This topic provides answers to FAQ about ECS instances.

How do I check whether instances are available for purchase in a specific region or zone?

You can go to the ECS Instance Types Available for Each Region page to view the instance types available in each region.

What can I do if no resources are available for purchase when I am trying to create an ECS instance?

If no resources are available for purchase when you are trying to create an ECS instance in a specific region or zone, take one of the following measures:
  • Select another region
  • Select another zone
  • Change resource configurations

If still no resources are available for purchase after you take all the preceding measures, try again later. Instance resources are dynamic. Alibaba Cloud replenishes resources as soon as we can when resources are insufficient.

You can also use the arrival notice feature to be notified when resources are available.

How do I select an ECS instance that is suitable for my business?

  • Determine your business requirements.
  • Determine your website type.
  • Determine the average number of page views per day on your website.
  • Determine the size of your homepage.
  • Determine the data capacity of your business.

How long does it take to create an ECS instance?

It takes one or two minutes to create an ECS instance. After the instance is created:
  • For an ECS instance that runs the Linux system, you can connect to the instance without any other configurations. For more information, see Connect to an ECS instance.
  • For an ECS instance that runs the Windows system, you need to use the Sysprep tool to initialize the operating system. Do not restart the instance during initialization. After initialization, you can connect to the instance. For more information, see Connect to an ECS instance. The time of initialization is determined by the type of ECS instances.
    • For an I/O-optimized instance that runs the Windows system, two to three minutes are needed for initialization.
    • For a non-I/O optimized instance that runs the Windows system, ten minutes are needed for initialization.
Note If an error occurs when you create an ECS instance, submit a ticket.

I paid for an ECS instance but no ECS instance was created. Why?

If resources in the specified zone are insufficient to create instances of your selected type, the ECS instance will fail to be created. Your account will automatically be refunded for the cost of the ECS instance. If you do not receive a refund within half an hour, submit a ticket.

You can go to the ECS Instance Types Available for Each Region page to view the instance types available in each region.

Why are some types of pay-as-you-go instances not available on the instance purchase page when I attempt to purchase an ECS instance?

Some types of pay-as-you-go instances with 16 or more vCPUs are available only to authorized accounts on the instance purchase page. If subscription instances of an instance type are available but pay-as-you-go instances of the same instance type are not, submit a ticket to check whether your account has been authorized to purchase pay-as-you-go instances of the instance type.

If your account has been authorized but pay-as-you-go instances still are not available, the pay-as-you-go resources within the current region may be insufficient. For more information, see What can I do if no resources are available for purchase when I am trying to create an ECS instance?.

What are enterprise-level instances? What are entry-level instances?

Enterprise-level instances are a series of instance families released by Alibaba Cloud in September 2016. Enterprise-level instances feature high performance, consistent computing power, and balanced network performance. These instances have exclusive and consistent computing, storage, and network resources, and are suitable for enterprise scenarios with high business stability requirements.

Entry-level instances are a series of instance families that are targeted at small and medium-sized websites or individuals. Compared with enterprise-level instances that have exclusive resources, entry-level instances share resources. Therefore, entry-level instances do not provide consistent computing performance but they have a lower cost.

What are the differences between enterprise-level and entry-level instances?

Enterprise-level instances use a CPU-bound scheduling scheme. Each vCPU is bound to a CPU hyperthread. Instances do not compete for CPU resources and provide consistent computing performance as guaranteed in the SLA.

Entry-level instances use a CPU-unbound scheduling scheme. Each vCPU is randomly allocated to an idle CPU hyperthread. vCPUs of different instances compete for CPU resources. This results in fluctuations in computing performance when traffic loads are heavy. Entry-level instances can only guarantee availability. They cannot guarantee the performance that may be required in the SLA.

Which are enterprise-level instance families? Which are entry-level instance families?

Among the instance families that are available for purchase, n4, mn4, xn4, and e4 are entry-level instance families, and the others are enterprise-level instance families.

In what business scenarios do I need to purchase enterprise-level instances?

For business scenarios to which different enterprise-level instances are applicable, see Instance families.

How is the network performance of enterprise-level instances?

The network performance of enterprise-level instances depends on their specifications. The higher their specifications, the stronger network performance the instances can provide. For more information about the network performance of different instance types, see Instance families.

What categories of disks do enterprise-level instances support?

For the disk categories that enterprise-level instances support, see Category of disks.

What types of images do enterprise-level instances support?

For the public images that enterprise-level instances support, see Public image overview.

You can also import custom images. For more information, see Import custom images.

What are the limits on upgrading or downgrading enterprise-level instances?

For the limits on upgrading or downgrading enterprise-level instances, see Instance families that support instance type changes.

Can I upgrade an entry-level instance to an enterprise-level instance?

Yes, you can upgrade an entry-level instance to an enterprise-level instance. For more information, see Instance families that support instance type changes.

After the NVIDIA driver is installed, nvidia-smi no longer works and an error message is returned indicating that the NVIDIA driver has not been installed. Why?

Cause: The versions of the kernel and kernel-devel package are inconsistent. This results in a driver compilation error when the driver is installed from the .rpm file.

Resolution: Check the kernel version and download the correct kernel-devel package version. Then, run the rpm –qa | grep kernel command on the instance to check whether the kernel-devel package version matches the kernel version. Make sure that they match and then reinstall the driver.

Why doesn't the Windows Graphics support graphics-related applications such as DirectX?

Problem description: On Windows instances where the installed GPU drivers have taken effect, the Windows Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) does not support DirectX, OpenGL, or other graphics-related applications.

Solution: Install the Virtual Network Computing (VNC) service and clients or other protocols that support these applications, such as PC over IP (PCoIP) and XenDeskop HDX 3D.

A ga1 Windows instance uses an Alibaba Cloud Marketplace image that is pre-installed with an AMD driver. However, the Windows Device Manager window shows that the GPU driver does not load properly. Why?

  1. Log on to the instance.
  2. Open the Device Manager.
  3. Right-click the GPU device.
  4. Select Update Driver Software from the shortcut menu.
  5. Then, select Search automatically for updated driver software.
  6. After the device driver is updated, restart the instance.

Why do I encounter a blue-screen error when starting an instance that uses an Alibaba Cloud Marketplace image pre-installed with an AMD driver?

Alibaba Cloud will update the driver included in the Alibaba Cloud Marketplace image to solve this problem. If you are using an image of an earlier version, update the GPU driver to avoid this issue.

If you encounter a blue-screen error and cannot start an instance, you must enter Safe Mode. In Safe Mode, uninstall the existing driver, start Windows normally, and then install the latest version of the GPU driver.

Do GPU instances support Android emulators?

No, Android emulators are not supported on GPU instances.

Can I upgrade or downgrade GPU instances?

No, GPU instances that are equipped with local disks, such as ga1 and gn5, cannot be upgraded or downgraded. For the GPU instances that are not equipped with local disks but can be upgraded or downgraded, see Instance families that support instance type changes.

Do pay-as-you-go GPU instances support the No Fees for Stopped Instances (VPC-Connected) feature?

GPU instances that are not equipped with local disks support the No Fees for Stopped Instances (VPC-Connected) feature. Such GPU instances include gn4 (with NVIDIA M40 GPU processors), gn5i (with NVIDIA P4 GPU processors), and gn6v (with NVIDIA V100 GPU processors) instances. For more information, see No Fees for Stopped Instances (VPC-Connected).

How do I view GPU monitoring data?

You can log on to the CloudMonitor console or call the DescribeMetricList operation to view GPU monitoring data. For more information, see GPU monitoring.

What are the differences between ECS Bare Metal Instances, traditional cloud hosts (virtual machines), and traditional physical machines?

For information on the differences, see ECS Bare Metal Instance.

How is the network performance of ECS Bare Metal Instances?

The network performance of ECS Bare Metal Instances depends on their specifications. The higher their specifications, the stronger network performance the instances can provide. For more information about the network performance of different ECS Bare Metal Instance types, see Instance families.

What categories of disks are supported on ECS Bare Metal Instances? How many data disks can be attached to an ECS Bare Metal Instance?

Ultra disks and standard SSDs are supported on ECS Bare Metal Instances. Up to 16 data disks can be attached to each ECS Bare Metal Instance.

Can ECS Bare Metal Instances be upgraded or downgraded? Do they support the failover feature?

ECS Bare Metal Instances cannot be upgraded or downgraded. They support the failover feature. If a hardware fault occurs to an ECS Bare Metal Instance, a failover occurs and data is retained in the disks of the ECS Bare Metal Instance.

How do I create an SCC instance?

You can create an SCC instance in one of the following ways:
  • If you only need to use RDMA, log on to the ECS console to create an SCC instance.
  • If you need to use the HPC scheduler and cluster resizing service in addition to RDMA, log on to the E-HPC console. Create an SCC and then create an SCC instance.

How are SCC instances billed?

SCC instances can be billed on a weekly, monthly, or yearly subscription basis.

How do I create an SCC by using E-HPC?

You can log on to the E-HPC console or call the CreateCluster operation to create an SCC.

How is SCC RDMA used?

When you create an SCC instance, select a custom image for SCC that supports the RDMA RoCE driver and OFED stack. You can use SCC RDMA through the IB Verbs API and manage RDMA communication through the MPI.

My account has no overdue payments. Why have my preemptible instances been released?

You can reserve a preemptible instance without interruptions for at least one hour. After one hour, your bid is compared with the market price. If the market price exceeds your bid or if resources are insufficient, your preemptible instance is automatically released.

Will I be notified when my preemptible instance is released? How?

Yes, you will be notified when your preemptible instance is released. When your preemptible instance needs to be released due to a market price change or due to insufficient resources, the instance will first enter the To Be Released state. After 5 minutes, the instance is automatically released. You can check whether an instance is in the To Be Released state based on the instance metadata or OperationLocks information returned by the DescribeInstances operation.

Can data be retained automatically after a preemptible instance is released?

No, data cannot be automatically retained. When you no longer need a preemptible instance, we recommend that you create snapshots to back up your data and environment and then release the instance. You can purchase new preemptible instances at any time.

Can I cancel or reschedule the automatic release of my preemptible instance?

Yes, you can cancel or reschedule the automatic release of your preemptible instance at any time.

Can preemptible instances be converted into subscription instances?

No, preemptible instances cannot be converted into subscription instances.

To what resources are the preemptible instance prices applicable?

The preemptible instance prices are applicable only to instance types. Other instance resources, such as system disks, data disks, and network bandwidth, are billed at the same rates as those of pay-as-you-go instances.

How do I bid for a preemptible instance?

To create a preemptible instance, you must set the highest hourly price you are willing to pay for an instance type. If your bid is higher than or equal to the current market price, your instance is created and billed based on the current market price. For more information, see Create a preemptible instance.

What is the relationship between the highest bid for a preemptible instance and the current market price?

The highest bid for a preemptible instance must be greater than or equal to the current market price. The highest bid for a preemptible instance must be higher or equal to the current market price. If the highest bid falls below the market price, no preemptible instances are created or running preemptible instances may be released. Preemptible instance will be billed based on the market price regardless of your bid.

Will I be charged at the same price for all preemptible instances that start at the same time?

Yes, you will be charged at the same price for all preemptible instances that start at the same time.

Will I be charged at a price that fluctuates with the market price within an hour of my preemptible instance starting?

No, the hourly price of your preemptible instance is set at the beginning of each hour and is applied to the instance for that hour.

Can I view the current market price of an instance type when I purchase a preemptible instance?

Yes. When creating a preemptible instance in the ECS console, you can select an instance type to view its current and historical market prices. The total cost, including the instance type price, storage price, and bandwidth price, is displayed at the lower-left corner of the instance creation page. The instance type price is the current market price of the specified instance type.

Can I view the historical prices of a preemptible instance type? How?

Yes, you can select a preemptible instance type to view its historical prices in the ECS console. You can also call the DescribeSpotPriceHistory operation to view the historical prices of a preemptible instance type.

Will preemptible instances continue to be billed after they are stopped?

Yes. When you no longer need a preemptible instance, we recommend that you create snapshots to back up your data and environment and then release the instance. You can purchase new preemptible instances at any time.
Note Preemptible instances will continue to be billed after you stop them from the ECS console or by calling the StopInstance operation.

How do I view the consumption details of my preemptible instance?

See View bills of a preemptible instance.
Note The total cost to create a pay-as-you-go instance is the hourly price to be charged for usage. However, the total cost to create a preemptible instance is the actual transaction price.

How many preemptible instances can be purchased under one account?

There is a limit on the maximum number of vCPUs that can be allocated to preemptible instances for each account. When you create a preemptible instance, you can view the number of available vCPUs after you select an instance type. For more information, see Limits.

How do I increase the maximum number of vCPUs?

Submit a ticket.

Can I change the instance type of a preemptible instance?

No, the instance types of preemptible instances cannot be changed.

Which instance families support preemptible instances?

Instance families that support the pay-as-you-go billing method also support preemptible instances. If a preemptible instance of a specified type cannot be created due to insufficient resources, try a different instance type.

In which regions can I create preemptible instances?

Preemptible instances can be created in all regions. If preemptible instances cannot be created in a region due to insufficient resources, try a different region.

Why is the Preemptible Instance option unavailable when I purchase an ECS instance?

Whether the Preemptible Instance option is available depends on your ECS usage.

What is a reserved instance?

Reserved instances automatically match pay-as-you-go instances, excluding preemptible instances, in your account to provide a billing discount. Reserved instances can also be used to reserve resources for pay-as-you-go instances. A combination of reserved instances and pay-as-you-go instances provides a similar cost-effectiveness to subscription instances but with a higher degree of flexibility.

Will a reserved instance provide a resource reservation?

Zonal reserved instances provide resource reservations, but regional reserved instances do not.

What operating systems do reserved instances support?

Reserved instances support both Windows and Linux. For example, a Linux reserved instance can be applied to any pay-as-you-go Linux instances that match its attributes regardless of image types (public images, custom images, shared images, and Alibaba Cloud Marketplace images).

To apply a reserved instance to pay-as-you-go instances created from Bring Your Own License (BYOL) images, submit a ticket.

Which instance families do reserved instances support?

Reserved instances support the following instance families: sn1ne, sn2ne, se1ne, ic5, c5, g5, r5, c6, g6, r6, i2, i2g, hfc5, hfg5, and t5.

Reserved instances matching t5 burstable instances are only available at the zone level. These reserved instances cannot be merged or split, and their scopes cannot be changed.

Can reserved instances be applied to preemptible instances?

No, reserved instances cannot be applied to preemptible instances.

Can I change the instance families of reserved instances?

No, the instance families of reserved instances cannot be changed.

To what scenarios are zonal reserved instances applicable?

We recommend that you purchase zonal reserved instances when you have clear requirements to reserve resources.

To what scenarios are regional reserved instances applicable?

We recommend that you purchase regional reserved instances if you want to enjoy better zone and instance size flexibility.

How is the zone flexibility of reserved instances applied?

Only regional reserved instances provide zone flexibility. Example:

You have the following pay-as-you-go instance running:

One ecs.c5.xlarge Linux instance in Qingdao Zone B. The instance name is C5PAYG-b.

You have purchased the following reserved instance:

One regional ecs.c5.xlarge reserved instance in the China (Qingdao) region. The name of the reserved instance is C5RI.

C5RI matches C5PAYG-b to apply a discount.

You release C5PAYG-b and start another Linux instance named C5PAYG-c, which is of the same instance type as C5PAYG-b. C5RI then matches C5PAYG-c.

How is the instance size flexibility of reserved instances applied?

Only regional reserved instances provide instance size flexibility. Example:

You have one regional ecs.g5.4xlarge reserved instance. It can match one ecs.g5.4xlarge pay-as-you-go instance, two ecs.g5.2xlarge pay-as-you-go instances, or four ecs.g5.xlarge pay-as-you-go instances.

You have a one-year regional ecs.g5.xlarge reserved instance. It can match one ecs.g5.xlarge instance running for one year, or one ecs.g5.2xlarge instance running for six months.

Do zonal reserved instances provide instance size flexibility?

No. A zonal reserved instance can only match pay-as-you-go instances of the same instance type.

Do zonal reserved instances provide zone flexibility?

No. A zonal reserved instance can only match pay-as-you-go instances in the same zone.

Can I change a zonal reserved instance to a regional one?

Yes, a zonal reserved instance can be changed to a regional one. You can change the scope of a reserved instance you purchased as follows:

  • From a zone to a region
  • From a region to a zone
  • From one zone to another within the same region for a zonal reserved instance

Can I change the scope of a reserved instance from one region to another?

No, the scope of a reserved instance cannot be changed from one region to another. For example, if you have a zonal reserved instance in Hangzhou Zone B, you can change the instance scope to another zone or change the instance to a regional reserved instance within the China (Hangzhou) region. However, you cannot change the zonal reserved instance to a regional or zonal reserved instance within another region.

Can I use reserved instances across accounts?

No, reserved instances cannot be used across accounts.

Can I use reserved instances to cover the storage and network charges of pay-as-you-go instances?

No, reserved instances cannot be used to cover the storage and network charges of pay-as-you-go instances. Reserved instances cover the vCPU and memory costs of pay-as-you-go instances. For Windows pay-as-you-go instances, reserved instances also cover the image costs.

Can I configure a reserved instance to apply its discount to a specific pay-as-you-go instance?

No. When multiple pay-as-you-go instances match the attributes of a reserved instance, the discount is applied automatically based on the optimized matching scheme.

How are reserved instances billed?

Reserved instances are billed separately and support the All Upfront, Partial Upfront, and No Upfront payment options.

The term of a reserved instance starts immediately after purchase. You are charged based on your selected payment option regardless of whether the reserved instance matches pay-as-you-go instances. The All Upfront option is the most cost-effective.

When does a reserved instance take effect after I purchase it?

The reserved instance takes effect and is billed starting from the top of the hour during which it is purchased. It expires at 00:00:00 of the day after the term end date. For example, if you purchase a one-year reserved instance at 2019-02-26 13:45:00, the reserved instance takes effect and is billed starting at 2019-02-26 13:00:00 and is set to expire at 2020-02-27 00:00:00. If you purchase a reserved instance that matches your existing pay-as-you-go instances, the discount is applied to the bills generated for the pay-as-you-go instances starting from 13:00 to 14:00 on February 26, 2019 until the reserved instance expires.

When do reserved instances take effect after I modify, split, or merge them?

After a reserved instance is modified, split, or merged, a new reserved instance is generated and the original one becomes invalid. The new reserved instance takes effect and the original reserved instance becomes invalid. Both occur on the hour. Assume that you split ecs.g5.2xlarge zonal reserved instance RI1 into two zonal ecs.g5.xlarge reserved instances RI2 and RI3 at 2019-02-26 13:45:00. The term of RI1 ends and the terms of RI2 and RI3 starts at 2019-02-26 13:00:00. As of 2019-02-26 13:00:00, the eligible reserved instance type is ecs.g5.xlarge, not ecs.g5.2xlarge any more. If RI2 and RI3 match pay-as-you-go instances immediately after they take effect, the discounts provided by RI2 and RI3 are also applied to the hourly bills of ecs.g5.xlarge pay-as-you-go instances as of 2019-02-26 13:00:00.

Why isn't the No Upfront payment option displayed on the purchase page?

The availability of this option depends on your ECS usage.

Can I change the payment option of a reserved instance?

No, the payment options of reserved instances cannot be changed.

Are reserved instances resalable?

No, reserved instances are not resalable.

Can I use reserved instances to cover the image costs of Windows pay-as-you-go instances?

Yes. Windows reserved instances already include Windows image costs. Therefore, you can use them to cover the image costs of your Windows pay-as-you-go instances.

Can I use reserved instances to cover the image costs of Linux pay-as-you-go instances?

No, reserved instances cannot be used to cover the image costs of Linux pay-as-you-go instances.

Can multiple users simultaneously log on to the Management Terminal?

No, only a single user can log on to the Management Terminal at a time.

What can I do if I forget the password for remote connection?

You can reset your password for remote connection. For more information, see Connect to a Linux instance by using the Management Terminal.

Why can't I log on to the Management Terminal even after I reset my password for remote connection?

If the ECS instance to which you are connecting is not I/O optimized, you must restart the instance in the ECS console for the new password to take effect. For more information, see Restart an instance.
Note If the ECS instance is restarted from within the instance itself, the new password will not take effect.

Authentication failed on the Management Terminal. What can I do?

If you enter an incorrect password, authentication fails on the Management Terminal. Perform the following steps to troubleshoot the problem:
  1. Enter the correct password.
  2. If you forget your password, reset your password for remote connection and try again.
  3. If the ECS instance to which you are connecting is not I/O optimized, you must restart the instance in the ECS console for the new password to take effect.

What can I do if a black screen appears while I am connected to the Management Terminal?

A black screen indicates that the instance is in sleep mode. Perform the following operations based on your operating system:
  • For a Linux instance, click your mouse or press any key to activate the instance.
  • For a Windows instance, in the upper-left corner of the Management Terminal page, choose Send Remote Call > CTRL+ALT+DELETE to open the logon dialog box.

What can I do if I am unable to access the Management Terminal?

Use Google Chrome to access the Management Terminal, and press F12 to open the developer tools pane. Then click the Console tab and analyze the information displayed to identify errors.

Why can't I use Internet Explorer 8 to access the Management Terminal?

The Management Terminal supports Internet Explorer 10 and later.

We recommend that you use Google Chrome because it is the most compatible browser.

When I use Firefox to access the Management Terminal, an error message is returned indicating that the secure connection has failed. What can I do?

This problem occurs if the encryption algorithm of your Firefox version is different from that of the Management Terminal.

We recommend that you use Google Chrome because it is the most compatible browser.

How do I remotely log on to a Linux instance?

Linux instances use SSH for remote connection. You can use one of the following methods to remotely log on to a Linux instance:

What are the default username and password for remote logon to the operating system of an ECS instance?

The default username depends on the operating system.
  • For a Windows instance, the default username is administrator.
  • For a Linux instance, the default username is root.
The password for remote logon to the operating system is set by you during instance creation. For more information, see Create an instance by using the provided wizard. If you forget your password, you can reset it. For more information, see Reset an instance logon password.
Note This password is used to remotely log on to the operating system of an ECS instance, not to the Management Terminal.

Can I upgrade subscription instances?

Yes, you can. For more information, see Upgrade configurations of Subscription instances.

Can I upgrade pay-as-you-go instances?

Yes, but you must stop pay-as-you-go instances before you can upgrade them. You can upgrade pay-as-you-go instances by following the instructions in Change configurations of Pay-As-You-Go instances or by calling the ModifyInstanceSpec operation.

How long does it take to upgrade an ECS instance?

  • Subscription instances do not need to be stopped to be upgraded. The upgrade process takes about 15 minutes.
  • Pay-as-you-go instances must be stopped before they can be upgraded. The upgrade process takes about 15 minutes.
  • Instances must be stopped before their bandwidths can be upgraded. The upgrade process takes about 5 minutes.

How is the fee for upgrading an ECS instance calculated?

The upgrade fee and its calculation method are displayed when you upgrade the instance. You can also view the fee details on the Account Overview page.

Does upgrading my ECS instances affect my cloud service configurations?

Pay-as-you-go instances must be stopped before they can be upgraded. After you upgrade a subscription instance, you must restart it for the new specifications to take effect. The upgrade operation will interrupt your services for a short period of time. We recommend that you upgrade instances during off-peak hours. Instances can seamlessly resume services after upgrades without server environment reconfiguration.

How do I upgrade ECS resources?

For details about how to upgrade ECS resources, see Overview of instance upgrade and downgrade.
  • With the exception of ECS instances that use local storage, ECS instances allow their CPU and memory resources to be scaled and their bandwidths to be upgraded while they are running. You can also downgrade ECS instances as needed.
  • A maximum of 16 data disks can be attached to each ECS instance. You cannot reduce the size of a data disk after it is extended.
  • ECS bandwidth is measured in megabits per second (Mbit/s) and ranges from 0 Mbit/s to 200 Mbit/s. You can also temporarily upgrade the bandwidth of an ECS instance, or downgrade the instance when you renew it.

I have upgraded an instance but no changes have taken effect yet. Why?

After you upgrade an instance, you must restart the instance in the ECS console for the new specifications to take effect.

My ECS instance is stuck in the Starting state, and AliyunService is disabled or has been deleted. What can I do?

Problem description: After you start an ECS instance, it remains in the Starting state for an extended period of time and then automatically stops. You log on to the instance and find that AliyunService has been deleted or is disabled in the system services.

Solution:
  • If AliyunService is disabled:
    1. Change the state of AliyunService to Automatic.
    2. Restart the instance.
  • If AliyunService is deleted:
    1. Run the following command to add AliyunService to the instance:
      sc create AliyunService type= "own" start= "auto" binPath= "C:\Program Files\AliyunService\AliyunService.exe -d" tag= "no" DisplayName= "AliyunService"
      Note Make sure that you leave a space character after the equal signs (=).
    2. Find the registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\AliyunService, and change c:\Program Files\AliyunService\AliyunService.exe -d to "c:\Program Files\AliyunService\AliyunService.exe" -d.
    3. Restart the instance.

How do I use f1 instances?

After you create an f1 instance, Alibaba Cloud shares an FPGA development image to you. Only CentOS 7u2 images are supported. The FPGA development image includes the complete Intel Quartus development suite and the constraint files for the f1 instance to provide a complete cloud development environment.

Note You can go to the ECS Instance Types Available for Each Region page to view the instance types available in each region.
The basic workflow for using f1 instances is as follows:
  1. After development, generate an intermediate QAR file during the compilation stage and upload the file to an OSS bucket. You can upload this file only to an OSS bucket in the China (Hangzhou) region. Then, register the QAR file information with Alibaba Cloud by calling an API operation.

    We recommend that you use the free Intel Quartus development suite to perform development, compilation, and simulation operations on the cloud.

  2. Alibaba Cloud verifies the registration request for the QAR file and then sends you an email that includes an FPGA image ID.
  3. When you deploy the image, call an API operation with the f1 instance ID and FPGA image ID specified to associate the instance with the image.

    You can initiate the association operation in any scenario where ECS API is available.

    • If the f1 instance has never been associated with any FPGA images, initiate the association operation.
    • If the f1 instance was previously associated with an FPGA image and had the image loaded, erase the FPGA image from the f1 instance before initiating the association operation.
  4. After you associate the FPGA image with the instance, call an API operation to load the image.

    You must initiate the load operation from the f1 instance. Then the underlying service of Alibaba Cloud burns the associated FPGA image to the corresponding FPGA on the instance.

If you want to restore the f1 instance to its initial state, call an API operation to erase the burned FPGA image from the f1 instance.

How do I upload files by using the FTP tool in macOS?

Upload files by using the Terminal in macOS

Open the Terminal in macOS or iTerm2 for Mac (click here to download iTerm2). Make sure that you select the correct destination path.

  1. Connect to the FTP server.
  2. Open the destination directory. In Windows, use the working directory as the destination directory. In Linux, change the working directory to htdocs and use the htdocs directory as the destination directory.
  3. Run the put command to upload files.

Upload files by using a third-party tool

  1. Download Yummy FTP.
  2. Install Yummy FTP.
  3. Enter the server IP address, username, and password. Set Protocol to Standard (FTP) and Port to 21 or a port number you are using, and leave the SSH key field unselected.
  4. Click Connect.
  5. In the right section, select the destination directory. In Windows, use the current working directory. In Linux, select the htdocs directory. In the left section, select the files and click the upload icon to upload files.
    Note If you are prompted with a message similar to "Your security preferences only allow the installation of applications from the Mac App Store and from authorized developers" when you try to install Yummy FTP, perform these steps:
    1. Choose System Preference > Security and Privacy.
    2. Click the security lock in the lower-left corner of the window and enter the administrator password.
    3. Set Allow apps download from to Anywhere.

    Then, you can upload files by using Yummy FTP.

If you have further questions, submit a ticket.

How do I apply for an ICP filing for my domain name after purchasing an ECS instance?

You can apply for a limited number of ICP filing service numbers for each ECS instance. For more information, see Prepare and check the instance or server.

For information about how to apply for an ICP filing, see Quick Start.

Why can't I start an ECS instance by loading the kernel?

Problem description: When the system is starting, it does not respond when you select an option from the GRUB menu. After the LiveCD image is mounted to the ECS instance, you log on to the ECS instance and find that file system privileges are correct and that message logs show no exceptions.

Cause: The system is attacked by ransomware.

Solution: Back up your data and reinitialize the system.

How do I change the logon password within an instance?

See Change the instance logon password by connecting to the instance.

Why can't I add sound or video cards to ECS instances?

This is because the servers that Alibaba Cloud provides are not multimedia servers and do not provide sound card or video card components.

Can I transfer the unused time of an ECS instance to another ECS instance?

No, the unused time of an ECS instance cannot be transferred to others. If you want both higher flexibility and cost-effectiveness, we recommend that you use a combination of reserved instances and pay-as-you-go instances. For more information, see Reserved instance overview.

Do ECS instances provide database capabilities by default?

No, ECS instances do not provide database capabilities by default. To use database services, perform the following operations:
  • Deploy your own database.
  • Purchase ApsaraDB for RDS provided by Alibaba Cloud.
  • Use a database image provided in Alibaba Cloud Marketplace.

Can I build a database on an ECS instance?

Yes, you can install database software and configure a database environment on an ECS instance as needed. You can also separately purchase ApsaraDB for RDS.

Do ECS instances support Oracle databases?

Yes, ECS instances support Oracle databases. We recommend that before installing an Oracle database, you perform stress testing on the intended host ECS instance to ensure that it can handle the read/write requirements of the database.

Are public IP addresses and private IP addresses independent? Can I specify or add IP addresses?

In classic networks, public and private IP addresses are independent of each other. Private IP addresses in classic networks are used for communication between ECS instances and communication between ECS instances and OSS or RDS instances. When the 0 Mbit/s bandwidth is selected for an ECS instance, no public IP address is allocated to the instance. Typically, public and private IP addresses in classic networks do not change. You cannot specify, select, or add IP addresses in classic networks.

In VPCs, NAT gateways map public IP addresses to private IP addresses. You can specify secondary private IP addresses, or add IP addresses by assigning multiple private IP addresses to a single ENI.

Can an ECS instance be used for load balancing?

ECS Linux and Windows instances can be used for load balancing. You must ensure that the configurations of ECS instances serving as Web servers meet the requirements for website code to run. Load balancing can be implemented with as few as one ECS instance under an account. However, we recommend you use two or more ECS instances for load balancing.

Can I change the region of an ECS instance?

No, you cannot change the region of an ECS instance.

Can I adjust the partition size of a purchased disk?

For system security and stability purposes, system disks do not support secondary partitioning on either Windows or Linux instances. If you use a third-party tool to perform secondary partitioning, unknown exceptions such as system failure and data loss might occur.

Secondary partitioning of data disks may cause data loss. We do not recommend that you perform secondary partitioning on data disks.

How do I replace the public IP address of my ECS instance with an Elastic IP Address (EIP)?

To replace the public IP address of your ECS instance with an EIP, ensure that you have selected pay-by-bandwidth as the bandwidth billing method for you ECS instance and that you have purchased an EIP. Then, perform the following steps:

  1. Change the bandwidth billing method from pay-by-bandwidth to pay-by-traffic. For more information, see Billing methods of Internet bandwidth.
  2. Convert the public IP address of the ECS instance to an EIP. For more information, see Convert an ECS public IP address to an Elastic IP address.
  3. Disassociate the EIP obtained in the previous step from the ECS instance. For more information, see Disassociate an Elastic IP address from a cloud instance.
  4. Associate the EIP you purchased to the ECS instance. For more information, see Associate an Elastic IP address with an ECS instance.

How do I view subscription instances in all regions under my account?

You can go to the renewal page to view subscription instances in all regions under your account.
  1. Log on to the ECS console.
  2. In the top navigation bar, choose Billing Management > Renew.

When can I forcibly stop an ECS instance? What are the consequences?

If an instance cannot be stopped with a proper shutdown procedure, you can forcibly stop it. Forcible stop is equivalent to a physical shutdown, and may cause data loss if instance data has not been written to disks.

Why can't I reactivate my ECS instance?

You may fail to reactivate an ECS instance due to any of the following reasons:
  • Your account has overdue payments. Pay the outstanding bills and try again.
  • The system is busy. Try again later.
  • Not resources are available.
    Note You can go to the ECS Instance Types Available for Each Region page to view the instance types available in each region.

Why has an ECS instance with release protection enabled been automatically released from a scaling group?

Auto Scaling can automatically release an ECS instance created in a scale-out event, even if you enable instance release protection for the instance by using the ECS console or by calling the ModifyInstanceAttribute operation.

What is the AliVulfix process in an ECS instance?

The AliVulfix process is an Alibaba Cloud Security program that detects vulnerabilities in ECS instances.

How do I defend ECS instances against attacks?

ECS instances use Alibaba Cloud Security to defend against DDoS attacks. CloudMonitor deployed on ECS instances can automatically detect network attacks and scrub suspicious traffic. Alibaba Cloud implements black hole filtering to protect ECS instances against high-volume attacks. To strengthen security protection, we recommend that you install security software and disable ports that are not commonly used.

What security services does Alibaba Cloud provide?

Alibaba Cloud Security is powered by the robust data analysis capabilities of the Alibaba Cloud cloud computing platform to provide a comprehensive set of security services, such as security vulnerability detection, website trojan detection, host intrusion detection, and DDoS protection.

For information about more security services, see Security.

After I renew an ECS Linux subscription instance that has expired, I am still unable to access the website it hosts. What can I do?

Problem description: The ECS instance is in the Stopped state after it expires. After you renew and restart the instance, you cannot access the website it hosts.

Cause: This may be because the website service has not been started.

Solution:
  1. Connect to the ECS instance remotely and run the following command to check whether the website service has been started:
    #netstat -nltp //Check whether port 80 on the ECS instance is being listened on.
  2. If no information about port 80 is displayed in the command output, the website service has not been started. Run a command to manually start the website service and relevant services.

    In Linux, websites are typically developed based on PHP and MySQL.

    • In Apache, you only need to start the website service and MySQL.
      #/etc/init.d/httpd start          //Start the website service. This command is applicable to Apache.
      #/etc/init.d/mysqld start         //Start MySQL.
    • In NGINX, you must start the website service, PHP, and MySQL.
      #/etc/init.d/nginx start          //Start the website service. This command is applicable to NGINX.
      #/etc/init.d/php-fpm start        //Start PHP.
      #/etc/init.d/mysqld start         //Start MySQL.
  3. Re-check whether the website service has been started.
    #netstat -nltp //Check whether port 80 on the ECS instance is being listened on.
  4. After the website service has been started, access the website again.

If the problem persists, submit a ticket.

How do I check, partition, and format the data disks of a Linux instance?

You can run the df –h command to check the capacity and usage of disks, and run the fdisk –l command to view disk information. For details about how to partition and format disks in Linux instances, see Format a data disk for a Linux-based ECS instance.

How do I upload files to a Linux instance?

You can use the FTP service to upload files to a Linux instance.

How do I change the owner and owner group of directories and files on a Linux instance?

If the file or directory permissions are not correctly configured on the Web server, a 403 error will occur when you access a website hosted on the instance. Therefore, before you adjust a file or directory, you must identify the identity under which the file or directory process is running.

You can run the ps and grep commands to query the identities under which processes are running.

You can run the ls –l command to query the owners and owner groups of files and directories.

To change the owners and owner groups, run the chown command. For example, you can run the chown -R www.www /alidata/www/phpwind/ command to change the owner and owner group of all files and directories under directory /alidata/www/phpwind to account www.

How do I update the software source of Linux instances?

You can use an automatic software source updating tool. For more information, see Automatic source updating tool for Linux ECS.

What limits apply to the transfer and change of public IP addresses of ECS instances?

The following limits apply to the transfer and change of public IP addresses of ECS instances:
  • In classic networks:
    • You cannot transfer public IP addresses across accounts.
    • The public IP address of an ECS instance is mutable within 6 hours after the instance is created, and can be changed a maximum of 3 times. For more information, see Change the public IP address of an ECS instance.
    • If Anti-DDoS Pro is deployed on your instance, you can change the IP address of an ECS instance a maximum of 10 times in the Anti-DDoS Pro console. For more information, see Change ECS IP of the Anti-DDoS Pro User Guide.
  • In VPCs:
    • You cannot transfer public IP addresses or EIPs across accounts.
    • If no public IP address is assigned to your instance, you can bind an EIP to the instance. You can replace the public IP address of your instance with an EIP.
    • If a public IP address is assigned to your instance:

If you have further questions, submit a ticket.

Can I access amazon.com from my ECS instance?

You can access amazon.com from your ECS instance if your ECS instance can connect to the public network properly.

Why can't I access a website hosted outside of China after I log on to my ECS instance?

You can access a website hosted outside of China from your ECS instance only when the website complies with the local regulatory policies of the country or region where your instance is located. Make sure that your ECS instance can connect to the public network properly and that the website complies with the preceding local regulatory policies.

I cannot purchase more pay-as-you-go instances. What can I do?

If you have reached the maximum number of pay-as-you-go instances that you can purchase, you cannot purchase more pay-as-you-go instances. For more information, see Limits. You can log on to the ECS console and view your resource quotas on the Privileges & Quotas page. For more information, see Manage privileges and quotas.

How can I view the resource quota?

For more information about how to view the limits and quotas of resources, see Limits.

Are fees still incurred after a pay-as-you-go ECS instance is stopped automatically due to an overdue payment or is manually stopped?

When the payment for a pay-as-you-go instance becomes overdue, the instance is automatically stopped and taken out of service.

You can stop a running pay-as-you-go instance in the ECS console or by calling the StopInstance operation. When the instance is stopped, its status changes to Stopped. Billing of pay-as-you-go instances in the Stopped state depends on their network types.
  • VPC: The No Fees for Stopped Instances (VPC-Connected) feature takes effect on pay-as-you-go instances in VPCs. After the feature is enabled, pay-as-you-go instances in VPCs start being billed when they are created, stop being billed when they enter the Stopped state, and resume being billed when they are started again. With the feature enabled, the vCPUs, memory, and public IP addresses of a VPC-type ECS instance in the Stopped state will not incur any additional costs, but its data disks will continue to be billed. For more information, see No Fees for Stopped Instances (VPC-Connected).
  • Classic network: ECS instances in classic networks will continue to be billed, even when they are in the Stopped state.

What can I do if an order to change the billing method from pay-as-you-go to subscription cannot be placed?

Your order may fail to be placed due to any of the following reasons:
  • The instance is in a state that does not support changing billing methods.
  • The instance is scheduled for an automatic release at a specific point in time and does not support changing billing methods.
  • The instance is in the Expired state.
  • The instance information has changed.
  • A change order for the instance has not been paid.

If you are prompted with any of the preceding error messages, adjust the instance accordingly.

How long after the order is paid does it take to change the billing method from pay-as-you-go to subscription?

After you pay for the order, the billing method of your ECS instance is changed. It takes 1 to 4 seconds to change the billing method of up to 20 instances. After the change is complete, the billing method of your instance is changed to Subscription in the console.

What can I do if the billing method cannot be changed from pay-as-you-go to subscription?

Submit a ticket.

When I change the billing method of an instance from pay-as-you-go to subscription, will the billing method of the instance bandwidth change?

No, the billing method of the instance bandwidth will not change. Only the billing method of instances and disks can be changed from pay-as-you-go to subscription. For information about how to change the bandwidth billing method, see Overview of instance upgrade and downgrade.

I have an unpaid order to change the billing method of an instance from pay-as-you-go to subscription. If I upgrade the instance, will the order still be valid?

An order is created when you change the billing method of your instance from pay-as-you-go to subscription. You must complete the payment for this order for the change to take effect. If you upgrade the instance before the order is paid for, the order payment cannot be completed because the instance components change and the original order amount does not meet the requirements of the new billing method. If you still need to change the billing method, you must cancel the unpaid order and place a new order.

What can I do if the billing method cannot be changed from subscription to pay-as-you-go?

The billing method cannot be changed from subscription to pay-as-you-go due to one of the following reasons:

  • The instance is in a state that does not support changing billing methods.
  • The instance is in the Expired state.
  • The instance information has changed.

If you are prompted with any of the preceding error messages, adjust the instance accordingly. If this problem persists, submit a ticket.

When I try to change the billing method of a disk in an ECS instance, an error message appears indicating that I have already changed the billing method three times. What does this mean?

Each ECS instance can be downgraded a maximum of three times. Downgrade operations include instance specifications downgrades, bandwidth downgrades, and the change of the disk billing method from subscription to pay-as-you-go.

Why can't I change a pay-as-you-go instance to a subscription one?

  • The instance belongs to your account.
  • The following instance types are not applicable:
    • Generation I: t1, s1, s2, s3, m1, m2, c1, or c2
    • Generation n1, n2, or e3
    Note For more information about these instance types, see Phased-out instance types.
  • The instance cannot be a preemptible instance.
  • There is no unpaid switch order for the instance.

    If there is an unpaid switch order, you must cancel the unpaid order and then place another order to switch the billing method.

  • Auto release is not set for the instance.

    If auto release has been set for an instance, you must disable the auto release configuration and then switch the billing method. For more information, see Release an instance.

  • The instance is in the Running or Stopped state.

    Example: An order to switch the billing method has been placed when the ECS instance is in the Running or Stopped state. However, the instance status has changed when payment is attempted for the order. The preceding requirement is not met. The order fails and the billing method remains unchanged. You can go to the billing center and pay for the order when the instance is in the Running or Stopped state again.

How do I view the expiration time of my subscription instances?

You can log on to the ECS console and go to the Instances page. View the expiration time of your subscription instances in the Billing Method column.

Note If the Billing Method column is not displayed, click in the upper-right corner. In the dialog box that appears, select Billing Method and click OK.