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ApsaraDB for ClickHouse runs all computing tasks in individual sandboxes. The sandbox architecture has multiple layers from the kernel layer to the Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) layer. The sandboxes use an authentication mechanism to ensure data security and prevent server faults caused by accidental changes or malicious operations.
ApsaraDB for ClickHouse clusters can be created only in virtual private clouds (VPCs). All nodes in a cluster run within the same VPC. By default, only access over VPCs is provided. You can manually apply for public endpoints. Only clients whose IP addresses are added to the whitelists of an ApsaraDB for ClickHouse cluster can access the cluster.
The identity of a user is verified when the user logs on to a database by using the database account and password created by an ApsaraDB for ClickHouse administrator.
ApsaraDB for ClickHouse provides cluster-level access control.
ApsaraDB for ClickHouse cluster data is stored in enhanced SSDs (ESSDs), standard SSDs, or ultra disks. Data is stored in three copies to ensure data reliability and consistency.
ApsaraDB for ClickHouse audits user behavior logs, including operation records and security information.
To ensure security, we recommend that you access clusters over VPCs. You can create an ECS instance as a client, and then connect the instance to an ApsaraDB for ClickHouse database that acts as a server for writing and querying data.
Regardless of whether you access an ApsaraDB for ClickHouse database over a VPC or the Internet, you must add the client IP address to a whitelist of the database in the console. Otherwise, access is denied. If the client IP address is added to the whitelist but you still cannot connect to the database, check whether the client IP address is correct.
To reduce risks of data leaks, we recommend that you include only specific Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) blocks of the production network in the whitelist. You cannot include 0.0.0.0/0 in the whitelist.
You can run the following command in the command-line tool to export access logs:
SELECT * FROM system.query_log INTO OUTFILE 'access.log'.