This topic describes how to synchronize data from a PolarDB for MySQL cluster to a PolarDB-X V2.0 2.0 instance by using Data Transmission Service (DTS).

Prerequisites

  • A source PolarDB for MySQL cluster is created. For more information, see Purchase a pay-as-you-go cluster and Purchase a subscription cluster.
  • A PolarDB-X V2.0 2.0 instance is created and its storage type is MySQL 5.x.
  • The available storage space of the PolarDB-X V2.0 2.0 instance is larger than the total size of the data in the PolarDB for MySQL cluster.

Limits

Note By default, DTS disables FOREIGN KEY constraints for the destination database in a data synchronization task. Therefore, specific operations of the source database are not synchronized to the destination database, such as the cascade and delete operations.
Category Description
Limits on the source database
  • The tables to be synchronized must have PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraints and all fields must be unique. Otherwise, the destination database may contain duplicate data records.
  • If you select tables as the objects to be synchronized and you need to edit the tables, such as renaming tables or columns, in the destination database, you can synchronize up to 1,000 tables in a single data synchronization task. If you run a task to synchronize more than 1,000 tables, a request error occurs. In this case, we recommend that you configure multiple tasks to synchronize the tables in batches or configure a task to synchronize the entire database.
  • The following requirements for binary logs must be met:
    • The binary logging feature must be enabled. The value of the loose_polar_log_bin parameter must be set to on. Otherwise, error messages are returned during precheck and the data synchronization task cannot be started.
    • For an incremental data synchronization task, the binary logs of the source database are retained for at least 24 hours. For a full data and incremental data synchronization task, the binary logs of the source database are retained for at least seven days. Otherwise, DTS may fail to obtain the binary logs and the task may fail. In exceptional circumstances, data inconsistency or loss may occur. After full data synchronization is complete, you can set the retention period to more than 24 hours. Make sure that you set the retention period of binary logs based on the preceding requirements. Otherwise, the Service Level Agreement (SLA) of DTS does not ensure service reliability and performance.

Other limits
  • Requirements for the objects to be synchronized:
    • DTS does not synchronize the following data types: BIT, VARBIT, GEOMETRY, ARRAY, UUID, TSQUERY, TSVECTOR, and TXID_SNAPSHOT.
    • Prefix indexes cannot be synchronized. If the source database contains prefix indexes, data may fail to be synchronized.
    • Read-only nodes of the source PolarDB for MySQL cluster cannot be synchronized.
  • Schema synchronization is not supported. Before you configure a data synchronization task, you must create databases and tables in the destination instance based on the databases and tables that you want to synchronize.
  • Before you synchronize data, evaluate the impact of data synchronization on the performance of the source and destination databases. We recommend that you synchronize data during off-peak hours. During full data synchronization, DTS uses read and write resources of the source and destination databases. This may increase the loads on the database servers.
  • During full data synchronization, concurrent INSERT operations cause fragmentation in the tables of the destination database. After full data synchronization is complete, the tablespace of the destination database is larger than that of the source database.
  • We recommend that you do not use gh-ost or pt-online-schema-change to perform DDL operations on source tables during data synchronization. Otherwise, data synchronization may fail.
  • If you use only DTS to write data to the destination database, you can use Data Management (DMS) to perform online DDL operations on source tables during data synchronization. For more information, see Perform lock-free operations.
  • During data synchronization, we recommend that you use only DTS to write data to the destination database. This prevents data inconsistency between the source and destination databases. For example, if you use tools other than DTS to write data to the destination database, data loss may occur in the destination database when you use DMS to perform online DDL operations.
Usage notes DTS executes the CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `test` statement in the source database as scheduled to move forward the binary log file position.

Billing

Synchronization type Task configuration fee
Schema synchronization and full data synchronization Free of charge.
Incremental data synchronization Charged. For more information, see Pricing.

Supported synchronization topologies

  • One-way one-to-one synchronization
  • One-way many-to-one synchronization

SQL operations that can be synchronized

Operation type SQL statement
DML INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE
DDL
  • ALTER TABLE and ALTER VIEW
  • CREATE FUNCTION, CREATE INDEX, CREATE PROCEDURE, CREATE TABLE, and CREATE VIEW
  • DROP INDEX and DROP TABLE
  • RENAME TABLE
  • TRUNCATE TABLE

Procedure

  1. Go to the Data Synchronization page of the new DTS console.
    Note You can also log on to the Data Management console. In the top navigation bar, click DTS. Then, in the left-side navigation pane, choose DTS (DTS) > Data Synchronization.
  2. In the top navigation bar, select the region where the data synchronization instance resides.
    Region
  3. Click Create Task. On the page that appears, configure the source and destination databases.
    Warning After you select the source and destination instances, we recommend that you read the limits displayed at the top of the page. This helps you create and run the data synchronization task.
    Section Parameter Description
    N/A Task Name

    DTS automatically generates a task name. We recommend that you specify an informative name to identify the task. You do not need to use a unique task name.

    Source Database Database Type Select PolarDB for MySQL.
    Access Method Select Alibaba Cloud Instance.
    Instance Region Select the region in which the source PolarDB for MySQL cluster resides.
    PolarDB Cluster ID Select the ID of the source PolarDB for MySQL cluster.
    Database Account Enter the database account of the source PolarDB for MySQL cluster. The account must have the read permissions on the objects to be synchronized.
    Database Password

    Enter the password of the database account.

    Destination Database Database Type Select PolarDB-X 2.0.
    Access Method Select Alibaba Cloud Instance.
    Instance Region Select the region in which the destination PolarDB-X V2.0 2.0 instance resides.
    Instance ID Select the ID of the destination PolarDB-X V2.0 2.0 instance.
    Database Account Enter the database account of the destination PolarDB-X V2.0 2.0 instance. The account must have read and write permissions.
    Database Password

    Enter the password of the database account.

  4. In the lower part of the page, click Test Connectivity and Proceed.
    Note
    • You do not need to modify the security settings for ApsaraDB instances (such as ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL and ApsaraDB for MongoDB) and ECS-hosted databases. DTS automatically adds the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the whitelists of ApsaraDB instances or the security group rules of Elastic Compute Service (ECS) instances. For more information, see Add the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the security settings of on-premises databases.
    • After data synchronization is completed, we recommend that you remove the CIDR blocks of DTS servers from the whitelists or security groups.
  5. Select objects for the task and configure advanced settings.
    • Basic SettingsBasic Settings
      Parameter or setting Description
      Task Stages

      Incremental Data Synchronization is selected by default. You can select only Full Data Synchronization. You cannot select Schema Synchronization. After the precheck, DTS synchronizes the historical data of the selected objects from the source instance to the destination cluster. The historical data is the basis for subsequent incremental synchronization.

      Processing Mode of Conflicting Tables
      • Precheck and Report Errors: checks whether the destination database contains tables that have the same names as tables in the source database. If the source and destination databases do not contain identical table names, the precheck is passed. Otherwise, an error is returned during the precheck and the data synchronization task cannot be started.

        Note You can use the object name mapping feature to rename the tables that are synchronized to the destination database. You can use this feature if the source and destination databases contain identical table names and the tables in the destination database cannot be deleted or renamed. For more information, see Map object names.
      • Ignore Errors and Proceed: skips the precheck for identical table names in the source and destination databases.
        Warning If you select Ignore Errors and Proceed, data consistency is not guaranteed and your business may be exposed to potential risks.
        • If the source and destination databases have the same schema, and a data record has the same primary key as an existing data record in the destination database:
          • During full data synchronization, DTS does not synchronize the data record to the destination database. The existing data record in the destination database is retained.
          • During incremental data synchronization, DTS synchronizes the data record to the destination database. The existing data record in the destination database is overwritten.
        • If the source and destination databases have different schemas, data may fail to be initialized. In this case, only some columns are synchronized or the data synchronization task fails.
      Select Objects

      Select one or more objects from the Source Objects section and click the Rightwards arrow icon to add the objects to the Selected Objects section.

      Note You can select columns, tables, or databases as the objects to be synchronized. If you select tables or columns as the objects to be synchronized, DTS does not synchronize other objects such as views, triggers, and stored procedures to the destination database.
      Rename Databases and Tables
      • To rename an object that you want to synchronize to the destination instance, right-click the object in the Selected Objects section. For more information, see Map the name of a single object.
      • To rename multiple objects at a time, click Batch Edit in the upper-right corner of the Selected Objects section. For more information, see Map multiple object names at a time.
      Filter data

      You can specify WHERE conditions to filter data. For more information, see Use SQL conditions to filter data.

      Select the SQL operations to be synchronized In the Selected Objects section, right-click an object. In the dialog box that appears, select the DML operations to be synchronized. For more information, see SQL operations that can be synchronized.
    • Advanced SettingsAdvanced Settings
      Parameter Description
      Set Alerts
      Specify whether to set alerts for the data synchronization task. If the task fails or the synchronization latency exceeds the threshold, the alert contacts will receive notifications.
      • Select No if you do not want to set alerts.
      • Select Yes to set alerts. In this case, you must also set the alert threshold and alert contacts.
      Retry Time for Failed Connection
      Specify the retry time range for failed connections. If a data synchronization task is disconnected, DTS immediately retries a connection within the specified time range. Valid values: 10 to 1440. Unit: minutes. Default value: 120. We recommend that you set the retry time range to more than 30 minutes. If DTS reconnects to the source and destination databases within the specified time range, DTS resumes the data synchronization task. Otherwise, the data synchronization task fails.
      Note
      • If multiple DTS instances have the same source or destination database, the lowest value of this parameter takes effect. For example, the retry time range is set to 30 minutes for Instance A and 60 minutes for Instance B, DTS retries failed connections within 30 minutes.
      • When DTS retries a connection, you are charged for the DTS instance. We recommend that you specify the retry time range based on your business requirements. You can also release the DTS instance at your earliest opportunity after the source and destination instances are released.
  6. In the lower part of the page, click Next: Save Task Settings and Precheck.
    Note
    • Before you can start the data synchronization task, DTS performs a precheck. You can start the data synchronization task only after the task passes the precheck.
    • If the task fails to pass the precheck, you can click the Info icon icon next to each failed item to view details.
      • You can troubleshoot the issues based on the causes and run a precheck again.
      • If you do not need to troubleshoot the issues, you can ignore failed items and run a precheck again.
  7. Wait until the Success Rate becomes 100%. Then, click Next: Purchase Instance.
  8. On the Purchase Instance page, specify the Billing Method and Instance Class parameters for the data synchronization instance. The following table describes the parameters.
    Section Parameter Description
    Parameters Billing Method
    • Subscription: You pay for your subscription when you create an instance. We recommend that you select the subscription billing method for long-term use because it is more cost-effective than the pay-as-you-go billing method. You can save more costs with longer subscription periods.
    • Pay-as-you-go: A pay-as-you-go instance is billed on an hourly basis. We recommend that you select the pay-as-you-go billing method for short-term use. If you no longer require a pay-as-you-go instance, you can release the instance to reduce costs.
    Instance Class DTS provides several instance classes that have different performance in synchronization speed. You can select an instance class based on your business scenario. For more information, see Specifications of data synchronization instances.
    Subscription Length If you select the subscription billing method, set the subscription length and the number of instances that you want to create. The subscription length can be one to nine months or one to three years.
    Note This parameter is available only if you select the subscription billing method.
  9. Read and select Data Transmission Service (Pay-as-you-go) Service Terms.
  10. Click Buy and Start to start the data synchronization task. You can view the progress of the task in the task list.