Geospatial applications are playing an increasingly important role in urban planning and construction.
PostGIS is an open-source, freely available, and fairly Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant spatial database extender for PostgreSQL database management system.
It adds support for geographic objects in the PostgreSQL object-relational database. Besides, it follows the Simple Features for SQL specification from Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC).
PostGIS supports the following geometry constructors: http://postgis.net/docs/manual-2.4/reference.html
8.4. Geometry Constructors ST_GeogFromText — Return a specified geography value from Well-Known Text representation or extended (WKT). ST_GeographyFromText — Return a specified geography value from Well-Known Text representation or extended (WKT). ST_GeogFromWKB — Creates a geography instance from a Well-Known Binary geometry representation (WKB) or extended Well Known Binary (EWKB). ST_GeomFromTWKB — Creates a geometry instance from a TWKB ("Tiny Well-Known Binary") geometry representation. ST_GeomCollFromText — Makes a collection Geometry from collection WKT with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0. ST_GeomFromEWKB — Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Extended Well-Known Binary representation (EWKB). ST_GeomFromEWKT — Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Extended Well-Known Text representation (EWKT). ST_GeometryFromText — Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Well-Known Text representation (WKT). This is an alias name for ST_GeomFromText ST_GeomFromGeoHash — Return a geometry from a GeoHash string. ST_GeomFromGML — Takes as input GML representation of geometry and outputs a PostGIS geometry object ST_GeomFromGeoJSON — Takes as input a geojson representation of a geometry and outputs a PostGIS geometry object ST_GeomFromKML — Takes as input KML representation of geometry and outputs a PostGIS geometry object ST_GMLToSQL — Return a specified ST_Geometry value from GML representation. This is an alias name for ST_GeomFromGML ST_GeomFromText — Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Well-Known Text representation (WKT). ST_GeomFromWKB — Creates a geometry instance from a Well-Known Binary geometry representation (WKB) and optional SRID.
PostGIS supports the following geometry outputs:
8.7. Geometry Outputs ST_AsBinary — Return the Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID meta data. ST_AsEncodedPolyline — Returns an Encoded Polyline from a LineString geometry. ST_AsEWKB — Return the Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data. ST_AsEWKT — Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data. ST_AsGeoJSON — Return the geometry as a GeoJSON element. ST_AsGML — Return the geometry as a GML version 2 or 3 element. ST_AsHEXEWKB — Returns a Geometry in HEXEWKB format (as text) using either little-endian (NDR) or big-endian (XDR) encoding. ST_AsKML — Return the geometry as a KML element. Several variants. Default version=2, default precision=15 ST_AsLatLonText — Return the Degrees, Minutes, Seconds representation of the given point. ST_AsSVG — Returns a Geometry in SVG path data given a geometry or geography object. ST_AsText — Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID metadata. ST_AsTWKB — Returns the geometry as TWKB, aka "Tiny Well-Known Binary" ST_AsX3D — Returns a Geometry in X3D xml node element format: ISO-IEC-19776-1.2-X3DEncodings-XML ST_GeoHash — Return a GeoHash representation of the geometry. ST_AsGeobuf — Return a Geobuf representation of a set of rows. ST_AsMVTGeom — Transform a geometry into the coordinate space of a Mapbox Vector Tile. ST_AsMVT — Return a Mapbox Vector Tile representation of a set of rows.
PostGIS, combined with geospatial applications, can facilitate urban planning and construction.
Some PostGIS-related materials are provided as follows:
2) 3D City Database for CityGML
3) Database Development With "3d-citygml" And "Energyade" - Schema For City-district-simulation Modeling
6) Visual City
9) Virtual City Data Compatibility
1) The OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) is an international not-for-profit organization committed to making quality open standards for the global geospatial community.
2) CityGML - City Geography Markup Language.
Here are several resources that can be useful to help you better understand PostGIS, 3DCity modeling, and other related info.
9) Build a GIS App using OpenScales+MapServer+PostGIS
10) WebGIS (PostgreSQL+GeoServer+OpenLayers) Part 2: GeoServer Installation and Configuration (Repost)
11) Building a 3D GIS Application Using Geoserver and Google Earth
12) ST_AsCollada / ST_GeomFromCollada
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