This topic describes how to migrate data from an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance to an ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance by using Data Transmission Service (DTS).

Prerequisites

Limits

Category Description
Limits on the source database
  • The tables to be migrated must have PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraints and all fields must be unique. Otherwise, the destination database may contain duplicate data records.
  • If you select tables as the objects to be migrated and you need to edit tables (such as renaming tables or columns) in the destination database, up to 1,000 tables can be migrated in a single data migration task. If you run a task to migrate more than 1,000 tables, a request error occurs. In this case, we recommend that you split the tables and configure multiple tasks to migrate the tables, or configure a task to migrate the entire database.
  • The following requirements for binary logs must be met:
    • The binary logging feature must be enabled for the ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance. The binlog_format parameter must be set to row and the binlog_row_image parameter must be set to full. For more information, see View the parameters of an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance. Otherwise, error messages are returned during precheck and the data migration task cannot be started.
    • If you perform only incremental data migration, the binary logs of the source database must be stored for more than 24 hours. If you perform both schema migration and incremental data migration, the binary logs of the source database must be stored for at least seven days. After schema migration is completed, you can set the retention period to more than 24 hours. Otherwise, DTS may fail to obtain the binary logs and the task may fail. In extreme cases, data may be inconsistent or lost. Make sure that you set the retention period of binary logs in accordance with the preceding requirements. Otherwise, the Service Level Agreement (SLA) of DTS does not ensure service reliability and performance. For more information about binary log files and log backup files of an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance, see View and delete the binary log files of an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance.

  • Limits on operations: During schema migration, do not perform DDL operations to change the schemas of databases or tables. Otherwise, the data migration task fails.
Other limits
  • We recommend that you do not use gh-ost or pt-online-schema-change to perform DDL operations on objects during data migration. Otherwise, data migration may fail.
  • You must make sure that the precision settings for columns of the FLOAT or DOUBLE data type meet your business requirements. DTS uses the ROUND(COLUMN,PRECISION) function to retrieve values from columns of the FLOAT or DOUBLE data type. If you do not specify a precision, DTS sets the precision for the FLOAT data type to 38 digits and the precision for the DOUBLE data type to 308 digits.
  • Before you migrate data, evaluate the impact of data migration on the performance of the source and destination databases. We recommend that you migrate data during off-peak hours. During full data migration, DTS uses read and write resources of the source and destination databases. This may increase the loads of the database servers.
  • During full data migration, concurrent INSERT operations cause fragmentation in the tables of the destination database. After full data migration is completed, the tablespace of the destination database is larger than that of the source database.
  • DTS attempts to resume data migration tasks that failed within the last seven days. Before you switch workloads to the destination instance, stop or release the data migration task. You can also execute the REVOKE statement to revoke the write permissions from the accounts used by DTS to access the destination instance. Otherwise, the data in the source database overwrites the data in the destination instance after the task is resumed.

Billing

Migration type Task configuration fee Internet traffic fee
Schema migration and full data migration Free of charge. Charged only when data is migrated from Alibaba Cloud over the Internet. For more information, see Pricing.
Incremental data migration Charged. For more information, see Pricing.

Migration types

  • Schema migration

    DTS migrates the schemas of the required objects from the source database to the destination database.

  • Full data migration

    DTS migrates historical data of the required objects from the source database to the destination database.

  • Incremental data migration

    After full data migration is completed, DTS migrates incremental data from the source database to the destination database. Incremental data migration allows you to ensure service continuity when you migrate data between self-managed databases.

SQL operations that can be migrated

Operation type SQL statements
DML INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE

Permissions required for database accounts

Database Schema migration Full data migration Incremental data migration References
ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance The SELECT permission The SELECT permission The REPLICATION SLAVE, REPLICATION CLIENT, SHOW VIEW, and SELECT permissions Create an account on an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance and Modify the permissions of a standard account on an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance
ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance The CREATE and USAGE permissions on the migrated objects The permissions of the schema owner The permissions of the schema owner Create an account on an ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance

Procedure

  1. Go to the Data Migration Tasks page.
    1. Log on to the DMS console.
    2. In the top navigation bar, click DTS.
    3. In the left-side navigation pane, choose DTS (DTS) > Data Migration.
  2. On the right side of Data Migration Tasks, select the region where the data migration instance resides.
    Note If you use the new DTS console, you must select the region where the data migration instance resides in the top navigation bar.
  3. Click Create Task. On the page that appears, configure the source and destination databases.
    Section Parameter Description
    N/A Task Name

    The task name that DTS automatically generates. We recommend that you specify a descriptive name that makes it easy to identify the task. You do not need to use a unique task name.

    Source Database Database Type Select MySQL.
    Access Method Select Cloud Instance.
    Instance Region Select the region where the source ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance resides.
    Replicate Data Across Alibaba Cloud Accounts In this example, No is selected because data is synchronized within the same Alibaba Cloud account.
    RDS Instance ID Select the ID of the source ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance.
    Database Account Enter the database account of the source ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance.
    Database Password

    The password of the database account.

    Encryption

    Select Non-encrypted or SSL-encrypted based on your requirements. If you want to select SSL-encrypted, you must enable SSL encryption for the source instance before you configure the data migration task. For more information, see Configure SSL encryption for an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance.

    Destination Database Database Type Select PostgreSQL.
    Access Method Select Cloud Instance.
    Instance Region Select the region where the destination ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance resides.
    Instance ID Select the ID of the destination ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance.
    Database Name Enter the name of the destination database in the ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance.
    Database Account Enter the database account of the destination ApsaraDB RDS for PostgreSQL instance.
    Database Password

    The password of the database account.

  4. In the lower part of the page, click Test Connectivity and Proceed.
    Warning
    • If the source or destination database instance is an Alibaba Cloud database instance, such as an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL or ApsaraDB for MongoDB instance, DTS automatically adds the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the whitelist of the database instance. If the source or destination database instance is a self-managed database hosted on Elastic Compute Service (ECS), DTS automatically adds the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the security group rules of the ECS instance. For more information, see Add the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the security settings of on-premises databases. If the source or destination database is a self-managed database that is deployed in data centers or provided by third-party cloud service providers, you must manually add the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to allow DTS to access the database.
    • If the CIDR blocks of DTS servers are automatically or manually added to the whitelist of the database instance or ECS security group rules, security risks may arise. Therefore, before you use DTS to migrate data, you must understand and acknowledge the potential risks and take preventive measures, including but not limited to the following measures: enhance the security of your account and password, limit the ports that are exposed, authenticate API calls, regularly check the whitelist or ECS security group rules and forbid unauthorized CIDR blocks, or connect the database to DTS by using Express Connect, VPN Gateway, or Smart Access Gateway.
    • After the DTS task is completed or released, we recommend that you manually detect and remove the added CIDR blocks from the whitelist of the database instance or ECS security group rules.
  5. Select the objects to migrate.
    • Basic Settings
      Parameter Description
      Task Stages
      • To perform only full data migration, select Schema Migration and Full Data Migration.
      • To ensure service continuity during data migration, select Schema Migration, Full Data Migration, and Incremental Data Migration.
      Note If Incremental Data Migration is not selected, we recommend that you do not write data to the source instance during data migration. This ensures data consistency between the source and destination instances.
      Processing Mode of Conflicting Tables
      • Precheck and Report Errors: checks whether the destination database contains tables that have the same names as tables in the source database. If the source and destination databases do not contain identical table names, the precheck is passed. Otherwise, an error is returned during precheck and the data migration task cannot be started.

        Note You can use the object name mapping feature to rename the tables that are migrated to the destination database. You can use this feature if the source and destination databases contain identical table names and the tables in the destination database cannot be deleted or renamed. For more information, see Map object names.
      • Ignore Errors and Proceed: skips the precheck for identical table names in the source and destination databases.
        Warning If you select Ignore Errors and Proceed, data consistency is not guaranteed and your business may be exposed to potential risks.
        • If the source and destination databases have the same schema, DTS does not migrate data records that have the same primary keys as data records in the destination database.
        • If the source and destination databases have different schemas, only specific columns are migrated or the data migration task fails.
      Capitalization of Object Names in Destination Instance

      Specify the capitalization of database names, table names, and column names in the destination instance. By default, DTS default policy is selected. You can select other options to make sure that the capitalization of object names is consistent with that of the source or destination database. For more information, see Specify the capitalization of object names in the destination instance.

      Source Objects

      Select one or more objects from the Source Objects section and click the Rightwards arrow icon to move the objects to the Selected Objects section.

      Note The time field supports the TIMESTAMP data type. If the time field of the source database is 0, the time field of the destination database is automatically converted to null.
      Selected Objects
      • To rename an object that you want to migrate to the destination instance, right-click the object in the Selected Objects section. For more information, see Map the name of a single object.
      • To rename multiple objects at a time, click Batch Edit in the upper-right corner of the Selected Objects section. For more information, see Map multiple object names at a time.
      Note If you use the object name mapping feature to rename an object, other objects that are dependent on the object may fail to be migrated.
    • Advanced Settings
      Parameter Description
      Set Alerts
      Specify whether to set alerts for the data migration task. If the task fails or the migration latency exceeds the threshold, the alert contacts will receive notifications.
      • Select No if you do not want to set alerts.
      • Select Yes to set alerts. In this case, you must also set the alert threshold and alert contacts.
      Retry Time for Failed Connection
      Specify the retry time range for failed connections. Valid values: 10 to 1440. Unit: minutes. Default value: 120. We recommend that you set the retry time range to more than 30 minutes. If DTS reconnects to the source and destination databases within the specified time range, DTS resumes the data migration task. Otherwise, the data migration task fails.
      Note
      • If you set different retry time ranges for multiple data migration tasks that have the same source or destination database, the value that is set later takes precedence.
      • When DTS retries a connection, you are charged for the DTS instance. We recommend that you specify the retry time range based on your business requirements. You can also release the DTS instance at your earliest opportunity after the source and destination instances are released.
      Configure ETL
      Specify whether you want to enable the ETL feature. For more information, see What is ETL?.
      • If you select Yes, the ETL feature is enabled. You must specify a policy in the text box.
      • If you select No, the ETL feature is disabled.
  6. In the lower part of the page, click Next: Save Task Settings and Precheck.
    Note
    • Before you can start the data migration task, DTS performs a precheck. You can start the data migration task only after the task passes the precheck.
    • If the task fails to pass the precheck, you can click the Info icon icon next to each failed item to view details.
      • You can troubleshoot the issues based on the causes and run a precheck again.
      • If you do not need to troubleshoot the issues, you can ignore failed items and run a precheck again.
  7. Wait until the Success Rate becomes 100%. Then, click Next: Purchase Instance.
  8. On the Purchase Instance page, specify the Instance Class parameter for the data migration instance. The following table describes the parameter.
    Section Parameter Description
    Parameters Instance Class

    DTS provides several instance classes that have different performance in migration speed. You can select an instance class based on your business scenario. For more information, see Specifications of data migration instances.

  9. Read and select Data Transmission Service (Pay-as-you-go) Service Terms.
  10. Click Buy and Start to start the data migration task. You can view the progress of the task in the task list.