This topic describes the syntax, clauses, parameters, and basic methods for creating a table by executing a data definition language (DDL) statement.

Considerations

  • DRDS does not allow you to directly create a database by executing a DDL statement. You can log on to the console of the cloud native distributed database to create a database. For more information about how to create a database, see Create a DRDS database.
  • DRDS supports global secondary indexes (GSIs) only when the MySQL version is 5.7 or later and the DRDS instance version is 5.4.1 or later. For more information about the basic principles, see Global secondary indexes.
CREATE [SHADOW] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name
    (create_definition, ...)
    [table_options]
    [drds_partition_options]

create_definition:
    col_name column_definition
  | mysql_create_definition
  | [UNIQUE] GLOBAL INDEX index_name [index_type] (index_sharding_col_name,...)
      [global_secondary_index_option]
      [index_option] ...

# GSI-related syntax
global_secondary_index_option:
    [COVERING (col_name,...)]
    [drds_partition_options]

# Clauses for sharding
drds_partition_options:
    DBPARTITION BY db_partition_algorithm
    [TBPARTITION BY table_partition_algorithm [TBPARTITIONS num]]

db_sharding_algorithm:
    HASH([col_name])
  | {YYYYMM|YYYYWEEK|YYYYDD|YYYYMM_OPT|YYYYWEEK_OPT|YYYYDD_OPT}(col_name)
  | UNI_HASH(col_name)
  | RIGHT_SHIFT(col_name, n)
  | RANGE_HASH(col_name, col_name, n)

table_sharding_algorithm:
    HASH(col_name)
  | {MM|DD|WEEK|MMDD|YYYYMM|YYYYWEEK|YYYYDD|YYYYMM_OPT|YYYYWEEK_OPT|YYYYDD_OPT}(col_name)
  | UNI_HASH(col_name)
  | RIGHT_SHIFT(col_name, n)
  | RANGE_HASH(col_name, col_name, n)

# MySQL DDL syntax
index_sharding_col_name:
    col_name [(length)] [ASC | DESC]

index_option:
    KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | index_type
  | WITH PARSER parser_name
  | COMMENT 'string'

index_type:
    USING {BTREE | HASH}
Note The DRDS DDL syntax is based on the MySQL syntax. The preceding code lists the syntax that is different from the MySQL syntax. For more information about the syntax, see MySQL documentation.

Clauses and parameters for sharding

  • DBPARTITION BY hash(partition_key): This clause specifies the database shard key and the database sharding algorithm.
  • TBPARTITION BY { HASH(column) | {MM|DD|WEEK|MMDD|YYYYMM|YYYYWEEK|YYYYDD|YYYYMM_OPT|YYYYWEEK_OPT|YYYYDD_OPT}(column): Optional. This clause specifies the method that is used to map data to a physical table. It is the same as the DBPARTITION BY clause by default.
  • TBPARTITIONS num: Optional. This parameter specifies the number of physical tables in each database. The default value is 1. If no table sharding is required, you do not need to specify this parameter.
  • For more information about sharding functions, see Overview.

GSI definition clauses

  • [UNIQUE] GLOBAL: defines a GSI. UNIQUE GLOBAL indicates a global unique index.
  • index_name: the name of the index. It is also the name of the index table.
  • index_type: the type of the local index for a shard key in the index table. For more information about the supported range, see MySQL documentation.
  • index_sharding_col_name,...: the index columns. This clause contains only all the shard keys of the index table. For more information, see Global secondary indexes.
  • global_secondary_index_option: the extended syntax for DRDS GSIs.
    • COVERING (col_name,...): the covering columns. This clause contains all the columns of the index table except the index column. By default, this clause contains the primary key and the shard key of the primary table. For more information, see Global secondary indexes.
    • drds_partition_options: the sharding clauses in the index table. For more information, see Clauses and parameters for sharding.
  • index_option: the attributes of the local index on the shard key of the index table. For more information, see MySQL documentation.

Shadow table clause for full-link stress testing

SHADOW: creates a shadow table for full-link stress testing. The table name must be prefixed with _test_.The table name that follows the prefix must be consistent with the name of the associated formal table. In addition, the formal table must be created before the shadow table is created.

Single-database single table

Creates a single-database single table. No sharding is required.

CREATE TABLE single_tbl(
 id bigint not null auto_increment, 
 name varchar(30), 
 primary key(id)
);

View the node topology of the logical table. The node topology shows that a single-database single logical table is created in database 0.

mysql> show topology from single_tbl;
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+------------+
| ID   | GROUP_NAME                                                       | TABLE_NAME |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+------------+
|    0 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | single_tbl |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
            

Database sharding instead of table sharding

Assume that eight database shards are created. Create a table for which only database sharding instead of table sharding is implemented. For the database sharding method, hashing is implemented by using the ID column.

CREATE TABLE multi_db_single_tbl(
  id bigint not null auto_increment, 
  name varchar(30), 
  primary key(id)
) dbpartition by hash(id);

View the node topology of the logical table. The node topology shows that one table shard is created in each database shard. This indicates that only database sharding is implemented.

mysql> show topology from multi_db_single_tbl;
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------+
| ID   | GROUP_NAME                                                       | TABLE_NAME          |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------+
|    0 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | multi_db_single_tbl |
|    1 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | multi_db_single_tbl |
|    2 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0002_RDS | multi_db_single_tbl |
|    3 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0003_RDS | multi_db_single_tbl |
|    4 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0004_RDS | multi_db_single_tbl |
|    5 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0005_RDS | multi_db_single_tbl |
|    6 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0006_RDS | multi_db_single_tbl |
|    7 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | multi_db_single_tbl |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------------+
8 rows in set (0.01 sec)

Sharding

You can implement sharding by using the following sharding methods:

Note In the following examples, assume that eight database shards have been created.

Use the hash function for sharding

Create a table for which both database sharding and table sharding are implemented. Each database shard contains three physical tables. For the database sharding method, hashing is implemented by using the ID column. For the table sharding method, hashing is implemented by using the bid column. You can first perform a hash operation by using the values of the ID column to distribute the table data to multiple database shards. Then, the data in each database shard is distributed to three physical tables by using the hash operation result of the bid column values.

CREATE TABLE multi_db_multi_tbl(
 id bigint not null auto_increment, 
 bid int, 
 name varchar(30), 
 primary key(id)
) dbpartition by hash(id) tbpartition by hash(bid) tbpartitions 3;

View the node topology of the logical table. The node topology shows that three table shards are created in each database shard.

mysql> show topology from multi_db_multi_tbl;
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
| ID   | GROUP_NAME                                                       | TABLE_NAME            |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
|    0 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_00 |
|    1 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_01 |
|    2 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_02 |
|    3 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_03 |
|    4 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_04 |
|    5 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_05 |
|    6 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0002_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_06 |
|    7 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0002_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_07 |
|    8 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0002_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_08 |
|    9 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0003_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_09 |
|   10 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0003_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_10 |
|   11 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0003_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_11 |
|   12 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0004_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_12 |
|   13 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0004_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_13 |
|   14 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0004_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_14 |
|   15 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0005_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_15 |
|   16 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0005_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_16 |
|   17 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0005_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_17 |
|   18 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0006_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_18 |
|   19 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0006_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_19 |
|   20 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0006_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_20 |
|   21 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_21 |
|   22 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_22 |
|   23 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | multi_db_multi_tbl_23 |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
24 rows in set (0.01 sec)  

View the sharding rule of the logical table. The rule shows that hashing is used for sharding. The shard key for database sharding is ID and the shard key for table sharding is bid.

mysql> show rule from multi_db_multi_tbl;
+------+--------------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
| ID   | TABLE_NAME         | BROADCAST | DB_PARTITION_KEY | DB_PARTITION_POLICY | DB_PARTITION_COUNT | TB_PARTITION_KEY | TB_PARTITION_POLICY | TB_PARTITION_COUNT |
+------+--------------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
|    0 | multi_db_multi_tbl |         0 | id               | hash                | 8                  | bid              | hash                | 3                  |
+------+--------------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

Use the hash function that has double fields for sharding

  • The type of the shard key must be the character type or the numeric type.
  • Routing method: Calculate a hash value by using the last N digits of a shard key so that the hashing method can be used to complete route computing. The letter N is the third parameter in the function. For example, when the RANGE_HASH(COL1, COL2, N) function is used for calculation, COL1 is preferentially selected and then truncated to obtain the last N characters for calculation. If COL1 does not exist, COL2 is selected for calculation.
  • Scenarios: Two shard keys are required and only the value of one shard key is used for queries. Assume that eight physical databases have been allocated to DRDS of a user and the following scenarios are required for the service:
    • For a specified service, database sharding needs to be implemented for the order table by the buyer ID and the order ID.
    • The condition used during a query is only the buyer ID or the order ID.

In this case, you can execute the following DDL statement to create an order table:

create table test_order_tb (
 id bigint not null auto_increment,
 seller_id varchar(30) DEFAULT NULL,
 order_id varchar(30) DEFAULT NULL,
 buyer_id varchar(30) DEFAULT NULL,
 create_time datetime DEFAULT NULL,
 primary key(id)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 dbpartition by RANGE_HASH(buyer_id, order_id, 10) tbpartition by RANGE_HASH(buyer_id, order_id, 10) tbpartitions 3;  
Note
  • The two shard keys cannot be modified.
  • Data fails to be inserted if the two shard keys point to different database shards or table shards.

Use dates for sharding

You can use a hash function as the sharding algorithm. You can also use the DATE function MM, DD, WEEK, or MMDD as the sharding algorithm for table sharding. The following examples show the detailed procedure:

Create a table for which both database sharding and table sharding are implemented. For the database sharding method, hashing is implemented by using the userId column. For the table sharding method, the table is sharded by using the actionDate column and using seven days as one week. The WEEK(actionDate) function calculates DAY_OF_WEEK.

For example, if a value in the actionDate column is 2017-02-27 that falls on Monday, the value that the WEEK(actionDate) function returns is 2. In this case, the record is stored in table shard 2 (2%7 = 2). This table shard is located in a database shard and is named user_log_2. For another example, if a value in the actionDate column is 2017-02-26 that falls on Sunday, the value that the WEEK(actionDate) function returns is 1. In this case, the record is stored in table shard 1 (1%7 = 1). This table shard is located in a database shard and is named user_log_1.

CREATE TABLE user_log(
 userId int, 
 name varchar(30), 
 operation varchar(30), 
 actionDate DATE
) dbpartition by hash(userId) tbpartition by WEEK(actionDate) tbpartitions 7;

View the node topology of the logical table. The node topology shows that seven table shards (one week has seven days) are created in each database shard.

mysql> show topology from user_log;
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+------------+
| ID   | GROUP_NAME                                                       | TABLE_NAME |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+------------+
|    0 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log_0 |
|    1 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log_1 |
|    2 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log_2 |
|    3 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log_3 |
|    4 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log_4 |
|    5 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log_5 |
|    6 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log_6 |
|    7 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log_0 |
|    8 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log_1 |
|    9 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log_2 |
|   10 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log_3 |
|   11 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log_4 |
|   12 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log_5 |
|   13 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log_6 |
...
|   49 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log_0 |
|   50 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log_1 |
|   51 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log_2 |
|   52 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log_3 |
|   53 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log_4 |
|   54 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log_5 |
|   55 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log_6 |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+------------+
56 rows in set (0.01 sec)
Note An ellipsis (...) is used to omit some data because the returned result is long.

View the sharding rule of the logical table. The rule shows that the database sharding method is hashing and the shard key for database sharding is userId. For the table sharding method, the table is sharded by using the time function WEEK and the shard key for table sharding is actionDate.

mysql> show rule from user_log;
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
| ID   | TABLE_NAME | BROADCAST | DB_PARTITION_KEY | DB_PARTITION_POLICY | DB_PARTITION_COUNT | TB_PARTITION_KEY | TB_PARTITION_POLICY | TB_PARTITION_COUNT |
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
|    0 | user_log   |         0 | userId           | hash                | 8                  | actionDate       | week                | 7                  |
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

View the physical database shard and its physical table to which the SQL statement is routed when the parameters of the database shard key and the table shard key are specified.

Create a table for which both database sharding and table sharding are implemented. For the database sharding method, hashing is implemented by using the userId column. For the table sharding method, the table is sharded by using the actionDate column and using 12 months as one year. The MM(actionDate) function calculates MONTH_OF_YEAR.

For example, if a value in the actionDate column is 2017-02-27, the value that the MM(actionDate) function returns is 02. In this case, the record is stored in table shard 02 (02%12 = 02). This table shard is located in a database shard and is named user_log_02. For another example, if the value in the actionDate column is 2016-12-27, the value that the MM(actionDate) function returns is 12. In this case, the record is stored in table shard 00 (12%12 = 00). This table shard is located in a database shard and is named user_log_00.

CREATE TABLE user_log2(
 userId int, 
 name varchar(30), 
 operation varchar(30), 
 actionDate DATE
) dbpartition by hash(userId) tbpartition by MM(actionDate) tbpartitions 12; 

View the node topology of the logical table. The node topology shows that 12 table shards (one year has 12 months) are created in each database shard.

mysql> show topology from user_log2;
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+
| ID   | GROUP_NAME                                                       | TABLE_NAME   |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+
|    0 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log2_00 |
|    1 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log2_01 |
|    2 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log2_02 |
|    3 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log2_03 |
|    4 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log2_04 |
|    5 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log2_05 |
|    6 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log2_06 |
|    7 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log2_07 |
|    8 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log2_08 |
|    9 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log2_09 |
|   10 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log2_10 |
|   11 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log2_11 |
|   12 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log2_00 |
|   13 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log2_01 |
|   14 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log2_02 |
|   15 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log2_03 |
|   16 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log2_04 |
|   17 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log2_05 |
|   18 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log2_06 |
|   19 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log2_07 |
|   20 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log2_08 |
|   21 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log2_09 |
|   22 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log2_10 |
|   23 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0001_RDS | user_log2_11 |
...
|   84 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log2_00 |
|   85 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log2_01 |
|   86 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log2_02 |
|   87 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log2_03 |
|   88 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log2_04 |
|   89 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log2_05 |
|   90 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log2_06 |
|   91 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log2_07 |
|   92 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log2_08 |
|   93 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log2_09 |
|   94 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log2_10 |
|   95 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log2_11 |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+
96 rows in set (0.02 sec)
Note An ellipsis (...) is used to omit some data because the returned result is long.

View the sharding rule of the logical table. The rule shows that the database sharding method is hashing and the shard key for database sharding is userId. For the table sharding method, the table is sharded by using the time function MM and the shard key for table sharding is actionDate.

mysql> show rule from user_log2;
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
| ID   | TABLE_NAME | BROADCAST | DB_PARTITION_KEY | DB_PARTITION_POLICY | DB_PARTITION_COUNT | TB_PARTITION_KEY | TB_PARTITION_POLICY | TB_PARTITION_COUNT |
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
|    0 | user_log2  |         0 | userId           | hash                | 8                  | actionDate       | mm                  | 12                 |
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Create a table for which both database sharding and table sharding are implemented. For the database sharding method, hashing is implemented by using the userId column. For the table sharding method, the table is sharded by using 31 days as a month. The DD(actionDate) function calculates DAY_OF_MONTH.

For example, if a value in the actionDate column is 2017-02-27, the value that the DD(actionDate) function returns is 27. In this case, the record is stored in table shard 27 (27%31 = 27). This table shard is located in a database shard and is named user_log_27.

CREATE TABLE user_log3(
 userId int, 
 name varchar(30), 
 operation varchar(30), 
 actionDate DATE
) dbpartition by hash(userId) tbpartition by DD(actionDate) tbpartitions 31;

View the node topology of the logical table. The node topology shows that 31 table shards (each month has 31 days) are created in each database shard.

mysql> show topology from user_log3;
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+
| ID   | GROUP_NAME                                                       | TABLE_NAME   |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+
|    0 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_00 |
|    1 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_01 |
|    2 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_02 |
|    3 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_03 |
|    4 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_04 |
|    5 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_05 |
|    6 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_06 |
|    7 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_07 |
|    8 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_08 |
|    9 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_09 |
|   10 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_10 |
|   11 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_11 |
|   12 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_12 |
|   13 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_13 |
|   14 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_14 |
|   15 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_15 |
|   16 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_16 |
|   17 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_17 |
|   18 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_18 |
|   19 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_19 |
|   20 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_20 |
|   21 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_21 |
|   22 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_22 |
|   23 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_23 |
|   24 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_24 |
|   25 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_25 |
|   26 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_26 |
|   27 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_27 |
|   28 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_28 |
|   29 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_29 |
|   30 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log3_30 |
...
|  237 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log3_20 |
|  238 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log3_21 |
|  239 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log3_22 |
|  240 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log3_23 |
|  241 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log3_24 |
|  242 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log3_25 |
|  243 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log3_26 |
|  244 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log3_27 |
|  245 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log3_28 |
|  246 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log3_29 |
|  247 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log3_30 |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+
248 rows in set (0.01 sec)
Note An ellipsis (...) is used to omit some data because the returned result is long.

View the sharding rule of the logical table. The rule shows that the database sharding method is hashing and the shard key for database sharding is userId. For the table sharding method, the table is sharded by using the time function DD and the shard key for table sharding is actionDate.

mysql> show rule from user_log3;
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
| ID   | TABLE_NAME | BROADCAST | DB_PARTITION_KEY | DB_PARTITION_POLICY | DB_PARTITION_COUNT | TB_PARTITION_KEY | TB_PARTITION_POLICY | TB_PARTITION_COUNT |
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
|    0 | user_log3  |         0 | userId           | hash                | 8                  | actionDate       | dd                  | 31                 |
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

Create a table for which both database sharding and table sharding are implemented. For the database sharding method, hashing is implemented by using the userId column. For the table sharding method, the table is sharded by using 365 days as one year and the table data is routed to 365 physical tables. The MMDD(actionDate) tbpartitions 365 function calculates DAY_OF_YEAR % 365.

For example, if a value in the actionDate column is 2017-02-27, the value that the MMDD(actionDate) function returns is 58. In this case, the record is stored in table shard 58. This table shard is located in a database shard and is named user_log_58.

CREATE TABLE user_log4(
 userId int, 
 name varchar(30), 
 operation varchar(30), 
 actionDate DATE
) dbpartition by hash(userId) tbpartition by MMDD(actionDate) tbpartitions 365;

View the node topology of the logical table. The node topology shows that 365 table shards (each year has 365 days) are created in each database shard.

mysql> show topology from user_log4;
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------+
| ID   | GROUP_NAME                                                       | TABLE_NAME   |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------+
...
| 2896 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_341 |
| 2897 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_342 |
| 2898 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_343 |
| 2899 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_344 |
| 2900 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_345 |
| 2901 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_346 |
| 2902 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_347 |
| 2903 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_348 |
| 2904 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_349 |
| 2905 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_350 |
| 2906 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_351 |
| 2907 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_352 |
| 2908 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_353 |
| 2909 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_354 |
| 2910 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_355 |
| 2911 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_356 |
| 2912 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_357 |
| 2913 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_358 |
| 2914 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_359 |
| 2915 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_360 |
| 2916 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_361 |
| 2917 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_362 |
| 2918 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_363 |
| 2919 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log4_364 |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------+
2920 rows in set (0.07 sec)
Note An ellipsis (...) is used to omit some data because the returned result is long.

View the sharding rule of the logical table. The rule shows that the database sharding method is hashing and the shard key for database sharding is userId. For the table sharding method, the table is sharded by using the time function MMDD and the shard key for table sharding is actionDate.

mysql> show rule from user_log4;
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
| ID   | TABLE_NAME | BROADCAST | DB_PARTITION_KEY | DB_PARTITION_POLICY | DB_PARTITION_COUNT | TB_PARTITION_KEY | TB_PARTITION_POLICY | TB_PARTITION_COUNT |
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
|    0 | user_log4  |         0 | userId           | hash                | 8                  | actionDate       | mmdd                | 365                |
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.02 sec)

Create a table for which both database sharding and table sharding are implemented. For the database sharding method, hashing is implemented by using the userId column. For the table sharding method, the table is sharded by using 365 days as one year and the table data is routed to 10 physical tables. The MMDD(actionDate) tbpartitions 10 function calculates DAY_OF_YEAR % 10.

CREATE TABLE user_log5(
 userId int, 
 name varchar(30), 
 operation varchar(30), 
 actionDate DATE
) dbpartition by hash(userId) tbpartition by MMDD(actionDate) tbpartitions 10;

View the node topology of the logical table. The node topology shows that 10 table shards are created in each database shard. The logical table is sharded by using 365 days as one year and the table data is routed to 10 physical tables.

mysql> show topology from user_log5;
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+
| ID   | GROUP_NAME                                                       | TABLE_NAME   |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+
|    0 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log5_00 |
|    1 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log5_01 |
|    2 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log5_02 |
|    3 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log5_03 |
|    4 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log5_04 |
|    5 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log5_05 |
|    6 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log5_06 |
|    7 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log5_07 |
|    8 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log5_08 |
|    9 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0000_RDS | user_log5_09 |
...
|   70 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log5_00 |
|   71 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log5_01 |
|   72 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log5_02 |
|   73 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log5_03 |
|   74 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log5_04 |
|   75 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log5_05 |
|   76 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log5_06 |
|   77 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log5_07 |
|   78 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log5_08 |
|   79 | SANGUAN_TEST_123_1488766060743ACTJSANGUAN_TEST_123_WVVP_0007_RDS | user_log5_09 |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+
80 rows in set (0.02 sec)
Note An ellipsis (...) is used to omit some data because the returned result is long.

View the sharding rule of the logical table. The rule shows that the database sharding method is hashing and the shard key for database sharding is userId. For the table sharding method, the table is sharded by using the time function MMDD and the table data is routed to 10 physical tables. In addition, the shard key for table sharding is actionDate.

mysql> show rule from user_log5;
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
| ID   | TABLE_NAME | BROADCAST | DB_PARTITION_KEY | DB_PARTITION_POLICY | DB_PARTITION_COUNT | TB_PARTITION_KEY | TB_PARTITION_POLICY | TB_PARTITION_COUNT |
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
|    0 | user_log5  |         0 | userId           | hash                | 8                  | actionDate       | mmdd                | 10                 |
+------+------------+-----------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

Use the primary key as the shard key

When you do not specify a shard key for the sharding algorithm, the system uses the primary key as the shard field by default. The following examples illustrate how to use the primary key as the database shard key and the table shard key.

  • Use the primary key as the database shard key
    CREATE TABLE prmkey_tbl(
     id bigint not null auto_increment, 
     name varchar(30), 
     primary key(id)
    ) dbpartition by hash();
  • Use the primary key as the shard key
    CREATE TABLE prmkey_multi_tbl(
     id bigint not null auto_increment, 
     name varchar(30), 
     primary key(id)
    ) dbpartition by hash() tbpartition by hash() tbpartitions 3;

Other table creation attributes of MySQL

When you implement sharding, you can also specify other table creation attributes of MySQL, as shown in the following example:

CREATE TABLE multi_db_multi_tbl(
  id bigint not null auto_increment, 
  name varchar(30), 
  primary key(id)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 dbpartition by hash(id) tbpartition by hash(id) tbpartitions 3;

GSI

This section describes how to define a GSI when you create a table.

Note In the following examples, assume that eight database shards have been created.

Define a GSI

Examples

CREATE TABLE t_order (
 `id` bigint(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
 `order_id` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
 `buyer_id` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
 `seller_id` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
 `order_snapshot` longtext DEFAULT NULL,
 `order_detail` longtext DEFAULT NULL,
 PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
 GLOBAL INDEX `g_i_seller`(`seller_id`) dbpartition by hash(`seller_id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 dbpartition by hash(`order_id`);

where:

  • Primary table: t_order is the primary table for which database sharding instead of table sharding is implemented. For the database sharding method, hashing is implemented by using the order_id column.
  • Index table: g_i_seller is the index table for which database sharding instead of table sharding is implemented. For the database sharding method, hashing is implemented by using the seller_id column. No covering column is specified.
  • GSI definition clause: GLOBAL INDEX `g_i_seller`(`seller_id`) dbpartition by hash(`seller_id`).

Execute SHOW INDEX to view index information, such as the local index on the shard key order_id and GSIs on seller_id, id, and order_id. seller_id is the shard key of the index table, and id and order_id are the default covering columns (the primary key and the shard key of the primary table).

mysql> show index from t_order;
+---------+------------+-------------------------+--------------+-------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+----------+---------------+
| TABLE   | NON_UNIQUE | KEY_NAME                | SEQ_IN_INDEX | COLUMN_NAME | COLLATION | CARDINALITY | SUB_PART | PACKED | NULL | INDEX_TYPE | COMMENT  | INDEX_COMMENT |
+---------+------------+-------------------------+--------------+-------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+----------+---------------+
| t_order |          0 | PRIMARY                 |            1 | id          | A         |           0 |     NULL | NULL   |      | BTREE      |          |               |
| t_order |          1 | auto_shard_key_order_id |            1 | order_id    | A         |           0 |     NULL | NULL   | YES  | BTREE      |          |               |
| t_order |          1 | g_i_seller              |            1 | seller_id   | NULL      |           0 |     NULL | NULL   | YES  | GLOBAL     | INDEX    |               |
| t_order |          1 | g_i_seller              |            2 | id          | NULL      |           0 |     NULL | NULL   |      | GLOBAL     | COVERING |               |
| t_order |          1 | g_i_seller              |            3 | order_id    | NULL      |           0 |     NULL | NULL   | YES  | GLOBAL     | COVERING |               |
+---------+------------+-------------------------+--------------+-------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+----------+---------------+

You can separately view the GSI information by executing SHOW GLOBAL INDEX. For more information, see SHOW GLOBAL INDEX.

 mysql> show global index from t_order;
+--------+---------+------------+------------+-------------+----------------+------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+--------+
| SCHEMA | TABLE   | NON_UNIQUE | KEY_NAME   | INDEX_NAMES | COVERING_NAMES | INDEX_TYPE | DB_PARTITION_KEY | DB_PARTITION_POLICY | DB_PARTITION_COUNT | TB_PARTITION_KEY | TB_PARTITION_POLICY | TB_PARTITION_COUNT | STATUS |
+--------+---------+------------+------------+-------------+----------------+------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+--------+
| d7     | t_order | 1          | g_i_seller | seller_id   | id, order_id   | NULL       | seller_id        | HASH                | 8                  |                  | NULL                | NULL               | PUBLIC |
+--------+---------+------------+------------+-------------+----------------+------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+--------+

View the schema of the index table. The index table contains the primary key of the primary table, shard key, and default covering columns. The AUTO_INCREMENT attribute is removed from the primary key column and the local index is removed from the primary table.

mysql> show create table g_i_seller;
+------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| Table      | Create Table                                              |
+------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| g_i_seller | CREATE TABLE `g_i_seller` (
 `id` bigint(11) NOT NULL,
 `order_id` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
 `seller_id` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
 PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
 KEY `auto_shard_key_seller_id` (`seller_id`) USING BTREE
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 dbpartition by hash(`seller_id`) |
+------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+

Define a globally unique index

CREATE TABLE t_order (
 `id` bigint(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
 `order_id` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
 `buyer_id` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
 `seller_id` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
 `order_snapshot` longtext DEFAULT NULL,
 `order_detail` longtext DEFAULT NULL,
 PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
 UNIQUE GLOBAL INDEX `g_i_buyer`(`buyer_id`) COVERING(`seller_id`, `order_snapshot`) 
   dbpartition by hash(`buyer_id`) tbpartition by hash(`buyer_id`) tbpartitions 3
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 dbpartition by hash(`order_id`);

where:

  • Primary table: t_order is the primary table for which database sharding instead of table sharding is implemented. For the database sharding method, hashing is implemented by using the order_id column.
  • Index table: g_i_seller is the index table for which both database sharding and table sharding are implemented. For the database sharding and table sharding methods, hashing is implemented by using the buyer_id column. The covering columns are seller_id and order_snapshot.
  • Index definition clause: UNIQUE GLOBAL INDEX `g_i_buyer`(`buyer_id`) COVERING(`seller_id`, `order_snapshot`) dbpartition by hash(`buyer_id`) tbpartition by hash(`buyer_id`) tbpartitions 3.

Execute SHOW INDEX to view index information, such as the local index on the shard key order_id and GSIs on buyer_id, id, order_id, seller_id, and order_snapshot. buyer_id is the shard key of the index table. id and order_id are the default covering columns (the primary key and the shard key of the primary table). seller_id and order_snapshot are the explicitly specified covering columns.

mysql> show index from t_order;
+--------------+------------+-------------------------+--------------+----------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+----------+---------------+
| TABLE        | NON_UNIQUE | KEY_NAME                | SEQ_IN_INDEX | COLUMN_NAME    | COLLATION | CARDINALITY | SUB_PART | PACKED | NULL | INDEX_TYPE | COMMENT  | INDEX_COMMENT |
+--------------+------------+-------------------------+--------------+----------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+----------+---------------+
| t_order_dthb |          0 | PRIMARY                 |            1 | id             | A         |           0 |     NULL | NULL   |      | BTREE      |          |               |
| t_order_dthb |          1 | auto_shard_key_order_id |            1 | order_id       | A         |           0 |     NULL | NULL   | YES  | BTREE      |          |               |
| t_order      |          0 | g_i_buyer               |            1 | buyer_id       | NULL      |           0 |     NULL | NULL   | YES  | GLOBAL     | INDEX    |               |
| t_order      |          1 | g_i_buyer               |            2 | id             | NULL      |           0 |     NULL | NULL   |      | GLOBAL     | COVERING |               |
| t_order      |          1 | g_i_buyer               |            3 | order_id       | NULL      |           0 |     NULL | NULL   | YES  | GLOBAL     | COVERING |               |
| t_order      |          1 | g_i_buyer               |            4 | seller_id      | NULL      |           0 |     NULL | NULL   | YES  | GLOBAL     | COVERING |               |
| t_order      |          1 | g_i_buyer               |            5 | order_snapshot | NULL      |           0 |     NULL | NULL   | YES  | GLOBAL     | COVERING |               |
+--------------+------------+-------------------------+--------------+----------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+----------+---------------+

You can separately view the GSI information by executing SHOW GLOBAL INDEX. For more information, see SHOW GLOBAL INDEX.

mysql> show global index from t_order;
+--------+---------+------------+-----------+-------------+-----------------------------------------+------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+--------+
| SCHEMA | TABLE   | NON_UNIQUE | KEY_NAME  | INDEX_NAMES | COVERING_NAMES                          | INDEX_TYPE | DB_PARTITION_KEY | DB_PARTITION_POLICY | DB_PARTITION_COUNT | TB_PARTITION_KEY | TB_PARTITION_POLICY | TB_PARTITION_COUNT | STATUS |
+--------+---------+------------+-----------+-------------+-----------------------------------------+------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+--------+
| d7     | t_order | 0          | g_i_buyer | buyer_id    | id, order_id, seller_id, order_snapshot | NULL       | buyer_id         | HASH                | 8                  | buyer_id         | HASH                | 3                  | PUBLIC |
+--------+---------+------------+-----------+-------------+-----------------------------------------+------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+------------------+---------------------+--------------------+--------+      

View the schema of the index table. The index table contains the primary key of the primary table, shard key, default covering columns, and the covering columns that are specified in the GSI definition. The AUTO_INCREMENT attribute is removed from the primary key column. The local index is removed from the primary table. By default, a data table is created for global unique indexes to support global uniqueness.

mysql> show create table g_i_buyer;
+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Table     | Create Table                                                                                           |
+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| g_i_buyer | CREATE TABLE `g_i_buyer` (
  `id` bigint(11) NOT NULL,
  `order_id` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
  `buyer_id` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
  `seller_id` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
  `order_snapshot` longtext,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  UNIQUE KEY `auto_shard_key_buyer_id` (`buyer_id`) USING BTREE
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 dbpartition by hash(`buyer_id`) tbpartition by hash(`buyer_id`) tbpartitions 3 |
+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+