This article describes the limits of IoT Platform.

Products and devices

Limited item Description Limit
Tags The maximum number of tags that you can attach to a product, device, or device group. 100
Products The maximum number of products that an Alibaba Cloud account can create. 1,000
Devices The maximum number of devices that you can add to a product.
Note
  • To obtain the number of devices in a product in a timely manner, we recommend that you set an alert threshold for the number of devices. This avoids unexpected errors when you add new devices to the product. For more information, see Create a threshold-triggered alarm rule.
  • If the number of devices exceeds the limit, you must create another product.
1,000,000
The maximum number of devices that you can add to products by using an Alibaba Cloud account.
Note If you need to extend the limit based on your business requirements, submit a tichet.
10,000,000
Gateways and sub-devices The maximum number of sub-devices that you can attach to a gateway. 1,500
Thing Specification Language (TSL) features The maximum number of features that you can add to a product. 300
The maximum number of properties, events, or services that you can add to a product. 256
The maximum number of parameters that can be specified for a property of the STRUCT data type. 50
The maximum number of enumeration items that can be specified for a feature of the ENUM data type. 100
The maximum number of characters that can be specified for a feature of the text data type. 10,240 characters
The maximum number of elements that can be specified for a feature of the array data type. 128
The maximum number of request or response parameters that can be specified for a service. 20
The maximum number of output parameters that can be specified for an event. 50
The number of the last versions that can be saved for a single TSL model. 10
The maximum size of a file when you import a TSL model. 256 KB
Device groups The maximum number of groups that you can create by using an Alibaba Cloud account. These groups include parent groups and subgroups. 1,000
The maximum number of devices that you can add to a group. 20,000
The maximum number of groups to which a device can be added. 10
Data parsing The maximum size of a script file that can be uploaded for data parsing. 128 KB
Remote configuration The maximum size of a remote configuration file. The remote configuration file supports only the JSON format. 64 KB
Data retention period The maximum number of days that property, event, and service data can be retained. Data is no longer retained after the specified period ends. 30
File management The maximum size of files that an Alibaba Cloud account can store on IoT Platform servers. 1 GB
The maximum number of files that a device can store. 1,000
OTA update The maximum number of update packages that an Alibaba Cloud account can contain. 500
The maximum size of a update package. 1,000 MB
The maximum number of devices that can be updated at a time. 100,000

Connections and communications

Limited item Description Limit
Device access The maximum number of connections that can be established with IoT Platform at a time if you use the same device certificate information. The device certificate information includes the Productkey and DeviceName parameters. 1
Connections The maximum number of MQTT connection requests that an Alibaba Cloud account can make per second. 500
The maximum number of connection requests that a device can make per minute. 5
Device subscription The maximum number of topics to which a device can subscribe.

After the limit is exceeded, subscription requests will be rejected. The device can check whether a subscription request succeeds by verifying the received SUBACK message.

100
Requests The maximum number of requests that the devices of an Alibaba Cloud account can send to IoT Platform per second. 10,000
The maximum number of requests that IoT Platform can send to the devices of an Alibaba Cloud account per second. 2,000
Service subscription The maximum number of messages that an Alibaba Cloud Message Queue for AMQP consumer group can receive per second. 1,000
Message communication The maximum number of messages that a device can report per second.
Note If a device uses the Pub API to report messages over the MQTT protocol but the messages are blocked due to throttling, no throttling error is returned. However, you can view device logs to find the devices whose messages are blocked due to throttling.
  • QoS 0: 30 messages per second
  • QoS 1: 10 messages per second
The maximum number of messages that a device can receive per second. The limit changes based on the network environment.

If the maximum TCP write buffer size is exceeded, an error message is returned. If IoT Platform uses the Pub API operation to send requests to a device and the device cannot process the requests in a timely manner, a throttling error message is returned.

50 messages per second
Bandwidth The maximum throughput (bandwidth) per connection. 1,024 KB
Cache requests The maximum number of unacknowledged message publishing requests from a device.

After the limit is reached, IoT Platform rejects new message publishing requests from the device unless a PUBACK message is received.

100
Message retention period The maximum number of days that a QoS 1 message can be retained.

If no PUBACK message is received before the maximum retention period ends, the message publishing request is rejected.

7
MQTT message size The maximum size of a message that can be sent by using the MQTT protocol. Messages that exceed this limit are discarded. 256 KB
CoAP message size The maximum size of a message that can be sent by using the CoAP protocol. Messages that exceed this limit are discarded. 1 KB
MQTT keep-alive mechanism The heartbeat timeout of an MQTT connection. If the heartbeat timeout exceeds the range, IoT Platform rejects the connection request.

We recommend that you set a value greater than 300 seconds.

A timer starts when IoT Platform sends a CONNACK message as a respond to a CONNECT message. When IoT Platform receives a PUBLISH, SUBSCRIBE, PING, or PUBACK message, the timer is reset. If no message is received within 1.5 times the specified heartbeat interval, the server terminates the connection.

30 to 1,200 seconds
RRPC timeout period The timeout period for devices to respond to RRPC requests. 8 seconds

Topics

Limited item Description Limit
Custom topic categories The maximum topic categories that can be defined for a product. 50
Permissions A device can publish messages and subscribe only to its own topics. -
Topic length The maximum length of a topic that is encoded in UTF-8. 128 bytes
Topic levels The maximum number of category levels that a topic can include. The number of category levels is indicated by the number of slashes (/) in the topic. 7
Subscriptions The maximum number of topics that can be included in a subscription request. 8
Time to take effect The period that a subscribe or unsubscribe operation requires to take effect. A subscription remains effective until you unsubscribe from the topic. We recommend that you subscribe to topics in advance to avoid missing information.

For example, a device sends a subscription request to Topic A. After 10 seconds, the subscription takes effect and the device starts to receive messages from Topic A in real time. The device keeps receiving messages from Topic A unless you unsubscribe from the topic.

10 seconds
Topic broadcasting The maximum size of a message to be broadcasted.

To generate a message body, you must convert a raw message into binary data and encode the data by using Base64.

64 KB
The number of messages that can be broadcasted per minute by using the server SDK. 1

Device shadows

Limited item Description Limit
JSON levels The maximum number of levels that can be specified in a device shadow JSON file. 5
File size The maximum size of a device shadow JSON file. 16 KB
Properties The maximum number of properties that can be specified in a device shadow JSON file. 128
Requests per second The maximum number of requests that a device can send per second. 20

Data forwarding

Limited item Description Limit
Rules The maximum number of rules that an Alibaba Cloud account can create. 1,000
Data forwarding destinations The maximum number of data forwarding operations in a rule. 10
Messages processed by the rules engine The maximum number of data forwarding queries that can be processed per second for an Alibaba Cloud account. RAM users share the quota of the Alibaba Cloud account.

After a message is processed, it can be written to multiple Alibaba Cloud services. For more information, see the next row: messages written to Alibaba Cloud services.

If a message is blocked due to throttling, the system attempts to rewrite the message later. If multiple retry attempts fail, the message is discarded.

1,000 QPS
Messages written to Alibaba Cloud services

The maximum number of data forwarding queries that can be processed per second for an Alibaba Cloud account. The maximum number can be reached only if the instance of an Alibaba Cloud service provides a high level of performance. Resource Access Management (RAM) users share the quota of the Alibaba Cloud account.

If the limit is exceeded or if the number of concurrent write requests to an Alibaba Cloud service exceeds 40, data forwarding fails due to throttling.

If data forwarding fails due to changes in an Alibaba Cloud service, such as RocketMQ, RDS, or TSDB, the system does not forward data to the service, and displays abnormal information. IoT Platform retries data forwarding for three times at an interval of 1, 3, and 10 seconds. If all retry attempts fail, the data is discarded and an error message is sent to the destination Alibaba Cloud service.

2,000 QPS
Requirements of data forwarding destinations Make sure that the destination service instance runs as expected. Data forwarding fails in multiple scenarios. These scenarios include instance failure, overdue payments, improper configurations, and invalid parameter settings, such as invalid values and lack of permissions. -
Message deduplication Data forwarding does not guarantee that a message is received only once. In a distributed environment, rebalance may be temporarily inconsistent and a message may be sent multiple times. If multiple messages have the same ID, deduplication is required when an application receives the messages. -

Service subscription

The following table describes the limits on AMQP service subscription.

Limit Description
Authentication timeout An authentication request is sent immediately after a connection is established. If the authentication is not successful within 15 seconds, the server closes the connection.
Data timeout When the server establishes a connection with IoT Platform, the heartbeat time (the idle-timeout parameter in the AMQP) is required. The value ranges from 30 to 300, in seconds.

After the connection is established, the server must send ping packets within the heartbeat time to maintain the connection. If no ping packet is sent within the heartbeat time, IoT Platform closes the connection.

Policy for message pushing retries Messages accumulated due to consumer offline or slow message consumption are re-sent again. The interval between push retries is one minute.
The number of saved messages Up to 100 million messages can be accumulated for a consumer group.
Message retention period One day.
Limits on the real-time message push rate The maximum QPS value for a consumer group is 1000.
Limits on the offline message push rate The maximum QPS value for a consumer group is 200.
The number of consumer groups with which a product can be associated A product can be associated with up to 10 consumer groups.
The number of products with which a consumer group can be associated A consumer group can be associated with up to 1,000 products.
Maximum number of consumer groups An account can have up to 1,000 consumer groups.
Maximum number of consumers A consumer group can have up to 64 consumers.
Connection limits The maximum number of consumer requests in a consumer group is 100 per minute.

For more information about the limits of MNS service subscription, see the limits of MNS queues in the MNS limits topic.

Cloud API operations

The maximum number of queries per second (QPS) for the IoT Platform API. For more information, see API reference.

If you receive a throttling error when you call an API operation, retry the call. For more information about throttling errors, see common errors. Errors 29 to 31 are throttling errors.