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MaxCompute:Set up a Windows development environment

Last Updated:Jul 11, 2024

This topic describes how to set up a Spark on MaxCompute development environment that runs the Windows operating system.

If you have a Linux operating system installed, follow the instructions in Set up a Linux development environment to set up a Spark on MaxCompute development environment that runs the Linux operating system.

Prerequisites

Before you set up a Spark on MaxCompute development environment, make sure that the following software is installed in your Windows operating system:

Note

The software version number and software installation path used in this topic are for reference only. The actual software version that you must download and install may differ based on your operating system.

  • JDK

    In this example, JDK 1.8.0_361 is used. For more information about how to download JDK, go to the JDK official website.

  • Python

    In this example, Python 3.7 is used. For more information about how to download Python, go to the Python official website.

    Note

    In this example, Spark 2.4.5 is used. If you use another version of Spark, download and install a version of Python that corresponds to the Spark version. For more information, see https://pypi.org/project/pyspark/.

  • Maven

    In this example, Apache Maven 3.8.7 is used. For more information about how to download Apache Maven, go to the Maven official website.

  • Git

    In this example, Git 2.39.1.windows.1 is used. For more information about how to download Git, go to the Git official website.

  • Scala

    In this example, Scala 2.13.10 is used. For more information about how to download Scala, go to the Scala official website.

Download the Spark on MaxCompute client

The Spark on MaxCompute client package is released with the MaxCompute authorization feature. This allows Spark on MaxCompute to serve as a client that submits jobs to your MaxCompute project by using the spark-submit script. MaxCompute provides release packages for Spark 1.x, Spark 2.x, and Spark 3.x. You can download these packages from the following links. In this example, Spark 2.4.5 is used.

Configure environment variables

In the Windows operating system, right-click This PC and select Properties from the shortcut menu. On the page that appears, click Advanced system setting. On the Advanced tab, click Environment Variables and configure environment variables. The following content describes how to configure the environment variables.

  • Configure Java environment variables.

    • Obtain the Java installation path.

    • Edit Java environment variables.

      1. Add the JAVA_HOME variable to system variables and set the variable value to the Java installation path.

      2. Add %JAVA_HOME%\bin to the Path parameter in system variables.

    • Check whether the Java environment variables are successfully configured.

      • Verification method

        Press Win+R. In the Run dialog box, enter cmd and click OK. In the Command Prompt, enter java -version. If the returned result is as expected, Java environment variables are successfully configured.

      • Example of an expected result

        java version "1.8.0_361"
        Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_361-b09)
        Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.361-b09, mixed mode)
  • Configure Spark environment variables.

    • Obtain the path to which the Spark on MaxCompute package is decompressed.

    • Edit Spark environment variables.

      1. Add the SPARK_HOME parameter to system variables and set the variable value to the path to which the Spark on MaxCompute client package is decompressed.

      2. Add %SPARK_HOME%\bin to the Path parameter in system variables.

  • Configure Scala environment variables.

    Check whether Scala environment variables are successfully configured.

    • Verification method

      Press Win+R. In the Run dialog box, enter cmd and click OK. In the Command Prompt, enter scala. If the returned result is as expected, Scala environment variables are successfully configured.

    • Example of an expected result

      Welcome to Scala 2.13.10 (Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM, Java 1.8.0_361).
      Type in expressions for evaluation. Or try :help.
      
      scala>
  • Configure Python environment variables.

    • Obtain the Python installation path.

    • Edit Python environment variables.

      Add the Python installation path and the Scripts subdirectory in the installation path of Python to the Path parameter in system variables.

    • Check whether the Python environment variables are successfully configured.

      • Verification method

        Press Win+R. In the Run dialog box, enter cmd and click OK. In the Command Prompt, enter python --version. If the returned result is as expected, Python environment variables are successfully configured.

      • Example of an expected result

        Python 3.10.6
  • Configure Maven environment variables.

    • Obtain the path to which the Maven package is decompressed.

    • Edit Maven environment variables.

      1. Add the MAVEN_HOME parameter to system variables and set the variable value to the path to which the Maven package is decompressed.

      2. Add %MAVEN_HOME%\bin to the Path parameter in system variables.

    • Check whether the Maven environment variables are successfully configured.

      • Verification method

        Press Win+R. In the Run dialog box, enter cmd and click OK. In the Command Prompt, enter mvn --version. If the returned result is as expected, Maven environment variables are successfully configured.

      • Example of an expected result

        # *** indicates the partial path to which the Maven package is decompressed. 
        Apache Maven 3.8.7 (b89d5959fcde851dcb1c8946a785a163f14e1e29)
        Maven home: D:\***\apache-maven-3.8.7-bin\apache-maven-3.8.7
        Java version: 1.8.0_361, vendor: Oracle Corporation, runtime: C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_361\jre
        Default locale: zh_CN, platform encoding: GBK
        OS name: "windows 10", version: "10.0", arch: "amd64", family: "windows"
  • Configure Git environment variables.

    Check whether the Git environment variables are successfully configured.

    • Verification method

      Press Win+R. In the Run dialog box, enter cmd and click OK. In the Command Prompt, enter git --version. If the returned result is as expected, Git environment variables are successfully configured.

    • Example of an expected result

      git version 2.39.1.windows.1
  • Configure the spark_defaults.conf file.

    If you use the Spark on MaxCompute client for the first time, rename the spark-defaults.conf.template file in the conf folder of the decompression path of the Spark on MaxCompute client package as spark-defaults.conf. Then, configure information in the file. If both the spark-defaults.conf.template and spark-defaults.conf files exist, you do not need to perform the rename operation. You need only to configure the spark-defaults.conf file. The following code shows an example:

    # Go to the path to which the Spark on MaxCompute client package is decompressed and open the conf folder. The actual path may vary. 
    
    # Open the spark-defaults.conf file.
    
    # Add the following configurations to the end of the configuration file: 
    spark.hadoop.odps.project.name = <MaxCompute_project_name>
    spark.hadoop.odps.access.id = <AccessKey_id>
    spark.hadoop.odps.access.key = <AccessKey_secret>
    spark.hadoop.odps.end.point = <Endpoint>   # The endpoint that is used to connect the Spark on MaxCompute client to your MaxCompute project. You can modify the endpoint based on your business requirements. 
    spark.hadoop.odps.runtime.end.point = <VPC_endpoint>  # The virtual private cloud (VPC) endpoint of the region where your MaxCompute project resides. You can modify the endpoint based on your business requirements. 
    # For Spark 2.3.0, set spark.sql.catalogImplementation to odps. For Spark 2.4.5, set spark.sql.catalogImplementation to hive. 
    spark.sql.catalogImplementation={odps|hive}
    
    # Retain the following parameter configurations:
    spark.hadoop.odps.task.major.version = cupid_v2
    spark.hadoop.odps.cupid.container.image.enable = true
    spark.hadoop.odps.cupid.container.vm.engine.type = hyper
    spark.hadoop.odps.moye.trackurl.host = http://jobview.odps.aliyun.com
    • MaxCompute_project_name: the name of the MaxCompute project that you want to access.

      This parameter specifies the name of your MaxCompute project instead of the DataWorks workspace to which the MaxCompute project corresponds. You can log on to the MaxCompute console. In the top navigation bar, select a region. In the left-side navigation pane, choose Workspace > Projects to view the name of the MaxCompute project.

    • AccessKey_id: the AccessKey ID that is used to access the MaxCompute project.

      You can obtain the AccessKey ID from the AccessKey Pair page.

    • AccessKey_secret: the AccessKey secret that corresponds to the AccessKey ID.

      You can obtain the AccessKey secret from the AccessKey Pair page.

    • Endpoint: the public endpoint of the region where your MaxCompute project resides.

      For more information about the public endpoint of each region, see Endpoints in different regions (Internet).

    • VPC_endpoint: the VPC endpoint of the region where your MaxCompute project resides.

      For more information about the VPC endpoint of each region, see Endpoints in different regions (VPC).

Prepare a project

Spark on MaxCompute provides a demo project template. We recommend that you download and copy the template to develop your application.

Important

In the demo project, the dependency scope for Spark on MaxCompute is provided. Do not change this scope. Otherwise, the job that you submit may not run as expected.

Prepare a project in the Windows operating system.

  • Download the Spark 1.x template and compile the template.

    # Start the downloaded Git client (Git Bash), go to the directory to which the project is downloaded, and then run the following code:
    git clone https://github.com/aliyun/MaxCompute-Spark.git
    
    # Go to the project folder.
    cd MaxCompute-Spark/spark-1.x
    
    # Compile the project package.
    mvn clean package
  • Download the Spark 2.x template and compile the template.

    # Start the downloaded Git client (Git Bash), go to the directory to which the project is downloaded, and then run the following code:
    git clone https://github.com/aliyun/MaxCompute-Spark.git
    
    # Go to the project folder.
    cd MaxCompute-Spark/spark-2.x
    
    # Compile the project package.
    mvn clean package
  • Download the Spark 3.x template and compile the template.

    # Start the downloaded Git client (Git Bash), go to the directory to which the project is downloaded, and then run the following code:
    git clone https://github.com/aliyun/MaxCompute-Spark.git
    
    # Go to the project folder.
    cd MaxCompute-Spark/spark-3.x
    
    # Compile the project package.
    mvn clean package

After you run the preceding commands, if an error message appears, indicating that the environment configurations are invalid, follow the preceding instructions to check the configurations. If any invalid configurations are found, modify the configurations.

Configure dependencies

In the Spark on MaxCompute project that you prepared, configure the dependencies. The following content provides sample commands that you can run on the Git client to configure dependencies. You can also directly open related files and configure dependencies.

  • Configure the dependencies that are required for accessing tables in your MaxCompute project.

    • The Spark-1.x template is used.

      # Go to the spark-1.x folder. 
      cd MaxCompute-Spark/spark-1.x
      
      # Edit the POM file to add the odps-spark-datasource dependency. 
      <dependency>
        <groupId>com.aliyun.odps</groupId>
        <artifactId>odps-spark-datasource_2.10</artifactId>
        <version>3.3.8-public</version>
      </dependency>                           
    • The Spark-2.x template is used.

      # Go to the spark-2.x folder. 
      cd MaxCompute-Spark/spark-2.x
      
      # Edit the POM file to add the odps-spark-datasource dependency. 
      <dependency>
          <groupId>com.aliyun.odps</groupId>
          <artifactId>odps-spark-datasource_2.11</artifactId>
          <version>3.3.8-public</version>
      </dependency>
  • Configure the dependency that is required for accessing Object Storage Service (OSS).

    If your job needs to access OSS, add the following dependency:

    <dependency>
        <groupId>com.aliyun.odps</groupId>
        <artifactId>hadoop-fs-oss</artifactId>
        <version>3.3.8-public</version>
    </dependency>

For more information about the dependencies that are required when the Spark-1.x, Spark-2.x, or Spark-3.x template is used, see Spark-1.x pom, Spark-2.x pom, or Spark-3.x pom.

Conduct SparkPi smoke testing

After you complete the preceding operations, conduct smoke testing to check the end-to-end connectivity of Spark on MaxCompute. For example, you can run the following commands to conduct SparkPi smoke testing for a Spark 2.x application:

# Press Win+R. In the Run dialog box, enter cmd. 
# Go to the bin folder in the D:\PC\spark\spark-2.4.5-odps0.33.2\ directory where the job is saved. 
cd D:\PC\spark\spark-2.4.5-odps0.33.2\bin

# Run the following commands: 
spark-submit --master yarn-cluster --class com.aliyun.odps.spark.examples.SparkPi \
spark-examples_2.11-1.0.0-SNAPSHOT-shaded.jar

# If the following log information is displayed, smoke testing is successful. 
19/06/11 11:57:30 INFO Client:
         client token: N/A
         diagnostics: N/A
         ApplicationMaster host: 11.222.166.90
         ApplicationMaster RPC port: 38965
         queue: queue
         start time: 1560225401092
         final status: SUCCEEDED

Precautions on using Spark 2.4.5

  • Use Spark 2.4.5 to submit jobs

    Submit a job in a Yarn cluster. For more information, see Cluster mode.

  • Changes in using Spark 2.4.5

    • If you submit jobs in a Yarn cluster, you must specify HADOOP_CONF_DIR=$SPARK_HOME/conf to add the SPARK_HOME environment variable.

    • If you perform debugging in local mode, you must create a file named odps.conf in the $SPARK_HOME/conf path and add the following configurations to the file:

      odps.project.name = 
      odps.access.id = 
      odps.access.key =
      odps.end.point =
  • Changes in the parameter settings of Spark 2.4.5

    • spark.sql.catalogImplementation: This parameter is set to hive.

    • spark.sql.sources.default: This parameter is set to hive.

    • spark.sql.odps.columnarReaderBatchSize: specifies the number of rows from which the vectorized reader reads data at a time. Default value: 4096.

    • spark.sql.odps.enableVectorizedReader: specifies whether to enable the vectorized reader. Default value: True.

    • spark.sql.odps.enableVectorizedWriter: specifies whether to enable the vectorized writer. Default value: True.

    • spark.sql.odps.split.size: This parameter can be used to adjust the concurrency of data reading operations on MaxCompute tables. By default, this parameter is set to 256 for each partition. Unit: MB.

Precautions on using Spark 3.1.1

  • Use Spark 3.1.1 to submit jobs

    Submit a job in a Yarn cluster. For more information, see Cluster mode.

  • Changes in using Spark 3.1.1

    • If you submit jobs in a Yarn cluster, you must specify HADOOP_CONF_DIR=$SPARK_HOME/conf to add the SPARK_HOME environment variable.

    • If you submit PySpark jobs in a Yarn cluster, you must add the following configurations to the spark-defaults.conf file to use Spark for Python 3.

      spark.hadoop.odps.cupid.resources = public.python-3.7.9-ucs4.tar.gz
      spark.pyspark.python = ./public.python-3.7.9-ucs4.tar.gz/python-3.7.9-ucs4/bin/python3
    • If you perform debugging in local mode:

      • You must create an odps.conf file in the $SPARK_HOME/conf directory and add the following configurations to the file:

        odps.project.name = 
        odps.access.id = 
        odps.access.key =
        odps.end.point =
      • You must add spark.hadoop.fs.defaultFS = file:///. Sample code:

        val spark = SparkSession
          .builder()
          .config("spark.hadoop.fs.defaultFS", "file:///")
          .enableHiveSupport()
          .getOrCreate()
  • Changes in the parameter settings of Spark 3.1.1

    • spark.sql.defaultCatalog: This parameter is set to odps.

    • spark.sql.catalog.odps: This parameter is set to org.apache.spark.sql.execution.datasources.v2.odps.OdpsTableCatalog.

    • spark.sql.sources.partitionOverwriteMode: This parameter is set to dynamic.

    • spark.sql.extensions: This parameter is set to org.apache.spark.sql.execution.datasources.v2.odps.extension.OdpsExtensions.

    • spark.sql.odps.enableVectorizedReader: specifies whether to enable the vectorized reader. Default value: True.

    • spark.sql.odps.enableVectorizedWriter: specifies whether to enable the vectorized writer. Default value: True.

    • spark.sql.catalog.odps.splitSizeInMB: This parameter can be used to adjust the concurrency of data reading operations on MaxCompute tables. By default, this parameter is set to 256 for each partition. Unit: MB.