Alibaba Cloud Elasticsearch is compatible with open source Elasticsearch features such as Security, Machine Learning, Graph, and Application Performance Management (APM). Alibaba Cloud Elasticsearch provides capabilities such as enterprise-level access control, security monitoring and alerts, and automatic report generation. You can use Alibaba Cloud Elasticsearch to search and analyze data. This topic describes how to synchronize data from a self-managed MySQL database that is hosted on Elastic Compute Service (ECS) to an Elasticsearch cluster by using Data Transmission Service (DTS).
- An Elasticsearch cluster of version 5.5, 5.6, 6.3, 6.7, or 7.4 is created. For more information, see Create an Elasticsearch cluster.
- The version of the self-managed MySQL database is 5.1, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, or 8.0.
- DTS uses read and write resources of the source and destination databases during initial full data synchronization. This may increase the loads of the database servers. If the database performance is unfavorable, the specification is low, or the data volume is large, database services may become unavailable. For example, DTS occupies a large amount of read and write resources in the following cases: a large number of slow SQL queries are performed on the source database, the tables have no primary keys, or a deadlock occurs in the destination database. Before you synchronize data, evaluate the impact of data synchronization on the performance of the source and destination databases. We recommend that you synchronize data during off-peak hours. For example, you can synchronize data when the CPU utilization of the source and destination databases is less than 30%.
- DTS does not synchronize data definition language (DDL) operations. If a DDL operation is performed on a table in the source database during data synchronization, you must perform the following steps: Remove the table from the required objects, remove the index for the table from the Elasticsearch cluster, and then add the table to the required objects. For more information, see Remove an object from a data synchronization task and Add an object to a data synchronization task.
- To add columns to the table that you want to synchronize, perform the following steps: Modify the mapping of the table in the Elasticsearch cluster, perform DDL operations in the source MySQL database, and then pause and start the data synchronization task.
SQL operations that can be synchronized
INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE
Data type conversion
The data types of MySQL databases and Elasticsearch clusters do not have one-to-one correspondence. During initial schema synchronization, DTS converts the data types of the source database into the data types of the destination database. For more information, see Data type mappings for schema synchronization.
Before you beginCreate an account for a user-created MySQL database and configure binary logging
- Purchase a data synchronization instance. For more information, see Purchase a DTS instance. Note On the buy page, set Source Instance to MySQL, set Target Instance to Elasticsearch, and set Synchronization Topology to One-Way Synchronization.
- Log on to the DTS console.
- In the left-side navigation pane, click Data Synchronization.
- At the top of the Synchronization Tasks page, select the region where the destination instance resides.
- Find the data synchronization instance and click Configure Synchronization Channel in the Actions column.
- Configure the source and destination instances.
Section Parameter Description N/A Synchronization Task Name DTS automatically generates a task name. We recommend that you specify an informative name for easy identification. You do not need to use a unique task name. Source Instance Details Instance Type Select User-Created Database in ECS Instance. Instance Region The source region that you selected on the buy page. You cannot change the value of this parameter. ECS Instance ID Select the ID of the ECS instance that hosts the self-managed MySQL database. Database Type The value of this parameter is set to MySQL and cannot be changed. Port Number Enter the service port number of the self-managed MySQL database. Database Account Enter the account of the self-managed MySQL database.Note The database account must have the SELECT permission on the objects to be synchronized, the REPLICATION CLIENT permission, the REPLICATION SLAVE permission, and the SHOW VIEW permission. Database Password Enter the password of the source database account. Destination Instance Details Instance Type The value of this parameter is set to Elasticsearch and cannot be changed. Instance Region The destination region that you selected on the buy page. You cannot change the value of this parameter. Elasticsearch Select the ID of the Elasticsearch cluster. Database Account Enter the account that is used to connect to the Elasticsearch cluster. The default account is elastic. Database Password Enter the password of the destination database account.
- In the lower-right corner of the page, click Set Whitelist and Next. Note DTS adds the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the inbound rule of the ECS instance and the whitelist of the Elasticsearch cluster. This ensures that DTS servers can connect to the source instance and the destination cluster.
- Configure the index name, the processing mode of identical index names, and the objects
to be synchronized.
Parameter Description Index Name
- Table Name
If you select Table Name, the name of the index that is created in the Elasticsearch cluster is the same as the name of the table. In this example, the index name is customer.
If you select DatabaseName_TableName, the name of the index that is created in the Elasticsearch cluster is <Database name>_<Table name>. In this example, the index name is dtstestdata_customer.
Processing Mode In Existed Target Table
- Pre-check and Intercept: checks whether the destination database contains indexes that have the same names
as the source tables. If the destination database does not contain indexes that have
the same names as the source tables, the precheck is passed. Otherwise, an error is
returned during precheck and the data synchronization task cannot be started.
Note If indexes in the destination database have the same names as the source tables, and cannot be deleted or renamed, you can use the object name mapping feature. For more information, see Rename an object to be synchronized.
- Ignore: skips the precheck for identical index names in the source and destination databases.
Warning If you select Ignore, data consistency is not guaranteed and your business may be exposed to potential risks.
- If the source and destination databases have the same mappings and the primary key of a record in the destination database is the same as that in the source database, the record remains unchanged during initial data synchronization. However, the record is overwritten during incremental data synchronization.
- If the source and destination databases have different mappings, initial data synchronization may fail. In this case, only some columns are synchronized or the data synchronization task fails.
Select the objects to be synchronized
Select one or more objects from the Available section and click the icon to move the objects to the Selected section.
You can select tables or databases as the objects to be synchronized.
Rename Databases and Tables
You can use the object name mapping feature to rename the objects that are synchronized to the destination instance. For more information, see Object name mapping.
Replicate Temporary Tables When DMS Performs DDL OperationsIf you use Data Management (DMS) to perform online DDL operations on the source database, you can specify whether to synchronize temporary tables generated by online DDL operations.
- Yes: DTS synchronizes the data of temporary tables generated by online DDL operations.
Note If online DDL operations generate a large amount of data, the data synchronization task may be delayed.
- No: DTS does not synchronize the data of temporary tables generated by online DDL operations.
Only the original DDL data of the source database is synchronized.
Note If you select No, the tables in the destination database may be locked.
Retry Time for Failed ConnectionsBy default, if DTS fails to connect to the source or destination database, DTS retries within the next 720 minutes (12 hours). You can specify the retry time based on your needs. If DTS reconnects to the source and destination databases within the specified time, DTS resumes the data synchronization task. Otherwise, the data synchronization task fails.Note When DTS retries a connection, you are charged for the DTS instance. We recommend that you specify the retry time based on your business needs. You can also release the DTS instance at your earliest opportunity after the source and destination instances are released.
- Table Name
- In the Selected section, move the pointer over a table, and then click Edit. In the Edit Table dialog box, configure parameters for the table in the Elasticsearch
cluster, such as the index name and type name.
Parameter Description Index Name For more information, see Terms.Warning
- The only type of special characters that an index name and type name can contain is underscore (_).
- To synchronize multiple source tables with the same schema to a destination object, you must repeat this step to set the same index name and type name for the tables.
Type Name Filter Specify SQL conditions to filter data. Only the data records that meet the specified conditions are synchronized to the destination cluster. For more information, see Use SQL conditions to filter data. IsPartition Select whether to set partitions. If you select Yes, you must also specify the partition key column and number of partitions. Settings_routing Specify whether you want to store a document on a specified shard of the destination Elasticsearch cluster. For more information, see _routing.
Note If the version of the destination Elasticsearch cluster is 7.4, you must select No.
- If you select Yes, you can specify custom columns for routing.
- If you select No, the _id value is used for routing.
- Primary key column
Composite primary key fields are merged into one column.
- Business key
If you select a business key, you must also specify the business key column.
add param Select the column parameter and parameter value. For more information, see Mapping parameters in the Elasticsearch documentation.Note DTS supports only the parameters that can be selected.
- In the lower-right corner of the page, click Precheck. Note
- Before you can start the data synchronization task, DTS performs a precheck. You can start the data synchronization task only after the task passes the precheck.
- If the task fails to pass the precheck, you can click the icon next to each failed item to view details.
- You can troubleshoot the issues based on the causes and run a precheck again.
- If you do not need to troubleshoot the issues, you can ignore failed items and run a precheck again.
- Close the Precheck dialog box after the following message is displayed: The precheck is passed. Then, the data synchronization task starts.
- Wait until the initial synchronization is complete and the data synchronization task
is in the Synchronizing state. You can view the status of the data synchronization task on the Synchronization Tasks page.
Check the index and data
If the data synchronization task is in the Synchronizing state, you can connect to the Elasticsearch cluster by using the Elasticsearch-Head plug-in. Then, you can check whether the index is created and data is synchronized as expected. For more information, see Use Cerebro to access an Elasticsearch cluster.