make a deep copy of the Pod to be scheduled.

2) AssumePodVolumes (for PVCs of the WaitForFirstConsumer type)

  • To change the information of the matched PVs in the scheduler cache, set the annotation: pv.kubernetes.io/bound-by-controller=“yes”.
  • To change the PVCs that do not match any PVs in the scheduler cache, set the annotation: volume.kubernetes.io/selected-node=[selected node].
  • 3) Pod assuming completed
  • Change the .Spec.NodeName of the Pod in the scheduler cache into [selected node].

The Bind Phase

BindPodVolumes:

  • Call the Kubernetes API to update the PV and PVC in the cluster to be consistent with those in the scheduler cache.
  • Check the PV and PVC status:

    • Check whether all PVCs are bound.
    • Check if the NodeAffinity of any PV conflicts with the Node Label.
  • The scheduler executes the Bind operation: call the Kubernetes API to update the .Spec.NodeName field of the Pod.

2) Storage Volume Expansion

There will be no more details about storage volume expansion since it has been mentioned when introducing the External Resizer. Users only need to edit the .Spec.Resources.Requests.Storage field of the PVC. Note that the volume can only be expanded.

If PV expansion fails, the storage value of the spec field cannot be edited to the original value for the PVC (since only expansion is allowed). Refer to the PVC reduction method provided on the Kubernetes official website.

3) Maximum Number of Single-node Volumes

Check the Node Driver Registrar section.

4) Volume Monitoring

The storage vendor must implement the NodeGetVolumeStats interface of the CSI plug-in. Kubelet will call this function and display it on its metrics:

  • kubelet_volume_stats_capacity_bytes: the volume capacity
  • kubelet_volume_stats_used_bytes: the used volume capacity
  • kubelet_volume_stats_available_bytes: the available volume capacity
  • kubelet_volume_stats_inodes: the total volume inode
  • kubelet_volume_stats_inodes_used: the used volume inode
  • kubelet_volume_stats_inodes_free: the remaining volume inode

5) Secret

Secret can be added to a CSI volume to process the private data required in different processes. Currently, the following parameters are supported by StorageClass:

  • csi.storage.k8s.io/provisioner-secret-name
  • csi.storage.k8s.io/provisioner-secret-namespace
  • csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-publish-secret-name
  • csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-publish-secret-namespace
  • csi.storage.k8s.io/node-stage-secret-name
  • csi.storage.k8s.io/node-stage-secret-namespace
  • csi.storage.k8s.io/node-publish-secret-name
  • csi.storage.k8s.io/node-publish-secret-namespace
  • csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-expand-secret-name
  • csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-expand-secret-namespace

Secret will be included in the parameters of the corresponding CSI interface. For example, the CreateVolume interface is included in the CreateVolumeRequest.Secrets parameter.

6) Block Device

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: StatefulSet
metadata:
  name: nginx-example
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: nginx
  serviceName: "nginx"
  volumeClaimTemplates:
  - metadata:
      name: html
    spec:
      accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
      volumeMode: Block
      storageClassName: csi-pangu
      resources:
        requests:
          storage: 40Gi
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: nginx
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: nginx
        image: nginx
        volumeDevices:
        - devicePath: "/dev/vdb"
          name: html

A third-party storage vendor must implement the NodePublishVolume interface. Kubernetes provides a toolkit for block devices (“k8s.io/kubernetes/pkg/util/mount”). In the NodePublishVolume phase, the EnsureBlock and MountBlock functions of the toolkit can be called.

7) Volume Snapshots and Volume Cloning

As the length limits, no more details about the principles will be provided here. For those who are interested, see the official introduction: Volume Snapshot Volume Cloning.

Summary

This article first gives a general introduction to the CSI core processes. It then deeply analyzes the CSI standard from the perspectives of CSI Sidecar components, CSI interfaces, and API objects. The initial processes are indispensable for using any CSI volumes on Kubernetes. Therefore, the container storage problem in the environment must be caused by the faults in the preceding processes. This article sorts out the processes to help the programmers to solve environmental problems.

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