DevOps Interview Tips: There is always one you will use

DevOps is a product of agile development, and it is also gaining more and more attention from large enterprises such as Google, Facebook or Amazon.
Therefore, when you are applying for a DevOps engineer position, in addition to the required professional skills, a well-prepared DevOps job interview is also crucial to successfully getting an offer.

【DevOps Interview Tips】What is DevOps

1. What is DevOps?
Simply put, DevOps means collaboration between development (Dev) and operations (Ops) teams in an organization to deliver better products to users through continuous integration and continuous delivery. Therefore, it can reduce the risk between software development and operation and maintenance teams, help to improve the speed of delivery, and enhance the market competitiveness of enterprises.

【DevOps Interview Tips】2. What is continuous integration?

Continuous Integration (CI) is a development process that integrates code into a shared repository multiple times a day. With automated testing, CI helps allow teams to identify bugs early, locate problems easily, improve software quality, and reduce delivery time.

【DevOps Interview Tips】3. What is Continuous Delivery?

Continuous Delivery (CD) integrates with continuous integration for smooth product delivery to users. It is designed to ensure that code can be safely deployed into production environments. In a CD environment, whether it's a large system or a complex application, new releases can be executed immediately on demand, fully functional, and with minimal human intervention.

4. What is continuous deployment?
Continuous deployment takes continuous delivery a step further, where code is built, deployed to production, and automatically tested and rolled back quickly in the event of an error. Specifically, each change is deployed directly to production without additional human intervention.

5. What is continuous testing?
Continuous testing is part of the software delivery pipeline. In a CI/CD workflow, builds tend to happen in small batches. Therefore, manually running the test cases for each build can be time-consuming. Continuous testing removes the burden of manual work by performing tests early, incrementally, and fully through automation. This is increasingly the key to a DevOps culture.

6. What is version control?
Version control (or source code control) is a system of software tools capable of recording and checking all changes to code over time. Version control tracks each code development, allows developers to roll back if any errors occur, and compares with previous versions to finalize the best version.

【DevOps Interview Tips】7. What is Git?

Git is a version control system. Early version control systems include: SVN, CVS, etc. They are centralized version control systems, all of which have a single centrally managed server that saves revisions of all files, and collaborative developers are connected to the client through the client. This server, fetches the latest file or submits an update.
Git is a distributed version control system without the concept of a central server. We use the relevant client to extract not only the latest files, but a complete mirror of the code repository, which is equivalent to everyone's computer is a complete Repositories, so that if any of the cooperating servers fails, they can be recovered using any local repository.

Reasons to implement DevOps
8. Why is DevOps important? How does DevOps benefit teams?
Today, organizations are trying to keep pace with a variety of competitors by rapidly delivering products to users through their robust deployment systems.
This is where DevOps comes in. DevOps can provide agility and flexibility to the entire software development pipeline to quickly deliver products to users.

9. How DevOps helps developers
Without DevOps, the development team would develop new code from scratch, build it, and wait for the operations team to deploy it. Then, wait for feedback. If there is a bug, they will have to go back and fix it again. The communication required between teams is immeasurable.
DevOps reduces a developer's tasks to just writing code, with CI/CD pipelines taking over the rest, including integration and automation. DevOps also makes processes accessible to all team members, making communication in team collaboration more transparent.

10. Why has DevOps been gaining popularity in software delivery recently?
The main reason for the popularity of DevOps in recent years is that it allows organizations to simplify all software processes and turn them into business value.
With rapid innovation in technology, DevOps and agile methodologies are widely adopted to facilitate dynamic operations and not fall behind others. The achievements of Facebook, Google, and Netflix demonstrate the use of DevOps in a continuous deployment approach without any disruption.
Check out Why DevOps Matters for more information

11. What are the benefits of CI/CD?
CI and CD consolidate and automate all code changes into a shared repository. CI/CD is the backbone of a modern development environment, where products can be updated quickly, efficiently and automatically according to customer expectations.
In short, a well-designed CI/CD pipeline helps businesses gain great customer satisfaction from faster releases and reliability, while reducing code changes and defects.

12. What are the benefits of continuous delivery?
Teams used to iterate on products by manually releasing code. However, sometimes new releases imply a promotional strategy with specific business goals.
CD enables IT professionals to automate repetitive and tedious tasks, helping teams save time while ensuring compliance and security practices.

13. What are the benefits of continuous deployment?
Continuous deployment provides developers with focus on the end-of-pipeline product by evaluating pull requests and combining them into the master branch. It allows businesses to rapidly deploy, validate new functionality, and respond as soon as test automation is complete.
With a continuous deployment pipeline, once a customer submits a quality issue, the team can easily handle bugs in the new version because each version is delivered in small batches.

How to Effectively Implement DevOps
14. Typical DevOps Workflow
DevOps workflow can be divided into 4 stages:
1.Version Control: Store and manage different versions of source code.
2.Continuous Integration: This phase enables developers to build components, assemble and validate them before unit and integration testing.
3.Continuous Delivery: The next step in continuous integration is to fully automate the release and testing process. The goal is to release updated software quickly and sustainably.
4.Continuous Deployment: After each application meets all testing requirements, it is automatically deployed to production for smaller, more frequent releases without any human intervention.

15. What is the core operation of DevOps?
The core operations of DevOps include:
•Software development:
obuild code
ocode coverage
ounit test

16. What precautions do teams need to consider before implementing DevOps?
DevOps processes should take some precautions before implementing them, otherwise they may reduce the productivity of the organization:
•DevOps is not just applying new tools and creating a new "department", in fact, DevOps is an evolving culture in which development and operations teams work together based on a framework to handle the entire application life cycle.
•It is necessary for businesses to develop a strategic vision for their DevOps practices. DevOps initiatives can significantly change the collaboration between development and operations teams, so if you have a clear DevOps roadmap with clear guidelines from the start, you can eliminate ambiguous communication.
•After successful application of DevOps, a culture of continuous learning and improvement should be promoted throughout the organization. Keep summarizing possible failures and problems in the system and store them as lessons learned for the team to prevent these mistakes from recurring.

17. What is the role of the SCM team in DevOps?
Software Configuration Management (SCM) is responsible for the process of systematically organizing and managing change in the software development life cycle.
In DevOps, SCM is also based on the infrastructure as code theory and it plays a key role in simplifying the task of developers as they can automatically keep records of each configuration process which are now replicated automatically in machine readable form and systematization.

18. What is the role of the Quality Assurance (QA) team in DevOps?
Since a DevOps culture is easily embraced in innovative organizations, QA teams seem to have a smaller role in today's automated world.
However, embracing DevOps does not mean the end of QA's role, but rather means that QA is taking on different roles in different work environments, requiring different expertise. Therefore, their current strategic role is to build a robust software testing infrastructure while keeping up with changing trends.
In a DevOps approach, QA will be linked to the responsibilities of the development and operations teams to ensure the stability of continuous delivery.

19. What tools are used in DevOps? Describe your experience with any of these tools.
In a DevOps environment, different tools can support different stages of product development. The most commonly used tools for DevOps can be divided into 6 key stages:
•Continuous development: Git, SVN, Mercurial, CVS, Jira
•Continuous Integration: Jenkins, Bamboo, Hudson
•Continuous Delivery: Nexus, Archiva , Tomcat
•Continuous Deployment: Puppet, Chef, Docker
•Continuous Monitoring: Splunk, ELK Stack, Nagios
•Continuous Testing: Selenium, Katalon Studio

20. How is change managed in DevOps?
A change management plan needs to be implemented through DevOps, which can centralize changes into a single platform and simplify the management of changes, issues, and incidents. Then, through transparent standards, ensure collaboration and accuracy in the exchange of information within the organization.

How to effectively implement CI/CD
21. What are some of the core components of CI/CD?
Repository management tools play a key role as version control systems to ensure that the CI/CD process is stable and development teams can manage every change while building the software.
In a version control system, different developers working on a project develop, fix without any disruption to all team members.
Continuous testing and automated testing are two important types of testing that form a complete CI/CD ecosystem. Automated testing can be applied to all phases of product development (including unit, integration, and system testing) to run all processes including performance, availability, load, stress, and security.

22. What are some common practices for CI/CD?
•Develop a DevOps culture.
•Continuous integration.
•Implemented equally in every environment.
•Be able to continue your pipeline again after a failure.
•version control.
•Document your continuous delivery practices.
•Ensure the smooth flow of CD pipeline.

23. What happens when you implement DevOps?
Adoption of DevOps will reshape software development culture, including workflow, organizational structure, and infrastructure. Therefore, companies should be prepared for the major changes that come with implementing DevOps.

24. What are the common CI/CD tools?
•Visual Studio: Can integrate mature DevOps systems with agile development, source control, automated testing and deployment, and monitoring.
•TeamCity: is a build management and continuous integration server that also supports statistical test coverage.
•Jenkins: An open source CI server that enables development and operations teams to reliably build, test, and deploy software. It can also be associated with various dashboard plugins.
•GitLab: Can provide users with efficient continuous integration and deployment, and also supports easy customization. GitLab helps CI/CD teams shorten development cycles through faster code delivery, bug identification, and feature recovery.
•Bamboo: is a continuous integration server that can be used to automate the management of product releases, and can also log all deployment information and alert errors in real-time throughout the continuous delivery pipeline.

25. What an efficient continuous integration workflow looks like
Includes the following key steps:
•Merge the source code of the project into one repository and maintain it.
•Automate builds and integrations.
•Regular updates on changes to the baseline
•Add all commits to the baseline
•Build quickly
•Tests can be run in a quasi-production environment
•Easy access to the latest deliverables
•Build results can be easily monitored
•Automated deployment

Differences between DevOps and other products
26. What is the main difference between Agile and DevOps?
In a nutshell, DevOps combined with Agile enables faster deployment of software functionality into production. Agile facilitates collaboration in software development and efficient small, rapid releases in complex processes. DevOps is the practice of bringing together development and operations teams to communicate, integrate, and collaborate.
Agile and DevOps complement each other to form a seamless product development lifecycle: Agile principles build and drive product innovation, while DevOps applies tools to manage agile product delivery.

27. What is the difference between Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery and Continuous Deployment?
Continuous Integration (CI) is the practice of merging all code from all developers into a central repository multiple times a day. This means automatically testing new code and quickly detecting and fixing bugs.
Continuous Delivery takes CI a step further, ensuring that software is always ready to go into production. Therefore, CI can be considered essential for continuous delivery, and it is an important part of the CI/CD pipeline.
Companies can use continuous deployment without manual action. Every time the code passes the tests, it is automatically released to production.
Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery, and Continuous Deployment are key stages of DevOps implementation.

28. What are the fundamental differences between continuous delivery and continuous deployment?
Continuous Delivery monitors code changes that occur in branches of a central repository that will be ready for deployment while allowing developers to decide when to deliver new changes or features.
Second, continuous deployment ensures that all updates and bug fixes are automatically deployed from testing to production without human intervention.

29. What is the difference between continuous integration and continuous delivery?
Continuous integration ensures tight correlation between software components, helps code commits more frequently, and connects code from multiple developers.
Continuous Delivery is a further step in the CI/CD pipeline. Code is continuously merged into a shared repository and then continuously tested. Once the code is built, tests are performed to detect as many bugs as possible in advance.

30. What is the difference between DevOps and Continuous Delivery?
DevOps is an organizational paradigm that enables efficient collaboration and communication between development and operations teams.
At the same time, continuous delivery is considered to be the best practice for DevOps implementation of software deployment, which helps to enhance the reliability of new versions of applications.
The main goal of DevOps is to effectively integrate Dev and Ops roles, eliminate all silos, and achieve your own independent business goals in continuous delivery. Enhance collaboration and simplify your organization's unified product development cycle with continuous delivery.

31. What is the difference between Agile, Lean IT and DevOps?
Agile aims to optimize software development, build continuous delivery, minimize feedback loops, and facilitate team collaboration in the software development life cycle (SDLC).
Lean IT is an extension of Lean principles used to simplify the product development cycle. Lean emphasizes eliminating redundant workflows to maximize the value of the entire product.
At the same time, DevOps breaks down the barriers between Dev and Ops teams in the software development process. It is designed to enable effective collaboration between automation tools and IT professionals to create simpler automated processes.

Are you now confident to conquer your next DevOps interview?
There are still many DevOps interview questions, which have not been studied in this article due to space limitations. If you have better questions and answers, please leave a message to exchange.

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