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Data Transmission Service:Migrate data from an ApsaraDB RDS for SQL Server instance to an AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL instance

Last Updated:Jan 30, 2024

Data Transmission Service (DTS) allows you to migrate data from an ApsaraDB RDS for SQL Server instance to an AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL instance with ease. AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL provides the online data analysis and offline data processing features. You can use these features to analyze and process enterprise data in real time with high performance and explore online data.

Prerequisites

  • The database version of the source ApsaraDB RDS for SQL Server instance is supported by DTS. For information about the supported versions of the source and destination databases, see Overview of data migration scenarios.

  • A destination AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL instance is created. The available storage space of the destination AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL instance is larger than the total size of the data in the source ApsaraDB RDS for SQL Server instance. For more information, see Create an instance.

  • A database is created in the destination AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL instance to receive data. For more information, see the CREATE DATABASE section of the "SQL syntax" topic.

  • If the source ApsaraDB RDS for SQL Server instance meets one of the following conditions, we recommend that you split the migration task into multiple subtasks:

    • The source instance contains more than 10 databases.

    • A single database of the source instance backs up its logs at an interval of less than 1 hour.

    • A single database of the source instance executes more than 100 DDL statements each hour.

    • Logs are written at a rate of 20 MB/s for a single database of the source instance.

    • The change data capture (CDC) feature needs to be enabled for more than 1,000 tables in the source ApsaraDB RDS for SQL Server instance.

Limits

Note
  • During schema migration, DTS migrates foreign keys from the source database to the destination database.
  • During full data migration and incremental data migration, DTS temporarily disables the constraint check and cascade operations on foreign keys at the session level. If you perform the cascade and delete operations on the source database during data migration, data inconsistency may occur.

Category

Description

Limits on the source database

  • The server to which the source database belongs must have sufficient outbound bandwidth. Otherwise, the data migration speed decreases.

  • The tables to be migrated must have PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraints and all fields must be unique. Otherwise, the destination database may contain duplicate data records.

  • If you select tables as the objects to be migrated and you need to modify the tables in the destination database, such as renaming tables or columns, you can migrate up to 1,000 tables in a single data migration task. If you run a task to migrate more than 1,000 tables, a request error occurs. In this case, we recommend that you configure multiple tasks to migrate the tables in batches or configure a task to migrate the entire database.

  • You can run a single data migration task to migrate up to 10 databases. If you want to migrate more than 10 databases, we recommend that you configure multiple tasks to migrate the databases in batches. Otherwise, the performance and stability of your data migration task may be compromised.

  • If you want to migrate incremental data, make sure that the following requirements are met:

    • The data logging feature must be enabled. The backup mode must be set to Full and full physical backup must be performed.

    • If you perform only incremental data migration, the data logs of the source database must be stored for more than 24 hours. If you perform both full data migration and incremental data migration, the data logs of the source database must be stored for at least seven days. Otherwise, DTS may fail to obtain the data logs and the task may fail. In exceptional circumstances, data inconsistency or loss may occur. After full data migration is complete, you can set the retention period to more than 24 hours. Make sure that you set the retention period of data logs based on the preceding requirements. Otherwise, the Service Level Agreement (SLA) of DTS does not guarantee service reliability or performance.

  • If the change data capture (CDC) feature needs to be enabled for the tables that you want to migrate from the source database, the following conditions must be met. Otherwise, the precheck fails.

    • The value of the srvname field in the sys.sysservers view is the same as the return value of the SERVERPROPERTY function.

    • If the source database is a self-managed SQL Server database, the database owner must be the sa user. If the source database is an ApsaraDB RDS for SQL Server database, the database owner must be the sqlsa user.

    • If the source database is of Enterprise Edition, you must use SQL Server 2008 or later.

    • If the source database is of Standard Edition, you must use SQL Server 2016 SP1 or later.

    • If the source database is of Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition and its version is SQL Server 2017, we recommend that you update the version.

  • DTS uses the fn_log function to obtain logs of the source database. However, this function has performance bottlenecks. Therefore, we recommend that you do not clear the logs of the source database before the task is complete. Otherwise, the task may fail.

  • Limits on operations to be performed on the source database:

    • During schema migration and full data migration, do not perform DDL operations to change the schemas of databases or tables. Otherwise, the data migration task fails.

    • If you perform only full data migration, do not write data to the source database during data migration. Otherwise, data inconsistency between the source and destination databases occurs. To ensure data consistency, we recommend that you select Schema Migration, Full Data Migration, and Incremental Data Migration as the migration types.

Other limits

  • DTS does not migrate data of the following types: TIMESTAMP, CURSOR, ROWVERSION, HIERACHYID, SQL_VARIANT, SPATIAL GEOMETRY, SPATIAL GEOGRAPHY, and TABLE.

  • If you select tables as the objects to be migrated, you can modify the mapping relation between columns. If column mapping is used for non-full table migration or if the schemas of the source and destination tables are inconsistent, the data in the columns of the source database that are not contained in the destination database will be lost.

  • The table cannot be an append-optimized (AO) table.

  • If you set SQL Server Incremental Synchronization Mode to Incremental Synchronization Based on Logs of Source Database in the Configure Objects and Advanced Settings step, the tables to be migrated must have clustered indexes that contain primary key columns. In addition, the tables to be migrated cannot be heap tables, compressed tables, tables without primary keys, or tables with computed columns. Ignore the preceding limits if the hybrid log parsing mode is used.

  • In the Incremental Synchronization Based on Logs of Source Database mode, DTS adds a heartbeat table named dts_log_heart_beat to the source database to ensure that the latency of data migration is accurate. In the hybrid log-based parsing incremental synchronization mode, DTS creates a trigger named dts_cdc_sync_ddl, a heartbeat table named dts_sync_progress, and a DDL history table named dts_cdc_ddl_history and enables CDC for the source database and partial tables. We recommend that you set the upper limit of the number of requests per second to 1000 for the tables for which CDC is enabled in the source database.

  • Before you migrate data, evaluate the impact of data migration on the performance of the source instance and destination cluster. We recommend that you migrate data during off-peak hours. During full data migration, DTS uses the read and write resources of the source and destination databases. This may increase the loads on the database servers.

  • During full data migration, concurrent INSERT operations cause fragmentation in the tables of the destination database. After a full data migration is complete, the size of used tablespace of the destination database is larger than that of the source database.

  • You must make sure that the precision settings for columns of the FLOAT or DOUBLE data type meet your business requirements. DTS uses the ROUND(COLUMN,PRECISION) function to retrieve values from columns of the FLOAT or DOUBLE data type. If you do not specify a precision, DTS sets the precision for the FLOAT data type to 38 digits and the precision for the DOUBLE data type to 308 digits.

  • DTS attempts to resume data migration tasks that failed within the last seven days. Before you switch workloads to the destination database, you must stop or release the failed tasks. You can also execute the REVOKE statement to revoke the write permissions from the accounts that are used by DTS to access the destination database. Otherwise, the data in the source database overwrites the data in the destination database after the failed task is resumed.

  • If the data migration task involves incremental data migration, DTS does not allow you to perform the reindexing operation. If you perform the reindexing operation, the data migration task may fail, or even data loss may occur.

    Note

    DTS cannot migrate DDL operations related to the primary key of a table for which CDC is enabled.

  • If the number of CDC-enabled tables to be migrated in a single migration task exceeds 1,000, the precheck fails.

Billing

Migration type

Task configuration fee

Internet traffic fee

Schema migration and full data migration

Free of charge.

Free of charge in this example.

Incremental data migration

Charged. For more information, see Billing overview.

Migration types

  • Schema migration

    DTS migrates the schemas of objects from the source database to the destination database.

    • DTS supports schema migration for the following types of objects: schema, table, view, function, and procedure.
    • DTS does not migrate the schemas of assemblies, service brokers, full-text indexes, full-text catalogs, distributed schemas, distributed functions, Common Language Runtime (CLR) stored procedures, CLR scalar-valued functions, CLR table-valued functions, internal tables, systems, or aggregate functions.
    Warning SQL Server and AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL are heterogeneous databases. The data types that they support do not have one-to-one correspondence. We recommend that you evaluate the impact of data type mappings on your business. For more information, see Data type mappings between heterogeneous databases.
  • Full data migration

    DTS migrates the existing data of objects from the source database to the destination database.

  • Incremental data migration

    After full data migration is complete, DTS migrates incremental data from the source database to the destination database. Incremental data migration allows data to be migrated smoothly without interrupting the services of self-managed applications during data migration.

SQL operations that can be incrementally migrated

Operation typeSQL statement
DMLINSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE
DDL
  • CREATE TABLE
    Note If a CREATE TABLE operation creates a partitioned table or a table that contains functions, DTS does not migrate the operation.
  • ALTER TABLE

    ADD COLUMN and DROP COLUMN

  • DROP TABLE
  • CREATE INDEX and DROP INDEX
Note
  • DTS does not migrate DDL operations that contain user-defined types.
  • DTS does not migrate transactional DDL operations.

Permissions required for database accounts

Database

Schema migration

Full data migration

Incremental data migration

Source ApsaraDB RDS for SQL Server instance

The read and write permissions

The read and write permissions

The owner permissions

Destination AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL instance

  • The LOGIN permission

  • The SELECT, CREATE, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE permissions on the destination tables

  • The CONNECT and CREATE permissions on the destination database

  • The CREATE permission on the destination schemas

  • The COPY permission (the permission to perform memory-based batch copy operations)

Note

You can also use the initial database account of the AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL instance or the database account that has the RDS_SUPERUSER permission.

For more information about how to create a database account and grant permissions to the database account, see the following topics:

Procedure

  1. Go to the Data Migration Tasks page.
    1. Log on to the Data Management (DMS) console.
    2. In the top navigation bar, click DTS.
    3. In the left-side navigation pane, choose DTS (DTS) > Data Migration.
    Note
  2. From the drop-down list next to Data Migration Tasks, select the region in which the data migration instance resides.
    Note If you use the new DTS console, you must select the region in which the data migration instance resides in the upper-left corner.
  3. Click Create Task. On the Create Task wizard, configure the source and destination databases. The following table describes the parameters.

    Section

    Parameter

    Description

    N/A

    Task Name

    The name of the task. DTS automatically assigns a name to the task. We recommend that you specify a descriptive name that makes it easy to identify the task. You do not need to specify a unique task name.

    Source Database

    Select an existing DMS database instance. (Optional. If you have not registered a DMS database instance, ignore this option and configure database settings in the section below.)

    The database instance that you want to use. You can choose whether to select an existing instance based on your business requirements.

    • If you select an existing instance, DTS automatically populates the parameters for the database.

    • If you do not select an existing instance, you must manually configure parameters for the database.

    Database Type

    The type of the source database. Select SQL Server.

    Access Method

    The access method of the source database. Select Alibaba Cloud Instance.

    Instance Region

    The region in which the source ApsaraDB RDS for SQL Server instance resides.

    Replicate Data Across Alibaba Cloud Accounts

    Specifies whether to migrate data across Alibaba Cloud accounts. In this example, No is selected.

    RDS Instance ID

    The ID of the source ApsaraDB RDS for SQL Server instance.

    Database Account

    The database account of the source ApsaraDB RDS for SQL Server instance. For information about the permissions that are required for the account, see the Permissions required for database accounts section of this topic.

    Database Password

    The password of the database account.

    Destination Database

    Select an existing DMS database instance. (Optional. If you have not registered a DMS database instance, ignore this option and configure database settings in the section below.)

    The database instance that you want to use. You can choose whether to select an existing instance based on your business requirements.

    • If you select an existing instance, DTS automatically populates the parameters for the database.

    • If you do not select an existing instance, you must manually configure parameters for the database.

    Database Type

    The type of the destination database. Select AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL.

    Access Method

    The access method of the destination database. Select Alibaba Cloud Instance.

    Instance Region

    The region in which the destination AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL instance resides.

    Instance ID

    The ID of the destination AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL instance.

    Database Name

    The name of the database that is used to receive the objects to be migrated in the destination AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL instance.

    Database Account

    The database account of the destination AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL instance. For information about the permissions that are required for the account, see the Permissions required for database accounts section of this topic.

    Database Password

    The password of the database account.

  4. In the lower part of the page, click Test Connectivity and Proceed.

    If the source or destination database is an Alibaba Cloud database instance, such as an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL or ApsaraDB for MongoDB instance, DTS automatically adds the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the IP address whitelist of the instance. If the source or destination database is a self-managed database hosted on an Elastic Compute Service (ECS) instance, DTS automatically adds the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the security group rules of the ECS instance, and you must make sure that the ECS instance can access the database. If the self-managed database is hosted on multiple ECS instances, you must manually add the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the security group rules of each ECS instance. If the source or destination database is a self-managed database that is deployed in a data center or provided by a third-party cloud service provider, you must manually add the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the IP address whitelist of the database to allow DTS to access the database. For more information, see the "CIDR blocks of DTS servers" section of the Add the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the security settings of on-premises databases topic.

    Warning

    If the public CIDR blocks of DTS servers are automatically or manually added to the IP address whitelist of a database instance or to the security group rules of an ECS instance, security risks may arise. Therefore, before you use DTS to migrate data, you must understand and acknowledge the potential risks and take preventive measures, including but not limited to the following measures: enhancing the security of your account and password, limiting the ports that are exposed, authenticating API calls, regularly checking the IP address whitelist or ECS security group rules and forbidding unauthorized CIDR blocks, and connecting the database to DTS by using Express Connect, VPN Gateway, or Smart Access Gateway.

  5. Configure the objects to be migrated and the advanced settings.

    Parameter

    Description

    Migration Types

    • To perform only full data migration, select Schema Migration and Full Data Migration.

    • To ensure service continuity during data migration, select Schema Migration, Full Data Migration, and Incremental Data Migration.

    Note

    If you do not select Incremental Data Migration, we recommend that you do not write data to the source database during data migration. This ensures data consistency between the source and destination databases.

    SQL Server Incremental Synchronization Mode

    • Log-based Parsing for Non-heap Tables and CDC-based Incremental Synchronization for Heap Tables:

      • Benefits:

        • Supports heap tables, tables without primary keys, compressed tables, and tables with computed columns.

        • Provides higher stability and a variety of complete DDL statements.

      • Limits:

        • DTS creates the trigger named dts_cdc_sync_ddl, the heartbeat table named dts_sync_progress, and the DDL storage table named dts_cdc_ddl_history in the source database, and enables change data capture (CDC) for the source database and specific tables.

        • You cannot execute the SELECT INTO statement on a table for which CDC is enabled in the source database. You cannot manually delete triggers that are created by DTS in the source database.

    • Incremental Synchronization Based on Logs of Source Database:

      • Benefits:

        Does not modify the settings of the source database.

      • Limits:

        Does not support heap tables, tables without primary keys, compressed tables, or tables with computed columns.

    Note

    This parameter is available only if you select Full Data Migration as Migration Types.

    DDL and DML Operations to Be Synchronized

    The SQL operations that you want to migrate at the instance level. For information about the supported SQL operations, see the SQL operations that can be incrementally migrated section of this topic.

    Note

    To select the SQL operations performed on a specific database or table, right-click an object in the Selected Objects section. In the dialog box that appears, select the SQL operations that you want to incrementally migrate.

    Processing Mode of Conflicting Tables

    • Precheck and Report Errors: checks whether the destination database contains tables that have the same names as tables in the source database. If the source and destination databases do not contain tables that have identical table names, the precheck is passed. Otherwise, an error is returned during the precheck and the data migration task cannot be started.

      Note

      You can use the object name mapping feature to rename the tables that are migrated to the destination database. You can use this feature if the source and destination databases contain tables that have identical table names and the tables in the destination database cannot be deleted or renamed. For more information, see Map object names.

    • Ignore Errors and Proceed: skips the precheck for identical table names in the source and destination databases.

      Warning

      If you select Ignore Errors and Proceed, data inconsistency may occur and your business may be exposed to the following potential risks:

      • If the source and destination databases have the same schemas, DTS does not migrate data records that have the same primary key values as data records in the destination database.

      • If the source and destination databases have different schemas, only specific columns are migrated or the data migration task fails. Proceed with caution.

    Capitalization of Object Names in Destination Instance

    The capitalization of database names, table names, and column names in the destination instance. By default, DTS default policy is selected. You can select other options to make sure that the capitalization of object names is consistent with that in the source or destination database. For more information, see Specify the capitalization of object names in the destination instance.

    Source Objects

    Select one or more objects from the Source Objects section and click the 向右小箭头 icon to add the objects to the Selected Objects section.

    Note

    In this scenario, data migration is performed between heterogeneous databases. Therefore, only tables can be migrated. Other objects such as views, triggers, or stored procedures are not migrated to the destination database.

    Selected Objects

    • To rename an object that you want to migrate to the destination instance, right-click the object in the Selected Objects section. For more information, see Map the name of a single object.
    • To rename multiple objects at a time, click Batch Edit in the upper-right corner of the Selected Objects section. For more information, see Map multiple object names at a time.
    Note
    • If you use the object name mapping feature to rename an object, other objects that are dependent on the object may fail to be migrated.

    • To specify WHERE conditions to filter data, right-click a table in the Selected Objects section. In the dialog box that appears, specify the conditions. For more information, see Set filter conditions.

    • To incrementally migrate SQL operations performed on a specific database or table, right-click the object in the Selected Objects section. In the dialog box that appears, select the SQL operations that you want to incrementally migrate. For more information, see the SQL operations that can be incrementally migrated section of this topic.

  6. Click Next: Advanced Settings to configure advanced settings.

    • Data Verification Settings

      For more information about how to configure the data verification feature, see Enable data verification.

    • Advanced Settings

      Parameter

      Description

      Select the dedicated cluster used to schedule the task

      By default, DTS schedules the data migration task to the shared cluster if you do not specify a dedicated cluster. You can also purchase and specify a dedicated cluster of the required specifications to run the data migration task. For more information, see What is a DTS dedicated cluster.

      Set Alerts

      Specifies whether to configure alerting for the data migration task. If the task fails or the migration latency exceeds the specified threshold, the alert contacts will receive notifications. Valid values:

      • No: does not configure alerting.

      • Yes: configures alerting. If you select Yes, you must also specify the alert threshold and alert contacts. For more information, see Configure monitoring and alerting.

      Retry Time for Failed Connections

      The retry time range for failed connections. If the source or destination database fails to be connected after the data migration task is started, DTS immediately retries a connection within the time range. Valid values: 10 to 1440. Unit: minutes. Default value: 720. We recommend that you set the parameter to a value greater than 30. If DTS reconnects to the source and destination databases within the specified time range, DTS resumes the data migration task. Otherwise, the data migration task fails.
      Note
      • If you set different retry time ranges for multiple data migration tasks that have the same source or destination database, the shortest retry time range that is set takes precedence.
      • When DTS retries a connection, you are charged for the DTS instance. We recommend that you specify the retry time range based on your business requirements. You can also release the DTS instance at your earliest opportunity after the source and destination instances are released.

      The wait time before a retry when other issues occur in the source and destination databases.

      The retry time range for other issues. For example, if DDL or DML operations fail to be performed after the data migration task is started, DTS immediately retries the operations within the retry time range. Valid values: 1 to 1440. Unit: minutes. Default value: 10. We recommend that you set the parameter to a value greater than 10. If the failed operations are successfully performed within the specified retry time range, DTS resumes the data migration task. Otherwise, the data migration task fails.

      Important

      The value of the The wait time before a retry when other issues occur in the source and destination databases parameter must be smaller than the value of the Retry Time for Failed Connections parameter.

      Enable Throttling for Full Data Migration

      Specifies whether to enable throttling for full data migration. During full data migration, DTS uses the read and write resources of the source and destination databases. This may increase the loads of the database servers. You can enable throttling for full data migration based on your business requirements. To configure throttling, you must configure the Queries per second (QPS) to the source database, RPS of Full Data Migration, and Data migration speed for full migration (MB/s) parameters. This reduces the loads of the destination database server.

      Note

      This parameter is displayed only when Full Data Migration is selected as Migration Types.

      Enable Throttling for Incremental Data Migration

      Specifies whether to enable throttling for incremental data migration. To configure throttling, you must configure the RPS of Incremental Data Migration and Data migration speed for incremental migration (MB/s) parameters. This reduces the loads of the destination database server.

      Note

      This parameter is displayed only when Incremental Data Migration is selected as Migration Types.

      Environment Tag

      The environment tag that is used to identify the DTS instance. You can select an environment tag based on your business requirements. In this example, no environment tag is selected.

      Enclose Object Names in Quotation Marks

      Specify whether to enclose object names in quotation marks.

      • If you select Yes, DTS automatically encloses the names of schemas, tables, and columns that meet specific requirements in single quotation marks (') or double quotation marks (") during schema migration and incremental data migration in the following scenarios:

        • The business environment of the source database is case-sensitive, and the database name contains both uppercase and lowercase letters.

        • A source table name does not start with a letter and contains characters other than letters, digits, and special characters.

          Note

          A source table name can contain only the following special characters: underscores (_), number signs (#), and dollar signs ($).

        • The names of the schemas, tables, or columns that you want to migrate are keywords, reserved keywords, or invalid characters in the destination database.

      • If you select No, DTS does not enclose object names in quotation marks.

      Configure ETL

      Specifies whether to configure the extract, transform, and load (ETL) feature. For more information, see What is ETL?. Valid values:
  7. Optional. Click Next: Configure Database and Table Fields to configure the Type, Primary Key Column, and Distribution Key parameters for the tables that you want to migrate to the AnalyticDB for PostgreSQL instance.

    Note
    • This step is available only if you select Schema Migration as Migration Types when you configure the objects to be migrated for the task. You can set the Definition Status parameter to All and modify the database and table fields.

    • In the Primary Key Column field, you can specify multiple columns to form a composite primary key. In this case, you must specify one or more Primary Key Column as the Distribution Key columns. For more information, see Manage tables and Define table distribution.

  8. In the lower part of the page, click Next: Save Task Settings and Precheck.

    You can move the pointer over Next: Save Task Settings and Precheck and click Preview OpenAPI parameters to view the parameters to be specified when you call the relevant API operation to configure the DTS task.

    Note
    • Before you can start the data migration task, DTS performs a precheck. You can start the data migration task only after the task passes the precheck.

    • If the task fails to pass the precheck, click View Details next to each failed item. After you troubleshoot the issues based on the error message, you can run a precheck again.

    • If an alert is triggered for an item during the precheck:

      • If the alert item cannot be ignored, click View Details next to the failed item and troubleshoot the issues. Then, run a precheck again.

      • If the alert item can be ignored, click Confirm Alert Details. In the View Details dialog box, click Ignore. In the message that appears, click OK. Then, click Precheck Again to run a precheck again. If you ignore the alert item, data inconsistency may occur and your business may be exposed to potential risks.

  9. Wait until the success rate becomes 100%. Then, click Next: Purchase Instance.

  10. On the Purchase Instance page, configure the Instance Class parameter for the data migration instance. The following table describes the parameters.

    Section

    Parameter

    Description

    New Instance Class

    Resource Group

    The resource group to which the data migration instance belongs. Default value: default resource group. For more information, see What is Resource Management?

    Instance Class

    DTS provides instance classes that vary in the migration speed. You can select an instance class based on your business scenario. For more information, see Specifications of data migration instances.

  11. Read and agree to Data Transmission Service (Pay-as-you-go) Service Terms by selecting the check box.

  12. Click Buy and Start to start the data migration task. You can view the progress of the task in the task list.