This topic describes how to configure an Active Directory (AD) domain controller on an Elastic Compute Service (ECS) instance and connect an ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance to a self-managed AD domain.

Background information

AD is a directory service that is provided by Microsoft. A directory is a hierarchical structure that stores information about the objects on the same LAN. An enterprise can store data, such as computer accounts, user accounts, and groups, in a directory. This way, the enterprise can improve the security of the data and manage the data in a more convenient manner.

You can connect your RDS instance to a self-managed AD domain. This way, you can manage your enterprise in a centralized manner and can configure IP address whitelists at the database level and the user level to improve the security of your data.

Note You can modify the information of the AD domain controller in the pg_hba.conf file of your RDS instance or add the information of the AD domain controller to the pg_hba.conf file of your RDS instance. You can configure the AD domain controller and the pg_hba.conf file in the ApsaraDB RDS console. For more information, see Introduction of pg_hba.conf file.

Prerequisites

  • The following requirements are met:
    • The RDS instance runs a major engine version of PostgreSQL 10, PostgreSQL 11, PostgreSQL 12, PostgreSQL 13, or PostgreSQL 14.
    • The RDS instance runs a minor engine version of 20210228 or later. For more information about how to update the minor engine version of your RDS instance, see Update the minor engine version of an ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance.
    • The RDS instance uses standard SSDs or enhanced SSDs (ESSDs).
    • The RDS instance does not use a new general-purpose instance type.
      Note The new general-purpose instance types provide better scalability and performance and reduce the time to create an RDS instance or change the specifications of an RDS instance. The new general-purpose instance types do not support the self-managed AD domain controller connection feature. For more information, see Primary ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance types.
  • An ECS instance is created. For more information, see Create an ECS instance. Your RDS instance must access the self-managed AD domain by using a private IP address. Therefore, the ECS instance must meet the following conditions:
    • The ECS instance and your RDS instance reside in the same virtual private cloud (VPC).
    • The security group to which the ECS instance belongs is configured to allow access from the private IP address of your RDS instance. For more information, see Add security group rules.
    • The firewall of the ECS instance is disabled by default. If the firewall is enabled for the ECS instance, you must configure the firewall to allow access from the private IP address of your RDS instance.
    • The image of the ECS instance runs Windows Server 2016 or a later version.
  • The domain account belongs to the Domain Admins group.
  • Your Alibaba Cloud account is used to log on to the ApsaraDB RDS console.

Procedure

  1. Configure an AD domain controller for the ECS instance.
    1. Log on to the ECS instance.
      Note The AD domain controller must run a Windows Server system. We recommend that you use Windows Server 2016 or a later version. In this example, the AD domain controller runs Windows Server 2016.
    2. Search for and open Server Manager.
    3. In the left-side navigation pane, click Dashboard. On the Dashboard page, click Add roles and features.
      Add roles and features
    4. In the Add Roles and Features Wizard, configure the following parameters.
      Tab Description
      Before You Begin Use the default settings.
      Installation Type Use the default settings.
      Server Selection Use the default settings.
      Server Roles
      • Select Active Directory Domain Services. In the dialog box that appears, click Add Features.
      • Select DNS Server. In the dialog box that appears, click Add Features.
        Note Make sure that your computer uses a fixed IP address. If the IP address dynamically changes, the DNS server becomes unavailable.
      Features Use the default settings.
      AD DS Use the default settings.
      DNS Server Use the default settings.
      Install Click Install to add the role that you configured.
    5. After the role is added, click Close to close the wizard.
    6. In the left-side navigation pane of Server Manager, click AD DS. In the upper-right corner of the page that appears, click More.
      More icon of the AD DS page
    7. In the All Servers Task Details and Notifications dialog box, click Promote this server to a domain controller.
      Promote this server to an AD domain controller
    8. In the Active Directory Domain Services Configuration Wizard, configure the following parameters.
      Tab Description
      Deployment Configuration Select Add a new forest and configure Root domain name. In this example, enter pgsqldomain.net. Add a new forest and set a domain name
      Domain Controller Options Set a Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM) password. Set a DSRM password
      Server Selection Clear Create DNS delegation. Create DNS delegation
      Additional Options Use the default settings.
      Paths Use the default settings.
      Review Options Use the default settings.
      Prerequisites Check Click Install.
      Note After the ECS instance is promoted to an AD domain controller, you must restart the ECS instance. Then, you can perform the subsequent steps.
  2. Create an administrator user for the AD domain controller.
    1. Log on to the ECS instance. Then, search for and open Server Manager.
    2. In the left-side navigation pane of Server Manager page, click AD DS, right-click the AD domain controller that you want to configure, and then select Active Directory Users and Computers. Add the ad user
    3. Click pgsqldomain.net, right-click Users, and then choose New > User. Add a user account
    4. Specify a username and click Next. New user
    5. Specify a password, select Password never expires, and then click Next. Then, click Finish. A user is created. Set a password
    6. Double-click the created user and add the user to the Domain Admins administrator group. Add the user to the administrator group
      After the user is added to the Domain Admins administrator group, the following page appears.Result
  3. Add a standard user to the AD domain controller for logon.
    Note You must perform the same operations that are described in Add an administrator user to the AD domain controller. A standard user does not need to be added to the Domain Admins administrator group.

    In this example, add a standard user named ldapuser to the AD domain controller. This user is used to log on to your RDS instance.

  4. Configure security group rules for the ECS instance.
    1. Log on to the ECS console.
    2. In the left-side navigation pane, choose Instances & Images > Instances.
    3. In the top navigation bar, select a region.
    4. On the Instances page, find the required ECS instance and click the ID of the ECS instance.
    5. In the left-side navigation pane, click Security Groups. On the page that appears, click Add Rules.
      Note A number of ports need to be enabled for the AD domain controller. We recommend that you configure a separate security group for the AD domain controller rather than configuring the AD domain controller in the same security group as other ECS instances.
    6. On the Inbound tab, click Add Rule to allow your RDS instance to access the ECS instance over the following ports.
      Protocol type Port range Description
      TCP 88 The port for the Kerberos authentication protocol.
      TCP 135 The port for the Remote Procedure Call (RPC) protocol.
      TCP/UDP 389 The port for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).
      TCP 445 The port for the Common Internet File System (CIFS) protocol.
      TCP 3268 The port for Global Catalog.
      TCP/UDP 53 The port for the DNS service.
      TCP 49152~65535 The default dynamic port range for connections. Enter a value in the following format: 49152/65535.
  5. Configure your RDS instance.
    1. Access RDS Instances, select a region at the top, and then click the ID of the target RDS instance.
    2. Create an account named ldapuser. For more information, see Create an account on an ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance. dbadminrds account
      Note The username of the account of your RDS instance must be the same as the name of the standard user that is created for the AD domain controller. The passwords of the two accounts can be different. When the AD domain controller is enabled for access control, the AD domain controller verifies the password of the standard user. When the AD domain controller is disabled for access control, ApsaraDB RDS verifies the password of the account of your RDS instance. You can set the password of the account on the Accounts page in the ApsaraDB RDS console.
    3. In the left-side navigation pane, click Accounts. On the page that appears, click the AD Domain Services tab.
      If the AD Domain Service tab is opened for the first time, ApsaraDB RDS creates the following records by default:
      host    all            all    0.0.0.0/0    md5
      host    replication    all    0.0.0.0/0    md5

      You can delete or modify those two records.

    4. Click Edit of the first record and modify the following parameters.
      Note The following table describes only the parameters that are used in the provided example. For more information, see Official documentation of PostgreSQL.
      Parameter Example Description
      priority 0 The priority of the record. If you set this parameter to 0, the record has the highest priority and is automatically generated. Modify the first record and set this parameter to 0. The value 0 specifies the highest priority in the AD domain service.
      TYPE host Valid values:
      • host: The record matches TCP/IP connections, including SSL connections and non-SSL connections.
      • hostssl: The record matches only TCP/IP connections that are established over SSL.
        Note This parameter takes effect only when SSL encryption is enabled for your RDS instance. For more information, see Configure SSL encryption for an ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance.
      • hostnossl: The record matches only TCP/IP connections that are not established over SSL.
      DATABASE all The database that the specified users are allowed to access. If you set this parameter to all, the specified users are allowed to access all databases of your RDS instance. If you specify multiple databases, separate the database names with commas (,).
      USER ldapuser The user that is allowed to access the databases on your RDS instance. You must specify the usernames in the AD domain for this parameter. If you specify multiple users, separate the usernames with commas (,).
      Note This parameter can be set only to the usernames of standard users that are created in the AD domain.
      ADDRESS 0.0.0.0/0 The IP addresses from which the specified users can access the specified databases. If you set this parameter to 0.0.0.0/0, the specified users are allowed to access the specified databases from all IP addresses.
      MASK None The mask for the IP address in the record. If the value of the ADDRESS parameter is an IP address, you can use this parameter to specify the mask of the IP address.
      METHOD ldap
      Note LDAP is a protocol that is used to access the directories of databases. In this topic, LDAP is used as an example.
      The authentication method. Valid values:
      • trust
      • reject
      • scram-sha-256
      • md5
      • password
      • gss
      • sspi
      • ldap
      • radius
      • cert
      • pam
      Note The value of this parameter must be in lowercase.
      OPTION ldapserver=<The private IP address of the ECS instance> ldapbasedn="CN=Users,DC=pgsqldomain,DC=net" ldapbinddn="CN=<The username of the administrator user of the AD domain controller>,CN=Users,DC=pgsqldomain,DC=net" ldapbindpasswd="<The password of the administrator user of the AD domain controller>" ldapsearchattribute="sAMAccountName" Optional. The value of this parameter varies based on the value of the Method parameter. In this topic, LDAP is used as an example. You must specify this parameter. For more information, see Authentication Methods.
    5. Click add of the AD domain service record to add a new record. The following information provides the valid values of the new record.
      host    all            all    0.0.0.0/0    md5
    6. Click OK. Then, click Submit.
      Note After you click Submit, the status of your RDS instance changes to Maintaining Instance for about 1 minute. The new configurations take effect only for new connections. You must close the existing connections and re-establish these connections for the new configurations to take effect.
  6. (Optional) Import the service information of multiple AD domains at a time. You can also manually add the service information of the AD domain. Import the service information of the AD domain
    The following import methods are supported:
    • Overwrite existing service information.
    • Additional service information (highest priority): If you select this option, the service information of the AD domain is appended to the beginning of the existing service information. The priority of the appended information is higher than the priority of the existing service information.
    • Additional service information (lowest priority): If you select this option, the service information of the AD domain is appended to the end of the existing service information. The priority of the appended information is lower than the priority of the existing service information.
    Valid format:
    TYPE|DATABASE|USER1|ADDRESS|MASK|METHOD|OPTION

    Enter the service information that you want to import in the Edit AD domain text box. For more information about the parameters, see Parameters.

    Examples:
    host|all|<The username of the standard user of the AD domain controller>|0.0.0.0/0||ldap|ldapserver=<The private IP address of the ECS instance> ldapbasedn="CN=Users,DC=pgsqldomain,DC=net" ldapbinddn="CN=<The username of the administrator user of the AD domain controller>,CN=Users,DC=pgsqldomain,DC=net" ldapbindpasswd="<The password of the administrator user of the AD domain controller>" ldapsearchattribute="sAMAccountName"
  7. Test the connection.
    Use a PostgreSQL command-line tool to connect to your RDS instance.
    Note You can connect to your RDS instance by using multiple methods. In this topic, a PostgreSQL command-line tool is used. You must install PostgreSQL before you use the PostgreSQL command-line tool. For more information, see Connect to an ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance.

    Run the following command and use the username and password of the standard user of the AD domain controller to connect to your RDS instance:

    psql -h <The endpoint of your RDS instance> -U ldapuser -p 5432 -d postgres

View the modification history of AD domain service information

  1. Access RDS Instances, select a region at the top, and then click the ID of the target RDS instance.
  2. In the left-side navigation pane, click Accounts. On the page that appears, click the AD Domain Services Edit History tab.
  3. You can view changedetails in the Actions column. If the modification fails, the status is Not Taking Effect. You can click Change log to view the error message. View the modification history of AD domain service information