This topic describes how to synchronize data from a self-managed PostgreSQL database to an ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance by using Data Transmission Service (DTS).

Prerequisites

  • A self-managed PostgreSQL database and an ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance are created. For information about how to create the destination ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance, see Create an ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance. For information about the supported database versions, see Overview of data synchronization scenarios.
    Note To ensure compatibility, the version of the destination database must be the same as or later than the version of the source database.

    If the version of the destination database is earlier than the version of the source database, database compatibility issues may occur.

  • The available storage space of the destination ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance is larger than the total size of the data in the self-managed PostgreSQL database.

Limits

Note By default, DTS disables FOREIGN KEY constraints for the destination database in a data synchronization task. Therefore, the cascade and delete operations of the source database are not synchronized to the destination database.
Category Description
Limits on the source database
  • The tables to be synchronized must have PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraints, and all fields must be unique. Otherwise, the destination database may contain duplicate data records.
  • If you select tables as the objects to be synchronized and you want to edit tables (such as renaming tables or columns), up to 1,000 tables can be synchronized in a single data synchronization task. If you run a task to be synchronized more than 1,000 tables, a request error occurs. In this case, we recommend that you split the tables and configure multiple tasks to synchronize the tables, or configure a task to synchronize the entire database.
  • The following requirements for write-ahead logging (WAL) logs must be met:
    • The value of the wal_level parameter must be set to logical.
    • If you perform only incremental data synchronization, the WAL logs of the source database must be stored for more than 24 hours. If you perform both full data synchronization and incremental data synchronization, the WAL logs of the source database must be stored for at least seven days. After full data synchronization is completed, you can set the retention period to more than 24 hours. Otherwise, DTS may fail to obtain the WAL logs and the task may fail. In exceptional circumstances, data inconsistency or loss may occur. Make sure that you set the retention period of WAL logs based on the preceding requirements. Otherwise, the Service Level Agreement (SLA) of DTS does not guarantee service reliability or performance.

  • If you perform a primary/secondary switchover on a self-managed PostgreSQL database, the data synchronization task fails.
Other limits
  • A single data synchronization task can synchronize data from only one database. To synchronize data from multiple databases, you must create a data synchronization task for each database.
  • If the schema is selected as the object to be synchronized, you must execute the ALTER TABLE schema.table REPLICA IDENTITY FULL;statement in the destination table before the data synchronization starts. This ensures data consistency. When you execute this statement, we recommend that you do not lock the table. Otherwise, a deadlock occurs.
    Note
    • Replace the schema and table in the preceding sample statement with the actual schema name and table name.
    • We recommend that you perform this operation during off-peak hours.
  • DTS does not check the validity of metadata such as sequences. You must manually check the validity of metadata.
  • After your workloads are switched to the destination database, newly written sequences do not increment from the maximum value of the sequences in the source database. Therefore, you must query the maximum value of the sequences in the source database before you switch your workloads to the destination database. Then, you must specify the queried maximum value as the starting value of the sequences in the destination database. You can run the following statements to query the maximum value of the sequences in the source database:
    do language plpgsql $$
    declare
      nsp name;
      rel name;
      val int8;
    begin
      for nsp,rel in select nspname,relname from pg_class t2 , pg_namespace t3 where t2.relnamespace=t3.oid and t2.relkind='S'
      loop
        execute format($_$select last_value from %I.%I$_$, nsp, rel) into val;
        raise notice '%',
        format($_$select setval('%I.%I'::regclass, %s);$_$, nsp, rel, val+1);
      end loop;
    end;
    $$;
  • DTS creates the following temporary tables in the source database to obtain the DDL statements of incremental data, the schemas of incremental tables, and the heartbeat information. During data synchronization, do not delete temporary tables in the source database. Otherwise, exceptions occur. After the DTS instance is released, temporary tables are automatically deleted.

    public.DTS_PG_CLASS, public.DTS_PG_ATTRIBUTE, public.DTS_PG_TYPE, public.DTS_PG_ENUM, public.DTS_POSTGRES_HEARTBEAT, public.DTS_DDL_COMMAND, and public.DTS_ARGS_SESSION.

  • To ensure that the latency of data synchronization is accurate, DTS adds a heartbeat table to the source database. The name of the heartbeat table is dts_postgres_heartbeat.
  • During data synchronization, DTS creates a replication slot for the source database. The replication slot is prefixed with dts_sync_. DTS automatically clears historical replication slots every 90 minutes to reduce storage usage.
    Note If the data synchronization task is released or fails, DTS automatically clears the replication slot. If a primary/secondary switchover is performed on the source ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance, you must log on to the secondary database to clear the replication slot.
    Replication slot information
  • Before you synchronize data, evaluate the impact of data synchronization on the performance of the source and destination databases. We recommend that you synchronize data during off-peak hours. During full data synchronization, DTS uses read and write resources of the source and destination databases. This may increase the loads of the database servers.
  • During full data synchronization, concurrent INSERT operations cause fragmentation in the tables of the destination database. Therefore, after full data synchronization is completed, the size of the used tablespace of the destination database is larger than that of the source database.
  • We recommend that you do not use gh-ost or pt-online-schema-change to perform DDL operations on source tables during data synchronization. Otherwise, data synchronization may fail.
  • If you use only DTS to write data to the destination database, you can use DMS to perform online DDL operations on source tables during data synchronization. For more information, see Change schemas without locking tables.
  • During data synchronization, we recommend that you use only DTS to write data to the destination database. This prevents data inconsistency between the source and destination databases. If you use tools other than DTS to write data to the destination database, data loss may occur in the destination database when you use DMS to perform online DDL operations.
  • If you perform both full data synchronization and incremental data synchronization and the tables to be synchronized in the source database contain foreign keys, triggers, or event triggers (PostgreSQL V11.5 and later), the session_replication_role parameter in the destination database must be set to replica. After the data synchronization task is released, you can change the value of the session_replication_role parameter back to origin.

Billing

Synchronization type Task configuration fee
Schema synchronization and full data synchronization Free of charge.
Incremental data synchronization Charged. For more information, see Pricing.

Supported synchronization topologies

  • One-way one-to-one synchronization
  • One-way one-to-many synchronization
  • One-way cascade synchronization
  • One-way many-to-one synchronization

For more information about synchronization topologies, see Synchronization topologies.

SQL operations that can be synchronized

Operation type SQL statement
DML INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE

Permissions required for database accounts

Database Required permissions References
Self-managed PostgreSQL database The permissions of the superuser role CREATE USER and GRANT
ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance The permissions of the schema owner ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance: Create an account on an ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance

Before you begin

If the version of the self-managed PostgreSQL database is 9.4.8 to 10.0, you must perform the following operations before you configure a data synchronization task.
  1. Download the PostgreSQL source code from the official website, and compile and install the source code.
    1. Download the source code from the PostgreSQL official website based on the version of the self-managed PostgreSQL database.
    2. Run the ./configure, make, and make install commands in sequence to configure, compile, and install the source code.
      Notice
      • When you compile and install PostgreSQL, the operating system version of PostgreSQL must be consistent with the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) version.
      • If an error occurs when you run the ./configure command, you can adjust the command based on the error message. For example, if the error message is readline library not found. Use --without-readline to disable readline support., you can change the command to ./configure --without-readline.
      • If you use other methods to install PostgreSQL, you must compile the ali_decoding plug-in in a test environment that has the same OS version and GCC version.
  2. Download the ali_decoding plug-in provided by DTS, and compile and install the plug-in.
    1. Download ali_decoding.
    2. Copy the ali_decoding directory to the contrib directory of PostgreSQL (compiled and installed).
      contrib directory
    3. Go to the ali_decoding directory and replace the content of the Makefile file with the following script:
      # contrib/ali_decoding/Makefile
      MODULE_big = ali_decoding
      MODULES = ali_decoding
      OBJS    = ali_decoding.o
      
      DATA = ali_decoding--0.0.1.sql ali_decoding--unpackaged--0.0.1.sql
      
      EXTENSION = ali_decoding
      
      NAME = ali_decoding
      
      #subdir = contrib/ali_decoding
      #top_builddir = ../..
      #include $(top_builddir)/src/Makefile.global
      #include $(top_srcdir)/contrib/contrib-global.mk
      
      #PG_CONFIG = /usr/pgsql-9.6/bin/pg_config
      #pgsql_lib_dir := $(shell $(PG_CONFIG) --libdir)
      #PGXS := $(shell $(PG_CONFIG) --pgxs)
      #include $(PGXS)
      
      # Run the following commands to install the source code.
      ifdef USE_PGXS
      PG_CONFIG = pg_config
      PGXS := $(shell $(PG_CONFIG) --pgxs)
      include $(PGXS)
      else
      subdir = contrib/ali_decoding
      top_builddir = ../..
      include $(top_builddir)/src/Makefile.global
      include $(top_srcdir)/contrib/contrib-global.mk
      endif
    4. Go to the ali_decoding directory, run the make and make install commands in sequence to compile ali_decoding and obtain the files required to install ali_decoding.
    5. Copy the following files to the specified location.
      Specify a location
  3. Create a database and schema in the destination ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance based on the database and schema information of the objects to be synchronized. The schema name of the source and destination databases must be the same. For more information, see Create a database on an ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance and Appendix: User and schema management.
If the version of the self-managed PostgreSQL database is 10.1 to 13, you must perform the following operations before you configure a data synchronization task.
  1. Log on to the server where the self-managed PostgreSQL database resides.
  2. Set the value of the wal_level parameter in the postgresql.conf configuration file to logical.
    Set the wal_level parameter
  3. Add the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the pg_hba.conf configuration file of the self-managed PostgreSQL database. Add only the CIDR blocks of the DTS servers that reside in the same region as the destination database. For more information, see Add the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the security settings of on-premises databases.
    Note For more information, see The pg_hba.conf File. Skip this step if you have set the IP address in the pg_hba.conf file to 0.0.0.0/0.
  4. Create a database and schema in the destination ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance based on the database and schema information of the objects to be synchronized. The schema name of the source and destination databases must be the same. For more information, see Create a database on an ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance and Appendix: User and schema management.

Procedure

  1. Go to the Data Synchronization page of the new DTS console.
    Note You can also log on to the Data Management console. In the top navigation bar, click DTS. Then, in the left-side navigation pane, choose DTS (DTS) > Data Synchronization.
  2. In the upper-left corner of the page, select the region where the data synchronization instance resides.
    Region
  3. Click Create Task. On the page that appears, configure the source and destination databases.
    Warning After you select the source and destination instances, we recommend that you read the Limits displayed in the upper part of the page. This ensures that you create and run the data synchronization task.
    Configure the source and destination databases
    Section Parameter Description
    N/A Task Name

    The task name that DTS automatically generates. We recommend that you specify a descriptive name that makes it easy to identify the task. You do not need to use a unique task name.

    Source Database
    Database Type Select PostgreSQL.
    Access Method Select Cloud Enterprise Network (CEN).
    Instance Region Select the region where the self-managed PostgreSQL database resides.
    CEN Instance ID Select the ID of the CEN instance that hosts the self-managed PostgreSQL database.
    Connected VPC Select the virtual private cloud (VPC) that is connected to the self-managed PostgreSQL database.
    IP Address Enter the server IP address of the self-managed PostgreSQL database.
    Port Number Enter the service port number of the self-managed PostgreSQL database. The default port number is 5432.
    Database Name Enter the name of the self-managed PostgreSQL database.
    Database Account Enter the account that is used to log on to the self-managed PostgreSQL database. For information about the permissions that are required for the account, see Permissions required for database accounts.
    Database Password

    The password of the database account.

    Destination Database
    Database Type Select PostgreSQL.
    Access Method Select Alibaba Cloud Instance.
    Instance Region Select the region in which the destination ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance resides.
    Instance ID Select the ID of the destination ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance.
    Database Name Enter the name of the destination database in the destination ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance.
    Database Account Enter the database account of the destination ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance. For information about the permissions that are required for the account, see Permissions required for database accounts.
    Database Password

    The password of the database account.

  4. In the lower part of the page, click Test Connectivity and Proceed.
    Note
    • You do not need to modify the security settings for ApsaraDB instances (such as ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL and ApsaraDB for MongoDB) and ECS-hosted databases. DTS automatically adds the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the whitelists of ApsaraDB instances or the security group rules of ECS instances. For more information, see Add the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the security settings of on-premises databases.
    • After data synchronization is complete, we recommend that you remove the CIDR blocks of DTS servers from the whitelists or security groups.
  5. Select the objects to migrate.
    • Basic SettingsBasic Settings
      Parameter Description
      Task Stages

      Incremental Data Synchronization is selected by default. You must also select Schema Synchronization and Full Data Synchronization. After the precheck is complete, DTS synchronizes the historical data of selected objects from the source instance to the destination cluster. The historical data is the basis for subsequent incremental synchronization.

      Processing Mode of Conflicting Tables
      • Precheck and Report Errors: checks whether the destination database contains tables that have the same names as tables in the source database. If the source and destination databases do not contain identical table names, the precheck is passed. Otherwise, an error is returned during the precheck and the data synchronization task cannot be started.

        Note You can use the object name mapping feature to rename the tables that are migrated to the destination database. You can use this feature if the source and destination databases contain identical table names and the tables in the destination database cannot be deleted or renamed. For more information, see Map object names.
      • Ignore Errors and Proceed: skips the precheck for identical table names in the source and destination databases.
        Warning If you select Ignore Errors and Proceed, data inconsistency may occur and your business may be exposed to potential risks.
        • If the source and destination databases have the same schema, and a data record has the same primary key as an existing data record in the destination database:
          • During full data synchronization, DTS does not synchronize the data record to the destination database. The existing data record in the destination database is retained.
          • During incremental data synchronization, DTS synchronizes the data record to the destination database. The existing data record in the destination database is overwritten.
        • If the source and destination databases have different schemas, initial data synchronization may fail. In this case, only part of the columns are synchronized, or the data synchronization task fails.
      Synchronization Topology

      Select One-way Synchronization.

      Select Objects

      Select one or more objects from the Source Objects section and click the Rightwards arrow icon to add the objects to the Selected Objects section.

      Note You can select columns, tables, or schemas as objects to synchronize.
      Rename Databases and Tables
      • To rename an object in the destination instance, right-click the object in the Selected Objects section. For more information, see Map the name of a single object.
      • To rename multiple objects at a time in the destination instance, click Batch Edit in the upper-right corner of the Selected Objects section. For more information, see Map multiple object names at a time.
      Filter data

      You can specify WHERE conditions to filter data. For more information, see Use SQL conditions to filter data.

      Select the SQL operations to be synchronized In the Selected Objects section, right-click an object. In the dialog box that appears, select the SQL operations that you want to synchronize. For more information, see SQL operations that can be synchronized.
    • Advanced SettingsAdvanced Settings
      Parameter Description
      Set Alerts
      Specifies whether to set alerts for the data synchronization task. If you select yes, DTS sends notifications to contacts if the task fails or the synchronization latency exceeds the upper limit.
      • No: does not set alerts.
      • Yes: sets alerts. In this case, you must also set the alert threshold and alert contacts.
      Capitalization of Object Names in Destination Instance

      Specifies the capitalization of database names, table names, and column names in the destination instance. By default, DTS default policy is selected. You can select other options to make sure that the capitalization of object names is consistent with that of the source or destination database. For more information,see Specify the capitalization of object names in the destination instance.

      Retry Time for Failed Connection
      Specifies the retry time range for failed connections. Valid values: 10 to 1440. Unit: minutes. Default value: 120. We recommend that you set the retry time range to more than 30 minutes. If DTS reconnects to the source and destination databases within the specified time range, DTS resumes the data synchronization task. Otherwise, the data synchronization task fails.
      Note
      • If an instance serves as the source or destination database of multiple data synchronization tasks, the less value that is specified for the instance takes precedence.
      • When DTS retries a connection, you are charged for the DTS instance. We recommend that you specify the retry time range based on your business needs. You can also release the DTS instance at your earliest opportunity after the source and destination instances are released.
  6. Click Next: Save Task Settings and Precheck in the lower part of the page.
    Note
    • Before you can start the data synchronization task, DTS performs a precheck. You can start the data synchronization task only after the task passes the precheck.
    • If the task fails to pass the precheck, you can click the Info icon icon next to each failed item to view details.
      • After you troubleshoot the issues based on the causes, you can run a precheck again.
      • If you do not need to troubleshoot the issues, you can ignore failed items and run a precheck again.
  7. Wait until the Success Rate becomes 100%. Then, click Next: Purchase Instance.
  8. On the Purchase Instance page, specify the billing method and specifications for the data synchronization instance. The following table describes related parameters.
    Section Parameter Description
    Parameters Billing method
    • Subscription: You pay for your subscription when you create an instance. The subscription billing method is more cost-effective than the pay-as-you-go billing method for long-term use.
    • Pay-as-you-go: A pay-as-you-go instance is billed on an hourly basis. For short-term use, we recommend that you select the pay-as-you-go billing method. If you no longer need a pay-as-you-go instance, you can release the instance to reduce costs.
    Instance Class DTS provides several instance classes that have different performance in synchronization speed. You can select an instance class based on your business scenario. For more information, see Specifications of data synchronization instances.
    Subscription Duration If you select the subscription billing method, set the subscription duration and the number of instances that you want to create. The subscription duration can be one to nine months or one to three years.
    Note This parameter is available only if you select the subscription billing method.
  9. Read and select Data Transmission Service (Pay-as-you-go) Service Terms.
  10. Click Buy and Start to start the data synchronization task. You can view the progress of the task in the task list.