This topic describes the performance metrics and limits of Object Storage Service (OSS).

The following table describes the performance metrics and limits of OSS.

ItemDescription
BandwidthThe upstream and downstream bandwidths of an Alibaba Cloud account are 10 Gbit/s in regions in the Chinese mainland and 5 Gbit/s in regions outside the Chinese mainland. If this limit is reached, requests are throttled.
Note When a request is throttled, the response to the request contains the x-oss-qos-delay-time: number header in which number indicates the duration for which the request is throttled. Unit: ms. For upload requests, the exact duration for which a request is throttled is returned. For download requests, the estimated duration for which a request is throttled is returned. The duration is estimated based on the extent of throttling and the size of the downloaded objects.

If your business requires a higher bandwidth (10 Gbit/s to 100 Gbit/s), for example, if you have offline big data processing requirements, contact technical support.

QPSThe total queries per second (QPS) for an Alibaba Cloud account is 10,000. The actual values vary based on the following read and write modes:
  • Sequential read and write: 2,000

    If you upload a large number of objects whose names contain sequential prefixes, such as timestamps and letters, a large number of object indexes may be stored in a partition. In this case, if you send a large number of requests to query these objects, the latency may increase. We recommend that you do not upload a large number of objects whose names contain sequential prefixes. For more information about how to change sequential prefixes to random prefixes, see OSS performance and scalability best practices.

  • Non-sequential read and write: 10,000

If your business requires a higher QPS, contact technical support.

Bucket
  • You can use an Alibaba Cloud account to create up to 100 buckets in the same region.
  • A bucket name must be globally unique in OSS. For more information about the naming conventions of buckets, see Bucket naming conventions.
  • After a bucket is created, its name, region, storage class, and redundancy type cannot be modified.
  • OSS does not impose limits on the capacity of a bucket.
Object
  • The size of the object that you want to upload

    When you use simple upload, form upload, or append upload to upload an object, the size of the object cannot exceed 5 GB. For more information, see Simple upload, Form upload, and Append upload.

    When you use multipart upload to upload an object, the size of the object cannot exceed 48.8 TB. For more information, see Multipart upload.

  • The size of the object that you want to rename

    You can rename only objects whose sizes are less than or equal to 1 GB in the OSS console. If you want to rename objects whose sizes exceed 1 GB, we recommend that you use OSS SDKs or ossutil. For more information, see Rename objects.

  • The number of objects that you want to delete

    You can delete up to 100 objects at a time in the OSS console or up to 1,000 objects at a time by using OSS SDKs. If you use ossutil or ossbrowser to delete multiple objects, you can delete an unlimited number of objects at a time.

    Warning Deleted objects cannot be recovered. Proceed with caution.
  • Whether existing objects are overwritten by objects that have the same names

    By default, if you upload an object that has the same name as the existing object, the existing object is overwritten. To prevent objects from being accidentally overwritten, you can enable versioning for the bucket in which the objects are stored. You can also include the x-oss-forbid-overwrite header in upload requests and set the header to true.

Data restorationYou must restore an Archive object or a Cold Archive object before you can access the object.
  • It takes approximately one minute to restore an Archive object.
  • For a Cold Archive object, the restoration period varies based on the restoration priority of the object.
    • Expedited: The object is restored within one hour.
    • Standard: The object is restored within two to five hours.
    • Bulk: The object is restored within five to twelve hours.

    The reference value for the amounts of retrieved data for an Alibaba Cloud account in a region is an average of 500 objects per second. The total retrieved data for the preceding priorities ranges from 100 TB to 120 TB per day.

Custom domain names
  • For a domain name that is mapped to a bucket located in regions in the Chinese mainland, you must apply for an ICP filing at the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT).
  • Up to 100 domain names can be mapped to a bucket. However, a domain name can be mapped to only one bucket.
  • OSS does not impose limits on the number of domain names that can be mapped to the buckets of an Alibaba Cloud account.
Lifecycle rules
  • You can configure up to 1,000 lifecycle rules for a bucket.
  • Limit on the number of object delete operations or storage class conversion operations
    • For a lifecycle rule that does not contain tags, you can perform up to 1 billion lifecycle-related operations in 24 hours, including object deletion, storage class conversion, and the operation that can be performed on the expired parts. If you want to perform more than 1 billion lifecycle-related operations, the time period that is required to complete the operations may exceed 24 hours.
    • For a lifecycle rule that contains tags, you can perform up to 500 million lifecycle-related operations in 24 hours, including object deletion, storage class conversion, and the operation that can be performed on the expired parts. If you want to perform more than 500 million lifecycle-related operations, the time period that is required to complete the operations may exceed 24 hours.
    Note If versioning is enabled for the bucket, an operation performed on each version of the objects is recorded as an operation.
Back-to-origin rules
  • You can configure up to 20 back-to-origin rules for a bucket.
  • In regions in the Chinese mainland and the China (Hong Kong) region, the default QPS for mirroring-based back-to-origin requests is 2,000, and the default bandwidth is 2 Gbit/s. In regions outside China, the default QPS for mirroring-based back-to-origin requests is 1,000, and the default bandwidth is 1 Gbit/s.
IMG
  • Limits on images
    • Limits on source images
      • Only JPG, PNG, BMP, GIF, WebP, TIFF, and HEIC images are supported.
      • The size of the source image cannot exceed 20 MB.
      • For the rotate operation, the height or width of the source image cannot exceed 4,096 pixels. For other operations, the width or height of the source image cannot exceed 30,000 pixels, and the total pixel number of the source image cannot exceed 250 million.

        The total pixel number of an animated image, such as a GIF image, is calculated by using the following formula: Width × Height × Number of image frames. The total pixel number of a static image, such as a PNG image, is calculated by using the following formula: Width × Height.

    • Limits on resized images

      The width or height of a resized image cannot exceed 16,384 pixels. The total pixel number of the resized image cannot exceed 16,777,216.

  • Limits on image styles

    You can create up to 50 image styles for a bucket. If your business requires more than 50 styles, contact technical support.

Resource plans
  • Resource plans that you purchase for specific regions can be used to offset the fees generated by the resource usage only in the specified regions.
  • You can use resource plans to offset the fees generated by the resource usage in the regions that you specified when you purchased the resource plans.
  • You can purchase only one storage plan for each validity period. However, you can upgrade the storage plan that you purchased. For more information about how to upgrade a storage plan, see Overview.
  • You can purchase multiple transfer acceleration plans and back-to-origin traffic plans that have the same validity period to offset your fees. However, these plans cannot be upgraded or renewed.
  • You can purchase multiple downstream traffic plans that have the same validity period to offset your fees. These plans can be renewed but cannot be upgraded.
  • No resource plans are available to offset API operation calling fees, data processing fees, and cross-region replication (CRR) traffic fees. You are charged these fees on a pay-as-you-go basis. For more information, see API operation calling fees, Data processing fees, and Traffic fees.