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Community Blog How Do Kubernetes Clusters in On-premises IDCs Use Cloud Resources in Serverless Mode

How Do Kubernetes Clusters in On-premises IDCs Use Cloud Resources in Serverless Mode

This article discusses how Kubernetes clusters in IDCs utilize Alibaba Cloud CPU and GPU computing resources in Serverless ECI mode.

By Yu Zhuang

In the previous article, Enhancing Self-created Kubernetes with Cloud Elasticity to Cope with Traffic Bursts, we discussed a method for adding cloud nodes to Kubernetes clusters in IDCs to handle business traffic growth. This method allows for flexible utilization of cloud resources through multi-level elastic scheduling and utilizes auto scaling to improve efficiency and reduce cloud costs.

However, this approach requires managing the node pool on the cloud yourself, which may not be suitable for everyone. As an alternative, you can consider using Elastic Container Instances (ECI) in serverless mode to run business pods to improve the efficiency of using CPU and GPU resources on the cloud.

Overview

The use of CPU and GPU resources in serverless mode on the cloud helps address the insufficient elasticity of IDC Kubernetes clusters, which may struggle to meet the requirements of rapid business growth, periodic business growth, and traffic bursts.

In serverless mode, you can directly submit business pods in Kubernetes clusters. These pods will run through ECIs, which have fast startup speeds and align with the lifecycle of business pods. With pay-as-you-go pricing, there's no need to create cloud nodes for Kubernetes clusters in IDCs, plan cloud resource capacity, or wait for ECS instances to be created. This approach provides extreme elasticity and reduces node operation and maintenance costs.

Using CPU and GPU resources in serverless mode on IDC Kubernetes clusters is suitable for the following business scenarios:

• Online businesses that require auto scaling to handle traffic fluctuations, such as online education and e-commerce. By using Serverless ECIs, you can significantly reduce the maintenance of fixed resource pools and computing costs.

• Data computing: In computing scenarios where Serverless ECI is used to host Spark, Presto, and ArgoWorkflow, it charges based on the uptime of pods, thus reducing computing costs.

• Continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipeline: Jenkins and GitLab Runner.

• Jobs: Jobs in AI computing scenarios and CronJobs.

1

Demo - A Kubernetes Cluster in an IDC Uses Cloud Resources in Serverless Mode

1. Prerequisites

The Kubernetes cluster has been connected to the ACK One console through the ACK One registered cluster. For more information, see Simplifying Kubernetes Multi-cluster Management with the Right Approach.

2. Install the ack-virtual-node component

Install the ack-virtual-node component in the ACK One registered cluster console. After the component is installed, view the cluster node pool through the registered cluster kubeconfig. virtual-kubelet is a virtual node that is connected to Alibaba Cloud Serverless ECIs.

kubectl get node
NAME                               STATUS   ROLES    AGE    VERSION
iz8vb1xtnuu0ne6b58hvx0z            Ready    master   4d3h   v1.20.9   // The IDC cluster node. In this example, there is only one master node, which is also a worker node and can run business containers.
virtual-kubelet-cn-zhangjiakou-a   Ready    agent    99s    v1.20.9。
// Install the virtual node produced by the ack-virtual-node component.

3. Use Serverless ECIs to run pods (CPU/GPU tasks)

Method 1: Add a label to the pods: alibabacloud.com/eci=true. The pods will run in a Serverless ECI mode. In the example, a GPU-accelerated ECI is used to run CUDA tasks. You do not need to install and configure the NVIDIA driver and runtime.

a) Submit the pods and use Serverless ECIs to run them.

> cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: gpu-pod
  labels:
    alibabacloud.com/eci: "true"  # Specify that use Serverless ECIs to run these pods.
  annotations:
k8s.aliyun.com/eci-use-specs: ecs.gn5-c4g1.xlarge  # Specify the supported GPU specification, which has 1 NVIDIA P100 GPU
spec:
  restartPolicy: Never
  containers:
    - name: cuda-container
      image: acr-multiple-clusters-registry.cn-hangzhou.cr.aliyuncs.com/ack-multiple-clusters/cuda10.2-vectoradd
      resources:
        limits:
          nvidia.com/gpu: 1 # Apply for one GPU
EOF

b) View the pods. The pods run on the virtual node virtual-kubelet and actually Serverless ECIs are used to run them in the backend.

> kubectl get pod -o wide
NAME       READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE     IP              NODE                               NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
gpu-pod    0/1     Completed   0          5m30s   172.16.217.90   virtual-kubelet-cn-zhangjiakou-a   <none>           <none>

> kubectl logs gpu-pod
Using CUDA Device [0]: Tesla P100-PCIE-16GB
GPU Device has SM 6.0 compute capability
[Vector addition of 50000 elements]
Copy input data from the host memory to the CUDA device
CUDA kernel launch with 196 blocks of 256 threads
Copy output data from the CUDA device to the host memory
Test PASSED
Done

Method 2: Set a label for a namespace

Set a label for a namespace alibabacloud.com/eci=true. All new pods in the namespace will run in Serverless ECI mode.

kubectl label namespace <namespace-name> alibabacloud.com/eci=true

4. Multi-level elastic scheduling

In the previous demo, we used Serverless ECIs to run pods by setting labels for pods or namespaces. You can prioritize using the resources of nodes in IDCs to run pods during application execution. When the resources in IDCs are insufficient, you can utilize Serverless ECIs. To achieve this, you can leverage the multi-level elastic scheduling feature of ACK One registered clusters. By installing the ack-co-scheduler components, you can define ResourcePolicy CR objects to enable multi-level elastic scheduling.

ResourcePolicy CR is a namespace resource with the following important parameters

  • selector: declares that the ResourcePolicy is applied to the selected pods which have the key1=value1 label in the same namespace.
  • strategy: the scheduling policy. Currently only supports prefer.
  • units: the schedulable units. During scale-out activities, pods are scheduled to nodes based on the priorities of the nodes listed under units in descending order. During scale-in activities, pods are deleted from the nodes based on the priorities of the nodes in ascending order.

    • resource: the type of elastic resources. Currently, IDC, ECS, and ECI are supported.
    • nodeSelector: uses the label of the node to identify the nodes in the scheduling units. This parameter takes effect only for ECS resources.
    • max: the maximum number of pods that can be deployed by using the resources.

The steps are as follows:

1) Define ResourcePolicy CR to preferentially use cluster resources in the IDC before using Serverless ECI resources on the cloud.

> cat << EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: scheduling.alibabacloud.com/v1alpha1
kind: ResourcePolicy
metadata:
  name: cost-balance-policy
spec:
  selector:
app: nginx           // Select an application pod.
strategy: prefer
  units:
  - resource: idc        // Prioritize the node resources in IDCs.
  - resource: eci        // Use Serverless ECI resources when the IDC node resources are insufficient.
EOF

2) Create an application deployment and start two replicas. Each replica requires two CPUs.

> cat << EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: nginx
  labels:
    app: nginx
spec:
  replicas: 2
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: nginx
  template:
    metadata:
      name: nginx
      annotations:
        addannotion: "true"
      labels:
        app: nginx      # The pod label must be the same as the one that you specified for the selector in the ResourcePolicy. 
    spec:
      schedulerName: ack-co-scheduler
      containers:
      - name: nginx
        image: acr-multiple-clusters-registry.cn-hangzhou.cr.aliyuncs.com/ack-multiple-clusters/nginx
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 2
          limits:
            cpu: 2
EOF

3) Run the following command to expand the application to four replicas. The Kubernetes cluster in the IDC has only one 6CPU node, and a maximum of two nginx pods can be started (system resources are reserved, and three pods cannot be started). If the remaining two replicas have insufficient resources on the nodes in the IDC, Serverless ECI is automatically used to run pods.

kubectl scale deployment nginx --replicas 4

4) View the running status of pods. Two pods run on nodes in the IDC, and two pods run on Alibaba Cloud Serverless ECI using virtual nodes.

> kubectl get pod -o widek get pod -o wideNAME                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE     IP              NODE                      nginx-79cd98b4b5-97s47   1/1     Running   0          84s     10.100.75.22    iz8vb1xtnuu0ne6b58hvx0z   nginx-79cd98b4b5-gxd8z   1/1     Running   0          84s     10.100.75.23    iz8vb1xtnuu0ne6b58hvx0z   nginx-79cd98b4b5-k55rb   1/1     Running   0          58s     10.100.75.24    virtual-kubelet-cn-zhangjiakou-anginx-79cd98b4b5-m9jxm   1/1     Running   0          58s     10.100.75.25    virtual-kubelet-cn-zhangjiakou-a

Summary

This article discusses how Kubernetes clusters in IDCs utilize Alibaba Cloud CPU and GPU computing resources in Serverless ECI mode, leveraging ACK One registered clusters to handle business traffic growth. This approach is completely Serverless, eliminating the need for additional cloud node operations and maintenance.

Reference

[1] Overview of Registered Clusters
https://www.alibabacloud.com/help/en/doc-detail/155208.html
[2] Use Elastic Container Service to Scale out a Cluster
https://www.alibabacloud.com/help/en/doc-detail/164370.html
[3] Instance Types Supported by ECI
https://www.alibabacloud.com/help/en/doc-detail/451262.html
[4] Multi-level Elastic Scheduling
https://www.alibabacloud.com/help/en/doc-detail/446694.html

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