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# MaxCompute:Mathematical functions

Last Updated:Dec 29, 2023

This topic describes the mathematical functions supported by MaxCompute SQL. This topic also describes the syntax, parameters, and examples of the mathematical functions. You can select to use mathematical functions based on your business requirements to perform operations, such as data computation and data type conversion.

The following table lists mathematical functions that are supported by MaxCompute SQL.

 Function Description ABS Calculates the absolute value. ACOS Calculates the arccosine. ATAN2 Calculates the arctangent of expr1 and expr2. ASIN Calculates the arcsine. ATAN Calculates the arctangent. BIN Calculates the binary code. CBRT Calculates the cube root. CEIL Rounds up a number and returns the nearest integer. CONV Converts a number from one number system to another. CORR Calculates the Pearson correlation coefficient. COS Calculates the cosine. COSH Calculates the hyperbolic cosine. COT Calculates the cotangent. DEGREES Converts a radian value into a degree. E Calculates the value of e. EXP Calculates the exponential value. FACTORIAL Calculates the factorial. FILTER Filters the elements in an array. FLOOR Rounds down a number and returns the nearest integer. FORMAT_NUMBER Converts a number into a string in the specified format. HEX Converts an integer or a string into a hexadecimal number. ISNAN Checks whether the value of an expression is NaN. LN Calculates the natural logarithm. LOG Calculates the logarithm. LOG10 Calculates the logarithm of a number whose base number is 10. LOG2 Calculates the logarithm of a number whose base number is 2. NEGATIVE Returns the negative value of an expression. PI Calculates the value of π. POSITIVE Returns the value of an expression. POW Calculates the nth power of a value. RADIANS Converts a degree into a radian value. RAND Returns a random number. ROUND Returns a value rounded to the specified decimal place. SHIFTLEFT Shifts a value left by a specific number of places. SHIFTRIGHT Shifts a value right by a specific number of places. SHIFTRIGHTUNSIGNED Shifts an unsigned value right by a specific number of places. SIGN Returns the sign of the input value. SIN Calculates the sine. SINH Calculates the hyperbolic sine. SQRT Calculates the square root. TAN Calculates the tangent. TANH Calculates the hyperbolic tangent. TRUNC Truncates the input value to the specified decimal place. UNHEX This function converts a hexadecimal string into a string. WIDTH_BUCKET Returns the ID of the bucket into which the value of a specific expression falls.
Note

For more information about operators, such as the operator that is used to calculate remainders, see Arithmetic operators.

## Precautions

MaxCompute V2.0 provides additional functions. If the functions that you use involve new data types that are supported in the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition, you must execute the SET statement to enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. The new data types include TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, FLOAT, VARCHAR, TIMESTAMP, and BINARY.

• Session level: To use the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition, you must add `set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;` before the SQL statement that you want to execute, and commit and execute them together.

• Project level: The project owner can run the following command to enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition for the project based on the project requirements. The configuration takes effect after 10 to 15 minutes. To enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition at the project level, run the following command:

``setproject odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;``

For more information about `setproject`, see Project operations. For more information about the precautions that you must take when you enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition at the project level, see Data type editions.

## Sample data

This section provides sample source data for you to understand how to use mathematical functions. In this topic, a table named mf_math_fun_t is created and data is inserted into the table. Sample statements:

``````create table if not exists mf_math_fun_t(
int_data     int,
bigint_data  bigint,
double_data  double,
decimal_data decimal,
float_data   float,
string_data  string
);
insert into mf_math_fun_t values
(null, -10, 0.525, 0.525BD, cast(0.525 as float), '10'),
(-20, null, -0.1, -0.1BD, cast(-0.1 as float), '-10'),
(0, -1, null, 20.45BD, cast(-1 as float), '30'),
(-40, 4, 0.89, null, cast(0.89 as float), '-30'),
(5, -50, -1, -1BD, null, '50'),
(-60, 6, 1.5, 1.5BD, cast(1.5 as float), '-50'),
(-1, -70, -7.5, -7.5BD, cast(-7.5 as float),null ),
(-80, 1, -10.2, -10.2BD, cast(-10.2 as float), '-1' ),
(9, -90, 2.58, 2.58BD, cast(2.58 as float), '0'),
(-100, 10, -5.8, -5.8BD, cast(-5.8 as float), '-90');``````

Query data from the mf_math_fun_t table. Sample statement:

``````select * from mf_math_fun_t;
-- The following result is returned:
+----------+-------------+-------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
| int_data | bigint_data | double_data | decimal_data | float_data | string_data |
+----------+-------------+-------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
| NULL     | -10         | 0.525       | 0.525        | 0.525      | 10          |
| -20      | NULL        | -0.1        | -0.1         | -0.1       | -10         |
| 0        | -1          | NULL        | 20.45        | -1         | 30          |
| -40      | 4           | 0.89        | NULL         | 0.89       | -30         |
| 5        | -50         | -1.0        | -1           | NULL       | 50          |
| -60      | 6           | 1.5         | 1.5          | 1.5        | -50         |
| -1       | -70         | -7.5        | -7.5         | -7.5       | NULL        |
| -80      | 1           | -10.2       | -10.2        | -10.2      | -1          |
| 9        | -90         | 2.58        | 2.58         | 2.58       | 0           |
| -100     | 10          | -5.8        | -5.8         | -5.8       | -90         |
+----------+-------------+-------------+--------------+------------+-------------+``````

## ABS

• Syntax

``bigint|double|decimal abs(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the absolute value of number.

• Parameters

number: required. The value is of the DOUBLE, BIGINT, or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

Note

If the input value is of the BIGINT type and is greater than the maximum value of the BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned. However, the precision may be lost.

• Return value

The data type of the return value depends on the data type of the input parameter. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE, BIGINT, or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of number is set to null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is null.
select abs(null);
-- The return value is 1.
select abs(-1);
-- The return value is 1.2.
select abs(-1.2);
-- The return value is 2.0.
select abs("-2");
-- The return value is 1.2232083745629837 e32.
select abs(122320837456298376592387456923748);
-- Calculate the absolute value of the id field in tbl1. The following example shows the usage of an ABS function in SQL statements. Other built-in functions, except window functions and aggregate functions, are used in a similar way.
select abs(id) from tbl1;``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the absolute value based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select abs(bigint_data) as bigint_new, abs(double_data) as double_new, abs(decimal_data) as decimal_new, abs(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+------------+------------+-------------+------------+
| bigint_new | double_new | decimal_new | string_new |
+------------+------------+-------------+------------+
| 10         | 0.525      | 0.525       | 10.0       |
| NULL       | 0.1        | 0.1         | 10.0       |
| 1          | NULL       | 20.45       | 30.0       |
| 4          | 0.89       | NULL        | 30.0       |
| 50         | 1.0        | 1           | 50.0       |
| 6          | 1.5        | 1.5         | 50.0       |
| 70         | 7.5        | 7.5         | NULL       |
| 1          | 10.2       | 10.2        | 1.0        |
| 90         | 2.58       | 2.58        | 0.0        |
| 10         | 5.8        | 5.8         | 90.0       |
+------------+------------+-------------+------------+``````

## ACOS

• Syntax

``double|decimal acos(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the arccosine of number.

• Parameters

number: required. The value ranges from -1 to 1. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

The data type of the return value depends on the data type of the input parameter. The value ranges from 0 to π. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of number does not fall into the range of -1 to 1, null is returned. If the Hive-compatible data type edition is enabled, NaN is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 0.5155940062460905.
select acos("0.87");
-- The return value is 1.5707963267948966.
select acos(0);
-- The return value is null.
select acos(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the arccosine based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select acos(bigint_data) as bigint_new, acos(double_data) as double_new, acos(decimal_data) as decimal_new, acos(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+-------------------+--------------------+--------------------+---------------------+
| bigint_new        | double_new         | decimal_new        | string_new          |
+-------------------+--------------------+--------------------+---------------------+
| NULL              | 1.0180812136981134 | 1.0180812136981134 | NULL                |
| NULL              | 1.6709637479564565 | 1.6709637479564565 | NULL                |
| 3.141592653589793 | NULL               | NULL               | NULL                |
| NULL              | 0.4734511572720662 | NULL               | NULL                |
| NULL              | 3.141592653589793  | 3.141592653589793  | NULL                |
| NULL              | NULL               | NULL               | NULL                |
| NULL              | NULL               | NULL               | NULL                |
| 0.0               | NULL               | NULL               | 3.141592653589793   |
| NULL              | NULL               | NULL               | 1.5707963267948966  |
| NULL              | NULL               | NULL               | NULL                |
+-------------------+--------------------+--------------------+---------------------+``````

## ATAN2

• Syntax

``double atan2(<expr1>, <expr2>)``
• Description

Calculates the arctangent of expr1 and expr2.

• Parameters

• expr1: required. A value of the DOUBLE type. If the input value is of the STRING, BIGINT, or DECIMAL type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• expr2: required. A value of the DOUBLE type. If the input value is of the STRING, BIGINT, or DECIMAL type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE type is returned. The return value ranges from `-π/2 to π/2`. If the value of expr1 or expr2 is null, null is returned.

• Examples

``````-- The return value is 0.0.
select atan2(0, 0);``````

## ASIN

• Syntax

``double|decimal asin(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the arcsine of number.

• Parameters

number: required. The value ranges from -1 to 1. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

The data type of the return value depends on the data type of the input parameter. The return value ranges from `-π/2 to π/2`. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of number does not fall into the range of -1 to 1, null is returned. If the Hive-compatible data type edition is enabled, NaN is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 1.5707963267948966.
select asin(1);
-- The return value is 1.5707963267948966.
select asin(-1);
-- The return value is null.
select asin(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the arcsine based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select asin(bigint_data) as bigint_new, asin(double_data) as double_new, asin(decimal_data) as decimal_new, asin(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+--------------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
| bigint_new         | double_new          | decimal_new         | string_new          |
+--------------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
| NULL               | 0.5527151130967832  | 0.5527151130967832  | NULL                |
| NULL               | -0.1001674211615598 | -0.1001674211615598 | NULL                |
| -1.5707963267948966| NULL                | NULL                | NULL                |
| NULL               | 1.0973451695228305  | NULL                | NULL                |
| NULL               | -1.5707963267948966 | -1.5707963267948966 | NULL                |
| NULL               | NULL                | NULL                | NULL                |
| NULL               | NULL                | NULL                | NULL                |
| 1.5707963267948966 | NULL                | NULL                | -1.5707963267948966 |
| NULL               | NULL                | NULL                | 0.0                 |
| NULL               | NULL                | NULL                | NULL                |
+--------------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+``````

## ATAN

• Syntax

``double atan(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the arctangent of number.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE type. If the input value is of the STRING, BIGINT, or DECIMAL type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE type is returned. The return value ranges from `-π/2 to π/2`. If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 0.7853981633974483.
select atan(1);
-- The return value is -0.7853981633974483.
select atan(-1);
-- The return value is null.
select atan(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the arctangent based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select atan(bigint_data) as bigint_new, atan(double_data) as double_new, atan(decimal_data) as decimal_new, atan(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+---------------------+
| bigint_new          | double_new           | decimal_new          | string_new          |
+---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+---------------------+
| -1.4711276743037347 | 0.483447001567199    | 0.483447001567199    | 1.4711276743037347  |
| NULL                | -0.09966865249116204 | -0.09966865249116204 | -1.4711276743037347 |
| -0.7853981633974483 | NULL                 | 1.521935491607842    | 1.5374753309166493  |
| 1.3258176636680326  | 0.7272626879966904   | NULL                 | -1.5374753309166493 |
| -1.550798992821746  | -0.7853981633974483  | -0.7853981633974483  | 1.550798992821746   |
| 1.4056476493802699  | 0.982793723247329    | 0.982793723247329    | -1.550798992821746  |
| -1.5565115842075    | -1.4382447944982226  | -1.4382447944982226  | NULL                |
| 0.7853981633974483  | -1.473069419436178   | -1.473069419436178   | -0.7853981633974483 |
| -1.5596856728972892 | 1.2010277920014796   | 1.2010277920014796   | 0.0                 |
| 1.4711276743037347  | -1.4000611153196139  | -1.4000611153196139  | -1.5596856728972892 |
+---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+---------------------+``````

## BIN

• Syntax

``string bin(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the binary code of number. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

number: required. The value is of the BIGINT, INT, SMALLINT, or TINYINT type.

• Return value

A value of the STRING type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is not of the BIGINT, INT, SMALLINT, or TINYINT type, an error is returned.

• If the value of number is 0, 0 is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 0.
select bin(0);
-- The return value is null.
select bin(null);
-- The return value is 1100.
select bin(12);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the binary code of values in the int_data and bigint_data columns based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``````-- Enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. Commit this command along with the SQL statement.
set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;
select bin(int_data) as int_new, bin(bigint_data) as bigint_new from mf_math_fun_t;``````

The following result is returned:

``````+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| int_new                                                                    | bigint_new                                                       |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| NULL                                                                       | 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110110 |
| 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111101100           | NULL                                                             |
| 0                                                                          | 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 |
| 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111011000           | 100                                                              |
| 101                                                                        | 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111001110 |
| 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111000100           | 110                                                              |
| 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111           | 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110111010 |
| 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110110000           | 1                                                                |
| 1001                                                                       | 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110100110 |
| 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110011100           | 1010                                                             |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+``````

## CBRT

• Syntax

``double cbrt(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the cube root of number. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

number: required. The value is of the BIGINT, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, DOUBLE, FLOAT, or STRING type.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is not of the BIGINT, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, DOUBLE, FLOAT, or STRING type, an error is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 2.0.
select cbrt(8);
-- The return value is null.
select cbrt(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the cube root of values in columns except the decimal_data column based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``````-- Enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. Commit this command along with the SQL statement.
set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;
select cbrt(int_data) as int_new, cbrt(bigint_data) as bigint_new, cbrt(double_data) as double_new, cbrt(float_data) as float_new, cbrt(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``````

The following result is returned:

``````+---------------------+---------------------+----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
| int_new             | bigint_new          | double_new           | float_new           | string_new          |
+---------------------+---------------------+----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
| NULL                | -2.1544346900318834 | 0.806714323012272    | 0.8067143108004823  | 2.1544346900318834  |
| -2.7144176165949063 | NULL                | -0.46415888336127786 | -0.46415888566678   | -2.1544346900318834 |
| 0.0                 | -1.0                | NULL                 | -1.0                | 3.107232505953859   |
| -3.4199518933533937 | 1.5874010519681996  | 0.9619001716077046   | 0.961900166454112   | -3.107232505953859  |
| 1.7099759466766968  | -3.6840314986403864 | -1.0                 | NULL                | 3.6840314986403864  |
| -3.9148676411688634 | 1.8171205928321394  | 1.1447142425533317   | 1.1447142425533317  | -3.6840314986403864 |
| -1.0                | -4.121285299808557  | -1.9574338205844317  | -1.9574338205844317 | NULL                |
| -4.308869380063767  | 1.0                 | -2.168702885250197   | -2.1687028717323127 | -1.0                |
| 2.080083823051904   | -4.481404746557165  | 1.3715339700741747   | 1.3715339565548288  | 0.0                 |
| -4.641588833612778  | 2.1544346900318834  | -1.7967017791430528  | -1.7967017988380907 | -4.481404746557165  |
+---------------------+---------------------+----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+``````

## CEIL

• Syntax

``bigint ceil(<value>)``
• Description

Rounds up value and returns the nearest integer.

• Parameters

value: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the BIGINT type is returned. If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 2.
select ceil(1.1);
-- The return value is -1.
select ceil(-1.1);
-- The return value is null.
select ceil(null);``````
• Example of table data

Round up a number based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select ceil(bigint_data) as bigint_new, ceil(double_data) as double_new, ceil(decimal_data) as decimal_new, ceil(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+------------+------------+-------------+------------+
| bigint_new | double_new | decimal_new | string_new |
+------------+------------+-------------+------------+
| -10        | 1          | 1           | 10         |
| NULL       | 0          | 0           | -10        |
| -1         | NULL       | 21          | 30         |
| 4          | 1          | NULL        | -30        |
| -50        | -1         | -1          | 50         |
| 6          | 2          | 2           | -50        |
| -70        | -7         | -7          | NULL       |
| 1          | -10        | -10         | -1         |
| -90        | 3          | 3           | 0          |
| 10         | -5         | -5          | -90        |
+------------+------------+-------------+------------+``````

## CONV

• Syntax

``string conv(<input>, bigint <from_base>, bigint <to_base>)``
• Description

Converts a number from one number system to another.

• Parameters

• input: required. The value is the integer you want to convert, which is of the STRING type. If the input value is of the BIGINT or DOUBLE type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the STRING type before calculation.

• from_base and to_base: required. The values of these parameters are decimal numbers. The values can be 2, 8, 10, or 16. If the input value is of the STRING or DOUBLE type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the BIGINT type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the STRING type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of input, from_base, or to_base is null, null is returned.

• The conversion process runs at 64-bit precision. If an overflow occurs, null is returned.

• If the value of input is a negative value, null is returned. If the value of input is a decimal, it is converted into an integer before the conversion of number systems. The decimal part is left out.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 12.
select conv('1100', 2, 10);
-- The return value is C.
select conv('1100', 2, 16);
-- The return value is 171.
select conv('ab', 16, 10);
-- The return value is AB.
select conv('ab', 16, 16);
-- The return value is null.
select conv('1100', null, 10);``````
• Example of table data

Convert a number into a binary value based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select conv(bigint_data,10,2) as bigint_new, conv(double_data,10,2) as double_new, conv(decimal_data,10,2) as decimal_new, conv(string_data,10,2) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+------------+------------+-------------+------------+
| bigint_new | double_new | decimal_new | string_new |
+------------+------------+-------------+------------+
| NULL       | 0          | 0           | 1010       |
| NULL       | NULL       | NULL        | NULL       |
| NULL       | NULL       | 10100       | 11110      |
| 100        | 0          | NULL        | NULL       |
| NULL       | NULL       | NULL        | 110010     |
| 110        | 1          | 1           | NULL       |
| NULL       | NULL       | NULL        | NULL       |
| 1          | NULL       | NULL        | NULL       |
| NULL       | 10         | 10          | 0          |
| 1010       | NULL       | NULL        | NULL       |
+------------+------------+-------------+------------+``````

## CORR

• Syntax

``double corr(<col1>, <col2>)``
• Description

Calculates the Pearson correlation coefficient for two columns of data. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

col1 and col2: required. The names of the two columns for which the Pearson correlation coefficient is calculated. The value is of the DOUBLE, BIGINT, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, FLOAT, or DECIMAL type. Data in the col1 and col2 columns can be of different data types.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE type is returned. If an input column has a null value in a row, the row is not involved in the calculation.

• Examples

Calculate the Pearson correlation coefficient for the double_data and float_data columns of data based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select corr(double_data,float_data) from mf_math_fun_t;``

The return value is 1.0.

## COS

• Syntax

``double|decimal cos(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the cosine of number, which is a radian value.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 2.6794896585028633e-8.
select cos(3.1415926/2);
-- The return value is -0.9999999999999986.
select cos(3.1415926);
-- The return value is null.
select cos(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the cosine based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select cos(bigint_data) as bigint_new, cos(double_data) as double_new, cos(decimal_data) as decimal_new, cos(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+---------------------+--------------------+----------------------+---------------------+
| bigint_new          | double_new         | decimal_new          | string_new          |
+---------------------+--------------------+----------------------+---------------------+
| -0.8390715290764524 | 0.8653239416229412 | 0.8653239416229412   | -0.8390715290764524 |
| NULL                | 0.9950041652780258 | 0.9950041652780258   | -0.8390715290764524 |
| 0.5403023058681398  | NULL               | -0.02964340851507803 | 0.15425144988758405 |
| -0.6536436208636119 | 0.6294120265736969 | NULL                 | 0.15425144988758405 |
| 0.9649660284921133  | 0.5403023058681398 | 0.5403023058681398   | 0.9649660284921133  |
| 0.960170286650366   | 0.0707372016677029 | 0.0707372016677029   | 0.9649660284921133  |
| 0.6333192030862999  | 0.3466353178350258 | 0.3466353178350258   | NULL                |
| 0.5403023058681398  | -0.7142656520272003| -0.7142656520272003  | 0.5403023058681398  |
| -0.4480736161291701 | -0.8464080412157756| -0.8464080412157756  | 1.0                 |
| -0.8390715290764524 | 0.8855195169413189 | 0.8855195169413189   | -0.4480736161291701 |
+---------------------+--------------------+----------------------+---------------------+``````

## COSH

• Syntax

``double|decimal cosh(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the hyperbolic cosine of number.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 2.5091784169949913.
select cosh(3.1415926/2);
-- The return value is null.
select cosh(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the hyperbolic cosine based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select cosh(bigint_data) as bigint_new, cosh(double_data) as double_new, cosh(decimal_data) as decimal_new, cosh(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+-----------------------+--------------------+--------------------+----------------------+
| bigint_new            | double_new         | decimal_new        | string_new           |
+-----------------------+--------------------+--------------------+----------------------+
| 11013.232920103324    | 1.1410071063729532 | 1.1410071063729532 | 11013.232920103324   |
| NULL                  | 1.0050041680558035 | 1.0050041680558035 | 11013.232920103324   |
| 1.5430806348152437    | NULL               | 380445243.96844625 | 5343237290762.231    |
| 27.308232836016487    | 1.42289270202111   | NULL               | 5343237290762.231    |
| 2.592352764293536e21  | 1.5430806348152437 | 1.5430806348152437 | 2.592352764293536e21 |
| 201.7156361224559     | 2.352409615243247  | 2.352409615243247  | 2.592352764293536e21 |
| 1.2577193354595834e30 | 904.0214837702166  | 904.0214837702166  | NULL                 |
| 1.5430806348152437    | 13451.593055733929 | 13451.593055733929 | 1.5430806348152437   |
| 6.102016471589204e38  | 6.636456081840602  | 6.636456081840602  | 1.0                  |
| 11013.232920103324    | 165.151293732197   | 165.151293732197   | 6.102016471589204e38 |
+-----------------------+--------------------+--------------------+----------------------+``````

## COT

• Syntax

``double|decimal cot(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the cotangent of number, which is a radian value.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 2.6794896585028643E-8.
select cot(3.1415926/2);
-- The return value is null.
select cot(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the cotangent based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``selectcot(bigint_data)asbigint_new,cot(double_data)asdouble_new,cot(decimal_data)asdecimal_new,cot(string_data)asstring_newfrommf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+-----------------------+--------------------+--------------------+----------------------+
| bigint_new            | double_new         | decimal_new        | string_new           |
+-----------------------+--------------------+--------------------+----------------------+
| -1.54235104535692     | 1.7264594764178474 | 1.7264594764178474 | 1.54235104535692     |
| NULL                  | -9.966644423259238 | -9.966644423259238 | -1.54235104535692    |
| -0.6420926159343308   | NULL               | -0.02965644140592836| -0.15611995216165922|
| 0.8636911544506167    | 0.8099792954471944 | NULL               | 0.15611995216165922  |
| 3.6778144508505695    | -0.6420926159343308| -0.6420926159343308| -3.6778144508505695  |
| -3.436353004180128    | 0.07091484430265245| 0.07091484430265245| 3.6778144508505695   |
| -0.8183574478651038   | -0.36954725630901636| -0.36954725630901636| NULL               |
| 0.6420926159343308    | -1.0205622016180353 | -1.0205622016180353 | -0.6420926159343308|
| 0.5012027833801532    | -1.5893944776331337 | -1.5893944776331337 | 1.0                |
| 1.54235104535692      | 1.9059736612916494  | 1.9059736612916494  | 0.5012027833801532 |
+-----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+--------------------+``````

## DEGREES

• Syntax

``double degrees(<number>) ``
• Description

Converts a radian value into a degree.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE, BIGINT, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, FLOAT, DECIMAL, or STRING type. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE type is returned. If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 90.0.
select degrees(1.5707963267948966);
-- The return value is 0.0.
select degrees(0);
-- The return value is null.
select degrees(null);``````
• Example of table data

Obtain all degrees that correspond to all columns based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``````-- Enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. Commit this command along with the SQL statement.
set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;
select degrees(int_data) as int_new, degrees(bigint_data) as bigint_new, degrees(double_data) as double_new, degrees(decimal_data) as decimal_new, degrees(float_data) as float_new, degrees(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``````

The following result is returned:

``````+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
| int_new             | bigint_new          | double_new          | decimal_new         | float_new           | string_new          |
+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
| NULL                | -572.9577951308232  | 30.08028424436822   | 30.08028424436822   | 30.080282878330387  | 572.9577951308232   |
| -1145.9155902616465 | NULL                | -5.729577951308232  | -5.729577951308232  | -5.729578036685597  | -572.9577951308232  |
| 0.0                 | -57.29577951308232  | NULL                | 1171.6986910425335  | -57.29577951308232  | 1718.8733853924698  |
| -2291.831180523293  | 229.1831180523293   | 50.99324376664326   | NULL                | 50.99324294702057   | -1718.8733853924698 |
| 286.4788975654116   | -2864.7889756541163 | -57.29577951308232  | -57.29577951308232  | NULL                | 2864.7889756541163  |
| -3437.7467707849396 | 343.77467707849394  | 85.94366926962348   | 85.94366926962348   | 85.94366926962348   | -2864.7889756541163 |
| -57.29577951308232  | -4010.7045659157625 | -429.71834634811745 | -429.71834634811745 | -429.71834634811745 | NULL                |
| -4583.662361046586  | 57.29577951308232   | -584.4169510334397  | -584.4169510334397  | -584.416940105137   | -57.29577951308232  |
| 515.662015617741    | -5156.620156177409  | 147.8231111437524   | 147.8231111437524   | 147.82310677243132  | 0.0                 |
| -5729.5779513082325 | 572.9577951308232   | -332.31552117587745 | -332.31552117587745 | -332.31553210418014 | -5156.620156177409  |
+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+---------------------+``````

## E

• Syntax

``double e()``
• Description

Calculates the value of `e`. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• Examples

``````-- The return value is 2.718281828459045.
select e();``````

## EXP

• Syntax

``double|decimal exp(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the exponential value of number.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 4.810477252069109.
select exp(3.1415926/2);
-- The return value is null.
select exp(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the exponential value based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select exp(bigint_data) as bigint_new, exp(double_data) as double_new, exp(decimal_data) as decimal_new, exp(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+-------------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+
| bigint_new              | double_new              | decimal_new             | string_new              |
+-------------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+
| 0.000045399929762484854 | 1.6904588483790914      | 1.6904588483790914      | 22026.465794806718      |
| NULL                    | 0.9048374180359595      | 0.9048374180359595      | 0.000045399929762484854 |
| 0.36787944117144233     | NULL                    | 760890487.9368925       | 10686474581524.463      |
| 54.598150033144236      | 2.4351296512898744      | NULL                    | 9.357622968840175e-14   |
| 1.9287498479639178e-22  | 0.36787944117144233     | 0.36787944117144233     | 5.184705528587072e21    |
| 403.4287934927351       | 4.4816890703380645      | 4.4816890703380645      | 1.9287498479639178e-22  |
| 3.975449735908647e-31   | 0.0005530843701478336   | 0.0005530843701478336   | NULL                    |
| 2.718281828459045       | 0.000037170318684126734 | 0.000037170318684126734 | 0.36787944117144233     |
| 8.194012623990515e-40   | 13.197138159658358      | 13.197138159658358      | 1.0                     |
| 22026.465794806718      | 0.0030275547453758153   | 0.0030275547453758153   | 8.194012623990515e-40   |
+-------------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+``````

## FACTORIAL

• Syntax

``bigint factorial(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the factorial of number. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

number: required. The value is of the BIGINT, INT, SMALLINT, or TINYINT type and ranges from 0 to 20.

• Return value

A value of the BIGINT type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is 0, 1 is returned.

• If the value of number is null or a value that does not fall into the range from 0 to 20, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 120. 5!=5*4*3*2*1=120
select factorial(5);
-- The return value is 1.
select factorial(0);
-- The return value is null.
select factorial(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the factorial of values in the int_data and bigint_data columns based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``````-- Enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. Commit this command along with the SQL statement.
set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;
select factorial(int_data) as int_new, factorial(bigint_data) as bigint_new from mf_math_fun_t;``````

The following result is returned:

``````+------------+------------+
| int_new    | bigint_new |
+------------+------------+
| NULL       | NULL       |
| NULL       | NULL       |
| 1          | NULL       |
| NULL       | 24         |
| 120        | NULL       |
| NULL       | 720        |
| NULL       | NULL       |
| NULL       | 1          |
| 362880     | NULL       |
| NULL       | 3628800    |
+------------+------------+``````

## FILTER

• Syntax

``array<T> filter(array<T> <a>, function<T,boolean> <func>)``
• Parameters

• a: required. This parameter specifies an array. `T` in `array<T>` specifies the data type of the elements in the array. The elements can be of any data type.

• func: required. This parameter specifies the built-in function, user-defined function, or expression that is used to filter the elements in Array a. The value must be of the same data type as the elements in Array a. The output result of the function or expression is of the BOOLEAN type.

• Return value

A value of the ARRAY type is returned.

• Examples

``````-- The return value is [2, 3].
select filter(array(1, 2, 3), x -> x > 1);``````
Note

In this example, the combination of a hyphen and a closing angle bracket (->) is used. For more information about how to use the combination of a hyphen and a closing angle bracket `(->)` in Lambda functions, see Lambda functions.

## FLOOR

• Syntax

``bigint floor(<number>)``
• Description

Rounds down number and returns the nearest integer that is no greater than the value of number.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the BIGINT type is returned. If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 1.
select floor(1.2);
-- The return value is 0.
select floor(0.1);
-- The return value is -2.
select floor(-1.2);
-- The return value is -1.
select floor(-0.1);
-- The return value is 0.
select floor(0.0);
-- The return value is 0.
select floor(-0.0);
-- The return value is null.
select floor(null);``````
• Example of table data

Round down a number based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select floor(bigint_data) as bigint_new, floor(double_data) as double_new, floor(decimal_data) as decimal_new, floor(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+------------+------------+-------------+------------+
| bigint_new | double_new | decimal_new | string_new |
+------------+------------+-------------+------------+
| -10        | 0          | 0           | 10         |
| NULL       | -1         | -1          | -10        |
| -1         | NULL       | 20          | 30         |
| 4          | 0          | NULL        | -30        |
| -50        | -1         | -1          | 50         |
| 6          | 1          | 1           | -50        |
| -70        | -8         | -8          | NULL       |
| 1          | -11        | -11         | -1         |
| -90        | 2          | 2           | 0          |
| 10         | -6         | -6          | -90        |
+------------+------------+-------------+------------+``````

## FORMAT_NUMBER

• Syntax

``string format_number(float|double|decimal <expr1>, <expr2>)``
• Description

Converts a number into a string in the specified format. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

• expr1: required. This parameter specifies the expression that you want to format. A value of the DOUBLE, BIGINT, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, FLOAT, DECIMAL, or STRING type.

• expr2: required. This parameter specifies the format of the expression after the conversion. It can specify the number of decimal places that you want to retain. It can also be expressed in a format similar to `#,###,###.##`.

• Return value

A value of the STRING type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If expr2 is greater than 0, the value is rounded to the specified place after the decimal point.

• If expr2 is equal to 0, the value has no decimal point or decimal part.

• If expr2 is less than 0 or greater than 340, an error is returned.

• If the value of expr1 or expr2 is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 5.230.
select format_number(5.230134523424545456,3);
-- The return value is 12,332.123.
select format_number(12332.123456, '#,###,###,###.###');
-- The return value is null.
select format_number(null,3);``````
• Example of table data

Retain values in all columns to the specified number of decimal places based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``````-- Enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. Commit this command along with the SQL statement.
set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;
select format_number(int_data, 1) as int_new, format_number(bigint_data, 1) as bigint_new, format_number(double_data, 2) as double_new, format_number(decimal_data, 1) as decimal_new, format_number(float_data, 0) as float_new, format_number(string_data, 1) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``````

The following result is returned:

``````+---------+------------+------------+-------------+-----------+------------+
| int_new | bigint_new | double_new | decimal_new | float_new | string_new |
+---------+------------+------------+-------------+-----------+------------+
| NULL    | -10.0      | 0.53       | 0.5         | 1         | 10.0       |
| -20.0   | NULL       | -0.10      | -0.1        | -0        | -10.0      |
| 0.0     | -1.0       | NULL       | 20.5        | -1        | 30.0       |
| -40.0   | 4.0        | 0.89       | NULL        | 1         | -30.0      |
| 5.0     | -50.0      | -1.00      | -1.0        | NULL      | 50.0       |
| -60.0   | 6.0        | 1.50       | 1.5         | 2         | -50.0      |
| -1.0    | -70.0      | -7.50      | -7.5        | -8        | NULL       |
| -80.0   | 1.0        | -10.20     | -10.2       | -10       | -1.0       |
| 9.0     | -90.0      | 2.58       | 2.6         | 3         | 0.0        |
| -100.0  | 10.0       | -5.80      | -5.8        | -6        | -90.0      |
+---------+------------+------------+-------------+-----------+------------+``````

## HEX

• Syntax

``string hex(<number>) ``
• Description

Converts a number or a string into a hexadecimal number. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE, BIGINT, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, FLOAT, DECIMAL, or STRING type.

• Return value

A value of the STRING type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is not 0 or null, a value of the STRING type is returned.

• If the value of number is 0, 0 is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 0.
select hex(0);
-- The return value is 616263.
select hex('abc');
-- The return value is 11.
select hex(17);
-- The return value is 3137.
select hex('17');
-- An error is returned.
select hex(null);``````
• Example of table data

Convert numbers in all columns into hexadecimal numbers based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``````-- Enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. Commit this command along with the SQL statement.
set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;
select hex(int_data) as int_new, hex(bigint_data) as bigint_new, hex(double_data) as double_new, hex(decimal_data) as decimal_new, hex(float_data) as float_new, hex(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``````

The following result is returned:

``````+------------------+------------------+------------+-------------+------------+------------+
| int_new          | bigint_new       | double_new | decimal_new | float_new  | string_new |
+------------------+------------------+------------+-------------+------------+------------+
| NULL             | FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF6 | 302E353235 | 302E353235  | 302E353235 | 3130       |
| FFFFFFFFFFFFFFEC | NULL             | 2D302E31   | 2D302E31    | 2D302E31   | 2D3130     |
| 0                | FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF | NULL       | 32302E3435  | 2D31       | 3330       |
| FFFFFFFFFFFFFFD8 | 4                | 302E3839   | NULL        | 302E3839   | 2D3330     |
| 5                | FFFFFFFFFFFFFFCE | 2D312E30   | 2D31        | NULL       | 3530       |
| FFFFFFFFFFFFFFC4 | 6                | 312E35     | 312E35      | 312E35     | 2D3530     |
| FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF | FFFFFFFFFFFFFFBA | 2D372E35   | 2D372E35    | 2D372E35   | NULL       |
| FFFFFFFFFFFFFFB0 | 1                | 2D31302E32 | 2D31302E32  | 2D31302E32 | 2D31       |
| 9                | FFFFFFFFFFFFFFA6 | 322E3538   | 322E3538    | 322E3538   | 30         |
| FFFFFFFFFFFFFF9C | A                | 2D352E38   | 2D352E38    | 2D352E38   | 2D3930     |
+------------------+------------------+------------+-------------+------------+------------+``````

## ISNAN

• Syntax

``boolean isnan(<expr>)``
• Description

Checks whether the value of expr is NaN.

• Parameters

expr: required. A value of the DOUBLE type. If the input value is of the STRING, BIGINT, or DECIMAL type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

• If the value of expr is NaN, True is returned. Otherwise, False is returned.

• If the value of expr is null, False is returned.

• Examples

``````-- The return value is False.
SELECT isnan(100.1);``````

## LN

• Syntax

``double|decimal ln(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the natural logarithm of number.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of number is a negative value or 0, null is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 1.144729868791239.
select ln(3.1415926);
-- The return value is null.
select ln(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the natural logarithm value based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select ln(bigint_data) as bigint_new, ln(double_data) as double_new, ln(decimal_data) as decimal_new, ln(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+--------------------+----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
| bigint_new         | double_new           | decimal_new         | string_new          |
+--------------------+----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
| NULL               | -0.6443570163905132  | -0.6443570163905132 | 2.302585092994046   |
| NULL               | NULL                 | NULL                | NULL                |
| NULL               | NULL                 | 3.017982882488811   | 3.4011973816621555  |
| 1.3862943611198906 | -0.11653381625595151 | NULL                | NULL                |
| NULL               | NULL                 | NULL                | 3.912023005428146   |
| 1.791759469228055  | 0.4054651081081644   | 0.4054651081081644  | NULL                |
| NULL               | NULL                 | NULL                | NULL                |
| 0.0                | NULL                 | NULL                | NULL                |
| NULL               | 0.9477893989335261   | 0.9477893989335261  | NULL                |
| 2.302585092994046  | NULL                 | NULL                | NULL                |
+--------------------+----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+``````

## LOG

• Syntax

``double log(<base>, <x>)``
• Description

Calculates the logarithm of x whose base number is base.

• Parameters

• base: required. The base number. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• x: required. The value for which the logarithm is calculated. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of base or x is null, null is returned.

• If the value of base or x is a negative value or 0, null is returned.

• If the value of base is 1, null is returned. The value 1 causes division by zero.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 4.0.
select log(2, 16);
-- The return value is null.
select log(2, null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the logarithm value of a column whose base number is 2 based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select log(2,bigint_data) as bigint_new, log(2,double_data) as double_new, log(2,decimal_data) as decimal_new, log(2,string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+--------------------+----------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
| bigint_new         | double_new           | decimal_new        | string_new         |
+--------------------+----------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
| NULL               | -0.929610672108602   | -0.929610672108602 | 3.3219280948873626 |
| NULL               | NULL                 | NULL               | NULL               |
| NULL               | NULL                 | 4.354028938054387  | 4.906890595608519  |
| 2.0                | -0.16812275880832692 | NULL               | NULL               |
| NULL               | NULL                 | NULL               | 5.643856189774724  |
| 2.584962500721156  | 0.5849625007211562   | 0.5849625007211562 | NULL               |
| NULL               | NULL                 | NULL               | NULL               |
| 0.0                | NULL                 | NULL               | NULL               |
| NULL               | 1.3673710656485296   | 1.3673710656485296 | NULL               |
| 3.3219280948873626 | NULL                 | NULL               | NULL               |
+--------------------+----------------------+--------------------+--------------------+``````

## LOG10

• Syntax

``double log10(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the logarithm of number whose base number is 10. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE, BIGINT, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, FLOAT, DECIMAL, or STRING type.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE type is returned. If the value of number is 0, a negative value, or null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is null.
select log10(null);
-- The return value is null.
select log10(0);
-- The return value is 0.9030899869919435.
select log10(8);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the logarithms of values in all columns whose base number is 10 based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``````-- Enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. Commit this command along with the SQL statement.
set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;
select log10(int_data) as int_new, log10(bigint_data) as bigint_new, log10(double_data) as double_new, log10(decimal_data) as decimal_new, log10(float_data) as float_new, log10(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``````

The following result is returned:

``````+--------------------+--------------------+---------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+--------------------+
| int_new            | bigint_new         | double_new          | decimal_new         | float_new             | string_new         |
+--------------------+--------------------+---------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+--------------------+
| NULL               | NULL               | -0.2798406965940431 | -0.2798406965940431 | -0.27984071631668606  | 1.0                |
| NULL               | NULL               | NULL                | NULL                | NULL                  | NULL               |
| NULL               | NULL               | NULL                | 1.3106933123433606  | NULL                  | 1.4771212547196624 |
| NULL               | 0.6020599913279623 | -0.0506099933550872 | NULL                | -0.050610000335573106 | NULL               |
| 0.6989700043360187 | NULL               | NULL                | NULL                | NULL                  | 1.6989700043360185 |
| NULL               | 0.7781512503836435 | 0.17609125905568124 | 0.17609125905568124 | 0.17609125905568124   | NULL               |
| NULL               | NULL               | NULL                | NULL                | NULL                  | NULL               |
| NULL               | 0.0                | NULL                | NULL                | NULL                  | NULL               |
| 0.9542425094393249 | NULL               | 0.4116197059632301  | 0.4116197059632301  | 0.411619693120579     | NULL               |
| NULL               | 1.0                | NULL                | NULL                | NULL                  | NULL               |
+--------------------+--------------------+---------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+--------------------+``````

## LOG2

• Syntax

``double log2(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the logarithm of number whose base number is 2. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE, BIGINT, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, FLOAT, DECIMAL, or STRING type.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE type is returned. If the value of number is 0, a negative value, or null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is null.
select log2(null);
-- The return value is null.
select log2(0);
-- The return value is 3.0.
select log2(8);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the logarithms of all columns whose base number is 2 based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``````-- Enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. Commit this command along with the SQL statement.
set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;
select log2(int_data) as int_new, log2(bigint_data) as bigint_new, log2(double_data) as double_new, log2(decimal_data) as decimal_new, log2(float_data) as float_new, log2(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``````

The following result is returned:

``````+--------------------+--------------------+----------------------+--------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
| int_new            | bigint_new         | double_new           | decimal_new        | float_new            | string_new         |
+--------------------+--------------------+----------------------+--------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
| NULL               | NULL               | -0.929610672108602   | -0.929610672108602 | -0.9296107376258038  | 3.3219280948873626 |
| NULL               | NULL               | NULL                 | NULL               | NULL                 | NULL               |
| NULL               | NULL               | NULL                 | 4.354028938054387  | NULL                 | 4.906890595608519  |
| NULL               | 2.0                | -0.16812275880832692 | NULL               | -0.16812278199699915 | NULL               |
| 2.321928094887362  | NULL               | NULL                 | NULL               | NULL                 | 5.643856189774724  |
| NULL               | 2.584962500721156  | 0.5849625007211562   | 0.5849625007211562 | 0.5849625007211562   | NULL               |
| NULL               | NULL               | NULL                 | NULL               | NULL                 | NULL               |
| NULL               | 0.0                | NULL                 | NULL               | NULL                 | NULL               |
| 3.1699250014423126 | NULL               | 1.3673710656485296   | 1.3673710656485296 | 1.367371022986166    | NULL               |
| NULL               | 3.3219280948873626 | NULL                 | NULL               | NULL                 | NULL               |
+--------------------+--------------------+----------------------+--------------------+----------------------+--------------------+``````

## NEGATIVE

• Syntax

``TINYINT|SMALLINT|INT|BIGINT|DOUBLE|DECIMAL negative(TINYINT|SMALLINT|INT|BIGINT|DOUBLE|DECIMAL <expr>)``
• Description

Returns the negative value of expr.

• Parameters

expr: required. The value is an expression of the TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT, DOUBLE, or DECIMAL type.

• Return value

The negative value of expr is returned.

• Examples

``````-- The return value is -1.
SELECT negative(1);``````

## PI

• Syntax

``double pi()``
• Description

Calculates the value of π. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• Examples

``````-- The return value is 3.141592653589793.
select pi();``````

## POSITIVE

• Syntax

``TINYINT|SMALLINT|INT|BIGINT|DOUBLE|DECIMAL positive(TINYINT|SMALLINT|INT|BIGINT|DOUBLE|DECIMAL <expr>)``
• Description

Returns the value of expr.

• Parameters

expr: required. The value is an expression of the TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT, DOUBLE, or DECIMAL type.

• Return value

The value of expr is returned.

• Examples

``````-- The return value is 1.
SELECT positive(1);``````

## POW

• Syntax

``double|decimal pow(<x>, <y>)``
• Description

Calculates the yth power of x, namely, `x^y`.

• Parameters

• x: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• y: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If x or y is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If x or y is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of x or y is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 65536.0.
select pow(2, 16);
-- The return value is null.
select pow(2, null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the second power of values in a column based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select pow(bigint_data, 2) as bigint_new, pow(double_data, 2) as double_new, pow(decimal_data, 2) as decimal_new, pow(string_data, 2) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+------------+----------------------+----------------------+------------+
| bigint_new | double_new           | decimal_new          | string_new |
+------------+----------------------+----------------------+------------+
| 100.0      | 0.275625             | 0.275625             | 100.0      |
| NULL       | 0.010000000000000002 | 0.010000000000000002 | 100.0      |
| 1.0        | NULL                 | 418.2025             | 900.0      |
| 16.0       | 0.7921               | NULL                 | 900.0      |
| 2500.0     | 1.0                  | 1.0                  | 2500.0     |
| 36.0       | 2.25                 | 2.25                 | 2500.0     |
| 4900.0     | 56.25                | 56.25                | NULL       |
| 1.0        | 104.03999999999999   | 104.03999999999999   | 1.0        |
| 8100.0     | 6.6564000000000005   | 6.6564000000000005   | 0.0        |
| 100.0      | 33.64                | 33.64                | 8100.0     |
+------------+----------------------+----------------------+------------+``````

• Syntax

``double radians(<number>)``
• Description

Converts a degree into a radian value. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE, BIGINT, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, FLOAT, DECIMAL, or STRING type.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE type is returned. If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 1.5707963267948966.
-- The return value is 0.0.
-- The return value is null.
• Example of table data

Convert values in all columns into radian values based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``````-- Enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. Commit this command along with the SQL statement.
set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;

The following result is returned:

``````+-----------------------+-----------------------+------------------------+------------------------+------------------------+-----------------------+
| int_new               | bigint_new            | double_new             | decimal_new            | float_new              | string_new            |
+-----------------------+-----------------------+------------------------+------------------------+------------------------+-----------------------+
| NULL                  | -0.17453292519943295  | 0.00916297857297023    | 0.00916297857297023    | 0.009162978156851308   | 0.17453292519943295   |
| -0.3490658503988659   | NULL                  | -0.0017453292519943296 | -0.0017453292519943296 | -0.0017453292780017621 | -0.17453292519943295  |
| 0.0                   | -0.017453292519943295 | NULL                   | 0.3569198320328404     | -0.017453292519943295  | 0.5235987755982988    |
| -0.6981317007977318   | 0.06981317007977318   | 0.015533430342749534   | NULL                   | 0.015533430093078181   | -0.5235987755982988   |
| 0.08726646259971647   | -0.8726646259971648   | -0.017453292519943295  | -0.017453292519943295  | NULL                   | 0.8726646259971648    |
| -1.0471975511965976   | 0.10471975511965977   | 0.02617993877991494    | 0.02617993877991494    | 0.02617993877991494    | -0.8726646259971648   |
| -0.017453292519943295 | -1.2217304763960306   | -0.1308996938995747    | -0.1308996938995747    | -0.1308996938995747    | NULL                  |
| -1.3962634015954636   | 0.017453292519943295  | -0.17802358370342158   | -0.17802358370342158   | -0.17802358037447025   | -0.017453292519943295 |
| 0.15707963267948966   | -1.5707963267948966   | 0.045029494701453704   | 0.045029494701453704   | 0.04502949336987316    | 0.0                   |
| -1.7453292519943295   | 0.17453292519943295   | -0.10122909661567112   | -0.10122909661567112   | -0.10122909994462247   | -1.5707963267948966   |
+-----------------------+-----------------------+------------------------+------------------------+------------------------+-----------------------+``````

## RAND

• Syntax

``double rand(bigint <seed>)``
• Description

Returns a random number of the DOUBLE type. The value ranges from 0 to 1.

• Parameters

seed: optional. The value is of the BIGINT type. This parameter specifies the random seed that determines the starting point in generating random numbers.

Note

You can use seed to determine the random number sequence. After seed is determined, the return value of this function is fixed. If the execution environment is the same and the seed value remains unchanged, the return value is the same. If you need to return different results, you must modify the seed value.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• Examples

``````-- The return value is 4.7147460303803655E-4.
select rand();
-- The return value is 0.7308781907032909.
select rand(1);``````

## ROUND

• Syntax

``double|decimal round(<number>[, bigint <decimal_places>])``
• Description

Returns a number rounded to the specified decimal place.

• Parameters

• number: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• decimal_places: optional. The value is a constant of the BIGINT type. This parameter specifies the decimal place to which the number is rounded. If this parameter is not specified, the number is rounded to the ones place. The default value is 0.

Note

The value of decimal_places can be negative. A negative value indicates counting from the decimal point to the left, and the decimal part is excluded. If decimal_places exceeds the length of the integer part, 0 is returned.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If decimal_places is not of the BIGINT type, an error is returned.

• If the value of number or decimal_places is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 125.0.
select round(125.315);
-- The return value is 125.3.
select round(125.315, 1);
-- The return value is 125.32.
select round(125.315, 2);
-- The return value is 125.315.
select round(125.315, 3);
-- The return value is -125.32.
select round(-125.315, 2);
-- The return value is 100.0.
select round(123.345, -2);
-- The return value is null.
select round(null);
-- The return value is 123.345.
select round(123.345, 4);
-- The return value is 0.0.
select round(123.345, -4);``````
• Example of table data

Return numbers that are rounded to the specified decimal place in a column based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select round(bigint_data, 1) as bigint_new, round(double_data, 2) as double_new, round(decimal_data, 1) as decimal_new, round(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+------------+------------+-------------+------------+
| bigint_new | double_new | decimal_new | string_new |
+------------+------------+-------------+------------+
| -10.0      | 0.53       | 0.5         | 10.0       |
| NULL       | -0.1       | -0.1        | -10.0      |
| -1.0       | NULL       | 20.5        | 30.0       |
| 4.0        | 0.89       | NULL        | -30.0      |
| -50.0      | -1.0       | -1          | 50.0       |
| 6.0        | 1.5        | 1.5         | -50.0      |
| -70.0      | -7.5       | -7.5        | NULL       |
| 1.0        | -10.2      | -10.2       | -1.0       |
| -90.0      | 2.58       | 2.6         | 0.0        |
| 10.0       | -5.8       | -5.8        | -90.0      |
+------------+------------+-------------+------------+``````

## SHIFTLEFT

• Syntax

``````int shiftleft(tinyint|smallint|int <number1>, int <number2>)
bigint shiftleft(bigint <number1>, int <number2>)``````
• Description

Shifts a value left by a specific number of places (<<). This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

• number1: required. The value is of the TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, or BIGINT type.

• number2: required. The value is of the INT type.

• Return value

A value of the INT or BIGINT type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number1 is not of the TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, or BIGINT type, an error is returned.

• If the value of number2 is not of the INT type, an error is returned.

• If the value of number1 or number2 is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 4. The following statement shifts the binary value of 1 two places to the left (1<<2,0001 shifted to be 0100).
select shiftleft(1,2);
-- The return value is 32. The following statement shifts the binary value of 4 three places to the left (4<<3,0100 shifted to be 100000).
select shiftleft(4,3);
-- The return value is null.
select shiftleft(null,2);``````
• Example of table data

Shift numbers in the int_data and bigint_data columns left by a specific number of places based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``````-- Enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. Commit this command along with the SQL statement.
set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;
select shiftleft(int_data, 1) as int_new, shiftleft(bigint_data, 1) as bigint_new from mf_math_fun_t;``````

The following result is returned:

``````+---------+------------+
| int_new | bigint_new |
+---------+------------+
| NULL    | -20        |
| -40     | NULL       |
| 0       | -2         |
| -80     | 8          |
| 10      | -100       |
| -120    | 12         |
| -2      | -140       |
| -160    | 2          |
| 18      | -180       |
| -200    | 20         |
+---------+------------+``````

## SHIFTRIGHT

• Syntax

``````int shiftright(tinyint|smallint|int <number1>, int <number2>)
bigint shiftright(bigint <number1>, int <number2>)``````
• Description

Shifts a value right by a specific number of places (>>). This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

• number1: required. The value is of the TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, or BIGINT type.

• number2: required. The value is of the INT type.

• Return value

A value of the INT or BIGINT type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number1 is not of the TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, or BIGINT type, an error is returned.

• If the value of number2 is not of the INT type, an error is returned.

• If the value of number1 or number2 is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 1. The following statement shifts the binary value of 4 two places to the right (4>>2,0100 shifted to be 0001).
select shiftright(4,2);
-- The return value is 4. The following statement shifts the binary value of 32 three places to the right (32>>3,100000 shifted to be 0100).
select shiftright(32,3);
-- The return value is null.
select shiftright(null,3);``````
• Example of table data

Shift numbers in the int_data and bigint_data columns right by a specific number of places based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``````-- Enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. Commit this command along with the SQL statement.
set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;
select shiftright(int_data, 1) as int_new, shiftright(bigint_data, 1) as bigint_new from mf_math_fun_t;``````

The following result is returned:

``````+---------+------------+
| int_new | bigint_new |
+---------+------------+
| NULL    | -5         |
| -10     | NULL       |
| 0       | -1         |
| -20     | 2          |
| 2       | -25        |
| -30     | 3          |
| -1      | -35        |
| -40     | 0          |
| 4       | -45        |
| -50     | 5          |
+---------+------------+``````

## SHIFTRIGHTUNSIGNED

• Syntax

``````int shiftrightunsigned(tinyint|smallint|int <number1>, int <number2>)
bigint shiftrightunsigned(bigint <number1>, int <number2>)``````
• Description

Shifts an unsigned value right by a specific number of places (>>>). This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

• number1: required. The value is an integer of the TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, or BIGINT type.

• number2: required. The value is an integer of the INT type.

• Return value

A value of the INT or BIGINT type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number1 is not of the TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, or BIGINT type, an error is returned.

• If the value of number2 is not of the INT type, an error is returned.

• If the value of number1 or number2 is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 2. The following statement shifts the binary unsigned value of 8 two places to the right (8>>>2,1000 shifted to be 0010).
select shiftrightunsigned(8,2);
-- The return value is 1073741820. The following statement shifts the binary value of -14 two places to the right (-14>>>2, 11111111 11111111 11111111 11110010 shifted to be 00111111 11111111 11111111 11111100).
select shiftrightunsigned(-14,2);
-- The return value is null.
select shiftrightunsigned(-14,null);``````
• Example of table data

Shift unsigned values in the int_data and bigint_data columns right by a specific number of places based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``````-- Enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. Commit this command along with the SQL statement.
set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;
select shiftrightunsigned(int_data, 1) as int_new, shiftrightunsigned(bigint_data, 1) as bigint_new from mf_math_fun_t;``````

The following result is returned:

``````+------------+---------------------+
| int_new    | bigint_new          |
+------------+---------------------+
| NULL       | 9223372036854775803 |
| 2147483638 | NULL                |
| 0          | 9223372036854775807 |
| 2147483628 | 2                   |
| 2          | 9223372036854775783 |
| 2147483618 | 3                   |
| 2147483647 | 9223372036854775773 |
| 2147483608 | 0                   |
| 4          | 9223372036854775763 |
| 2147483598 | 5                   |
+------------+---------------------+``````

## SIGN

• Syntax

``double sign(<number>)``
• Description

Returns the sign of the input value. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE, BIGINT, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, FLOAT, DECIMAL, or STRING type.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is a positive value, 1.0 is returned.

• If the value of number is a negative value, -1.0 is returned.

• If the value of number is 0, 0.0 is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is -1.0.
select sign(-2.5);
-- The return value is 1.0.
select sign(2.5);
-- The return value is 0.0.
select sign(0);
-- The return value is null.
select sign(null);``````
• Example of table data

Obtain the signs of numbers in all columns based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``````-- Enable the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. Commit this command along with the SQL statement.
set odps.sql.type.system.odps2=true;
select sign(int_data) as int_new, sign(bigint_data) as bigint_new, sign(double_data) as double_new, sign(decimal_data) as decimal_new, sign(float_data) as float_new, sign(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``````

The following result is returned:

``````+------------+------------+------------+-------------+------------+------------+
| int_new    | bigint_new | double_new | decimal_new | float_new  | string_new |
+------------+------------+------------+-------------+------------+------------+
| NULL       | -1.0       | 1.0        | 1           | 1.0        | 1.0        |
| -1.0       | NULL       | -1.0       | -1          | -1.0       | -1.0       |
| 0.0        | -1.0       | NULL       | 1           | -1.0       | 1.0        |
| -1.0       | 1.0        | 1.0        | NULL        | 1.0        | -1.0       |
| 1.0        | -1.0       | -1.0       | -1          | NULL       | 1.0        |
| -1.0       | 1.0        | 1.0        | 1           | 1.0        | -1.0       |
| -1.0       | -1.0       | -1.0       | -1          | -1.0       | NULL       |
| -1.0       | 1.0        | -1.0       | -1          | -1.0       | -1.0       |
| 1.0        | -1.0       | 1.0        | 1           | 1.0        | 0.0        |
| -1.0       | 1.0        | -1.0       | -1          | -1.0       | -1.0       |
+------------+------------+------------+-------------+------------+------------+``````

## SIN

• Syntax

``double|decimal sin(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the sine of number, which is a radian value.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is -0.3048106211022167.
select sin(60);
-- The return value is null.
select sin(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the sine of values in a column based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select sin(bigint_data) as bigint_new, sin(double_data) as double_new, sin(decimal_data) as decimal_new, sin(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
| bigint_new           | double_new           | decimal_new          | string_new           |
+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
| 0.5440211108893698   | 0.5012130046737979   | 0.5012130046737979   | -0.5440211108893698  |
| NULL                 | -0.09983341664682815 | -0.09983341664682815 | 0.5440211108893698   |
| -0.8414709848078965  | NULL                 | 0.9995605376022045   | -0.9880316240928618  |
| -0.7568024953079282  | 0.7770717475268238   | NULL                 | 0.9880316240928618   |
| 0.26237485370392877  | -0.8414709848078965  | -0.8414709848078965  | -0.26237485370392877 |
| -0.27941549819892586 | 0.9974949866040544   | 0.9974949866040544   | 0.26237485370392877  |
| -0.7738906815578891  | -0.9379999767747389  | -0.9379999767747389  | NULL                 |
| 0.8414709848078965   | 0.6998746875935423   | 0.6998746875935423   | -0.8414709848078965  |
| -0.8939966636005579  | 0.5325349075556212   | 0.5325349075556212   | 0.0                  |
| -0.5440211108893698  | 0.46460217941375737  | 0.46460217941375737  | -0.8939966636005579  |
+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+``````

## SINH

• Syntax

``double|decimal sinh(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the hyperbolic sine of number.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 5.343237290762231E12.
select sinh(30);
-- The return value is null.
select sinh(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the hyperbolic sine of values in a column based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select sinh(bigint_data) as bigint_new, sinh(double_data) as double_new, sinh(decimal_data) as decimal_new, sinh(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+-----------------------+
| bigint_new             | double_new           | decimal_new          | string_new            |
+------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+-----------------------+
| -11013.232874703393    | 0.5494517420061382   | 0.5494517420061382   | 11013.232874703393    |
| NULL                   | -0.10016675001984403 | -0.10016675001984403 | -11013.232874703393   |
| -1.1752011936438014    | NULL                 | 380445243.96844625   | 5343237290762.231     |
| 27.28991719712775      | 1.0122369492687646   | NULL                 | -5343237290762.231    |
| -2.592352764293536e21  | -1.1752011936438014  | -1.1752011936438014  | 2.592352764293536e21  |
| 201.71315737027922     | 2.1292794550948173   | 2.1292794550948173   | -2.592352764293536e21 |
| -1.2577193354595834e30 | -904.0209306858466   | -904.0209306858466   | NULL                  |
| 1.1752011936438014     | -13451.593018563612  | -13451.593018563612  | -1.1752011936438014   |
| -6.102016471589204e38  | 6.560682077817757    | 6.560682077817757    | 0.0                   |
| 11013.232874703393     | -165.1482661774516   | -165.1482661774516   | -6.102016471589204e38 |
+------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+-----------------------+``````

## SQRT

• Syntax

``double|decimal sqrt(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the square root of number.

• Parameters

number: required. The value is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. The value must be greater than 0. If the value is less than 0, null is returned. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 2.0.
select sqrt(4);
-- The return value is null.
select sqrt(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the square root of values in a column based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select sqrt(bigint_data) as bigint_new, sqrt(double_data) as double_new, sqrt(decimal_data) as decimal_new, sqrt(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+--------------------+--------------------+-------------------+--------------------+
| bigint_new         | double_new         | decimal_new       | string_new         |
+--------------------+--------------------+-------------------+--------------------+
| NULL               | 0.724568837309472  | 0.724568837309472 | 3.1622776601683795 |
| NULL               | NULL               | NULL              | NULL               |
| NULL               | NULL               | 4.522167621838006 | 5.477225575051661  |
| 2.0                | 0.9433981132056604 | NULL              | NULL               |
| NULL               | NULL               | NULL              | 7.0710678118654755 |
| 2.449489742783178  | 1.224744871391589  | 1.224744871391589 | NULL               |
| NULL               | NULL               | NULL              | NULL               |
| 1.0                | NULL               | NULL              | NULL               |
| NULL               | 1.606237840420901  | 1.606237840420901 | 0.0                |
| 3.1622776601683795 | NULL               | NULL              | NULL               |
+--------------------+--------------------+-------------------+--------------------+``````

## TAN

• Syntax

``double|decimal tan(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the tangent of number, which is a radian value.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is -6.405331196646276.
select tan(30);
-- The return value is null.
select tan(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the tangent of values in a column based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select tan(bigint_data) as bigint_new, tan(double_data) as double_new, tan(decimal_data) as decimal_new, tan(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
| bigint_new           | double_new           | decimal_new          | string_new           |
+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
| -0.6483608274590866  | 0.5792200822893652   | 0.5792200822893652   | 0.6483608274590866   |
| NULL                 | -0.10033467208545055 | -0.10033467208545055 | -0.6483608274590866  |
| -1.5574077246549023  | NULL                 | -33.71948732190433   | -6.405331196646276   |
| 1.1578212823495775   | 1.2345994590490046   | NULL                 | 6.405331196646276    |
| 0.27190061199763077  | -1.5574077246549023  | -1.5574077246549023  | -0.27190061199763077 |
| -0.29100619138474915 | 14.101419947171719   | 14.101419947171719   | 0.27190061199763077  |
| -1.2219599181369434  | -2.706013866772691   | -2.706013866772691   | NULL                 |
| 1.5574077246549023   | -0.979852083895097   | -0.979852083895097   | -1.5574077246549023  |
| 1.995200412208242    | -0.6291704256385503  | -0.6291704256385503  | 0.0                  |
| 0.6483608274590866   | 0.5246662219468002   | 0.5246662219468002   | 1.995200412208242    |
+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+``````

## TANH

• Syntax

``double|decimal tanh(<number>)``
• Description

Calculates the hyperbolic tangent of number.

• Parameters

number: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 1.0.
select tanh(30);
-- The return value is null.
select tanh(null);``````
• Example of table data

Calculate the hyperbolic tangent of values in a column based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select tanh(bigint_data) as bigint_new, tanh(double_data) as double_new, tanh(decimal_data) as decimal_new, tanh(string_data) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+---------------------+
| bigint_new          | double_new           | decimal_new          | string_new          |
+---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+---------------------+
| -0.9999999958776927 | 0.48154979836430806  | 0.48154979836430806  | 0.9999999958776927  |
| NULL                | -0.09966799462495582 | -0.09966799462495582 | -0.9999999958776927 |
| -0.7615941559557649 | NULL                 | 1.0                  | 1.0                 |
| 0.999329299739067   | 0.7113937318189625   | NULL                 | -1.0                |
| -1.0                | -0.7615941559557649  | -0.7615941559557649  | 1.0                 |
| 0.9999877116507956  | 0.9051482536448664   | 0.9051482536448664   | -1.0                |
| -1.0                | -0.9999993881955461  | -0.9999993881955461  | NULL                |
| 0.7615941559557649  | -0.9999999972367348  | -0.9999999972367348  | -0.7615941559557649 |
| -1.0                | 0.9885821584459533   | 0.9885821584459533   | 0.0                 |
| 0.9999999958776927  | -0.9999816679925603  | -0.9999816679925603  | -1.0                |
+---------------------+----------------------+----------------------+---------------------+``````

## TRUNC

• Syntax

``double|decimal trunc(<number>[, bigint <decimal_places>])``
• Description

Truncates the input value of number to the specified decimal place.

Note

If the Hive-compatible data type edition is used, this function is not a mathematical function. It is used to convert a date value. For more information about the related date function, see DATETRUNC. You must configure the data type edition of your MaxCompute project based on your business requirements. For more information about data type editions, see Data type editions.

• Parameters

• number: required. A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type. If the input value is of the STRING or BIGINT type, the value is implicitly converted into a value of the DOUBLE type before calculation.

• decimal_places: optional. The value is a constant of the BIGINT type. This parameter specifies the position where the number is truncated. If this parameter is not specified, the number is truncated to the ones place. decimal_places can be a negative value, which indicates that the number is truncated from the decimal point to the left and the decimal part is left out. If decimal_places exceeds the length of the integer part, 0 is returned.

• Return value

A value of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is of the DOUBLE or DECIMAL type, a value of the same type is returned.

• If the value of number is of the STRING or BIGINT type, a value of the DOUBLE type is returned.

• If decimal_places is not of the BIGINT type, an error is returned.

• If the value of number or decimal_places is null, null is returned.

Note
• If a value of the DOUBLE type is returned, the return value may not be displayed properly. This issue exists in all systems. For more information, see `trunc(125.815,1)` in this example.

• The number is filled with zeros from the specified position.

• Examples

• Examples of static data

``````-- The return value is 125.0.
select trunc(125.815,0);
-- The return value is 125.80000000000001.
select trunc(125.815,1);
-- The return value is 125.81.
select trunc(125.815,2);
-- The return value is 125.815.
select trunc(125.815,3);
-- The return value is -125.81.
select trunc(-125.815,2);
-- The return value is 120.0.
select trunc(125.815,-1);
-- The return value is 100.0.
select trunc(125.815,-2);
-- The return value is 0.0.
select trunc(125.815,-3);
-- The return value is 123.345.
select trunc(123.345,4);
-- The return value is 0.0.
select trunc(123.345,-4);
-- The return value is null.
select trunc(123.345,null);``````
• Example of table data

Truncate numbers in a column to the specified decimal place based on the sample data. Sample statement:

``select trunc(bigint_data, 1) as bigint_new, trunc(double_data,1) as double_new, trunc(decimal_data, 1) as decimal_new, trunc(string_data, 1) as string_new from mf_math_fun_t;``

The following result is returned:

``````+------------+---------------------+-------------+------------+
| bigint_new | double_new          | decimal_new | string_new |
+------------+---------------------+-------------+------------+
| -10.0      | 0.5                 | 0.5         | 10.0       |
| NULL       | -0.1                | -0.1        | -10.0      |
| -1.0       | NULL                | 20.4        | 30.0       |
| 4.0        | 0.8                 | NULL        | -30.0      |
| -50.0      | -1.0                | -1          | 50.0       |
| 6.0        | 1.5                 | 1.5         | -50.0      |
| -70.0      | -7.5                | -7.5        | NULL       |
| 1.0        | -10.200000000000001 | -10.2       | -1.0       |
| -90.0      | 2.5                 | 2.5         | 0.0        |
| 10.0       | -5.800000000000001  | -5.8        | -90.0      |
+------------+---------------------+-------------+------------+``````

## UNHEX

• Syntax

``binary unhex(string <number>)``
• Description

Converts a hexadecimal string into a string. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

number: required. The value is a hexadecimal string.

• Return value

A value of the BINARY type is returned. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of number is 0, an error is returned.

• If the value of number is null, null is returned.

• Examples

``````-- The return value is abc.
select unhex('616263');
-- The return value is abc.
select unhex(616263);
-- The return value is null.
select unhex(null);``````

## WIDTH_BUCKET

• Syntax

``width_bucket(numeric <expr>, numeric <min_value>, numeric <max_value>, int <num_buckets>)``
• Description

Specifies the number of buckets and the minimum and maximum values of the acceptable range for a bucket. It allows you to construct equi-width buckets, in which the bucket range is divided into intervals that have an identical size. It returns the ID of the bucket into which the value of a specific expression falls. This function supports the following data types: DECIMAL(precision,scale) in the MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition, BIGINT, INT, FLOAT, DOUBLE, and DECIMAL. For more information, see MaxCompute V2.0 data type edition. This function is an additional function of MaxCompute V2.0.

• Parameters

• expr: required. This parameter specifies the expression for which you want to identify the matching bucket ID.

• min_value: required. This parameter specifies the minimum value of the acceptable range for the bucket.

• max_value: required. This parameter specifies the maximum value of the acceptable range for the bucket. The value must be greater than min_value.

• num_buckets: required. This parameter specifies the number of buckets. The value must be greater than 0.

• Return value

A value of the BIGINT type is returned. The value ranges from 0 to num_buckets plus 1. The return value varies based on the following rules:

• If the value of expr is less than that of min_value, 0 is returned.

• If the value of expr is greater than that of max_value, the value of num_buckets plus 1 is returned.

• If the value of expr is null, null is returned. In other cases, the ID of the bucket into which the value falls is returned. The bucket ID is named based on the following formula: `Bucket ID = floor(num_buckets × (expr - min_value)/(max_value - min_value) + 1)`.

• If the value of min_value, max_value, or num_buckets is null, null is returned.

• Examples

• Example 1: The values of all input parameters are not null. The following commands provide an example:

``````select key,value,width_bucket(value,100,500,5) as value_group
from values
(1,99),
(2,100),
(3,199),
(4,200),
(5,499),
(6,500),
(7,501),
(8,NULL)
as t(key,value);``````

The following result is returned:

``````+-------+--------+-------------+
| key   | value  | value_group |
+-------+--------+-------------+
| 1     | 99     | 0           |
| 2     | 100    | 1           |
| 3     | 199    | 2           |
| 4     | 200    | 2           |
| 5     | 499    | 5           |
| 6     | 500    | 6           |
| 7     | 501    | 6           |
| 8     | NULL   | NULL        |
+-------+--------+-------------+``````
• Example 2: The value of an input parameter is null. The following commands provide an example:

``````select key,value,width_bucket(value,100,500,null) as value_group
from values
(1,99),
(2,100),
(3,199),
(4,200),
(5,499),
(6,500),
(7,501),
(8,NULL)
as t(key,value);``````

The following result is returned:

``````+------+-------+-------------+
| key  | value | value_group |
+------+-------+-------------+
| 1    | 99    | NULL        |
| 2    | 100   | NULL        |
| 3    | 199   | NULL        |
| 4    | 200   | NULL        |
| 5    | 499   | NULL        |
| 6    | 500   | NULL        |
| 7    | 501   | NULL        |
| 8    | NULL  | NULL        |
+------+-------+-------------+``````