The query and analysis feature of Log Service allows you to use general aggregate functions to analyze logs. The following table describes the specific statements.

Statement Description Example
`arbitrary(x)` Returns an arbitrary value in column x. `latency > 100 | select arbitrary(method)`
`avg(x)` Calculates the arithmetic mean of all the values in column x. `latency > 100 | select avg(latency)`
`checksum(x)` Calculates the checksum of all the values in column x and returns a Base64-encoded value. `latency > 100 | select checksum(method)`
`count(*)` Calculates the number of rows. N/A
`count(x)` Calculates the number of non-null values in column x. `latency > 100 | count(method) `
`count(digit)` Functions the same as `count(*)` to calculate the number of rows. For example, `count(1)`. N/A
`count_if(x)` Calculates the number of true values. `latency > 100 | count_if(url like ‘%abc’) `
`geometric_mean(x)` Calculates the geometric mean of all the values in column x. ```latency > 100 | select geometric_mean(latency)```
`max_by(x,y)` Returns the value of x associated with the maximum value of y. To query the method for the maximum latency: ```latency>100 | select max_by(method,latency)```
`max_by(x,y,n)` Returns the values of x associated with the n largest values of y in descending order of y. To query the method for the top three rows with the maximum latency: ```latency > 100 | select max_by(method,latency,3)```
`min_by(x,y)` Returns the value of x associated with the minimum value of y. To query the method for the minimum latency: ```* | select min_by(method,latency)```
`min_by(x,y,n)` Returns the values of x associated with the n smallest values of y in ascending order of y. To query the method for the top three rows with the minimum latency: `* | select min_by(method,latency,3)`
`max(x)` Returns the maximum value of all the values in column x. `latency > 100| select max(inflow)`
`min(x)` Returns the minimum value of all the values in column x. `latency > 100| select min(inflow)`
`sum(x)` Returns the sum of all the values in column x. `latency > 10 | select sum(inflow)`
`bitwise_and_agg(x)` Returns the bitwise AND of all the values in column x in 2's complement representation. N/A
`bitwise_or_agg(x)` Returns the bitwise OR of all the values in column x in 2's complement representation. N/A