This section briefly introduces Ingestion Spec, the description file of the index data.

Ingestion Spec is a unified description of the format of the data being indexed and how it is indexed by Druid. It is a JSON file, which consists of three parts:
    "dataSchema" : {...},
    "ioConfig" : {...},
    "tuningConfig" : {...}
Key Format Description Required
dataSchema JSON object Describes the schema information of the data you want to consume. dataSchema is fixed and does not change with the way in which data is consumed. Yes
ioConfig JSON object Describes the source and destination of the data you want to consume. If the consumption method of the data is different, ioConfig is also different. Yes
tuningConfig JSON object Configures the parameters of the data you want to consume. If the consumption method of the data is different, the adjustable parameters are also different. No


dataSchema describes the format of the data and how to parse the data. The typical structure is as follows:
    "dataSoruce": <name_of_dataSource>,
    "parser": {
        "type": <>,
        "parseSpec": {
            "format": <>,
            "timestampSpec": {},
            "dimensionsSpec": {}
    "metricsSpec": {},
    "granularitySpec": {}
Key Format Description Required
dataSource String Name of the data source. Yes
parser JSON object How the data is parsed. Yes
metricsSpec Array of JSON objects Aggregator list. Yes
granularitySpec JSON object Data aggregation settings, such as creating segments and aggregation granularity. Yes
  • parser

    parser determines how your data is parsed correctly. metricsSpec defines how the data is clustered for calculation. granularitySpec defines the granularity of the data fragmentation and the granularity of the query.

    There are two types of parser: string and hadoopstring. The latter is used for Hadoop index jobs. ParseSpec is a specific definition of data format resolution.
    Key Format Description Required
    type String The data format can be json, jsonLowercase, csv, or tsv. Yes
    timestampSpec JSON object Timestamp and timestamp type. Yes
    dimensionsSpec JSON object The dimension of the data (columns are included). Yes
    For different data formats, additional parseSpec options may exist. The following table describes timestampSpec and dimensionsSpec.
    Key Format Description Required
    column String Columns corresponding to the timestamp. Yes
    format String The timestamp type can be ISO, millis, POSIX, auto, or whatever is supported by joda time. Yes
    Key Format Description Required
    dimensions JSON array Describes which dimensions the data contains. Each dimension can be just a string. You can also specify the attribute for the dimension. For example, the type of dimensions: [dimenssion1, dimenssion2, {type: long, name: dimenssion3}] is string by default. Yes
    dimensionExclusions Array of JSON strings Dimension to be deleted when data is consumed. No
    spatialDimensions Array of JSON objects Spatial dimension. No
  • metricsSpec
    MetricsSpec is an array of JSON objects. It defines several aggregators. Aggregators typically have the following structures:
        "type": <type>,
        "name": <output_name>,
        "fieldName": <metric_name>
    The following commonly used aggregators are provided:
    Type Type optional
    count count
    sum longSum, doubleSum, floatSum
    min/max longMin/longMax, doubleMin/doubleMax, floatMin/floatMax
    first/last longFirst/longLast, doubleFirst/doubleLast, floatFirst/floatLast
    javascript javascript
    cardinality cardinality
    hyperUnique hyperUnique
    Note The last three types in the table are advanced aggregators. For information about how to use them, see Apache Druid official documents.
  • granularitySpec
    Two aggregation modes are supported: uniform and arbitrary. The uniform mode aggregates data with a fixed interval of time. The arbitrary mode tries to make sure that each of the segments has the same size, but the time interval for aggregation is not fixed. Uniform is the current default option.
    Key Format Description Required
    segmentGranularity String Segment granularity Uniform type.The default is DAY. No.
    queryGranularity String Minimum data aggregation granularity for query. The default is true. No
    rollup Bool value Aggregate or not. No.
    intervals String Time interval of data consumption. It is Yes for batch and No for realtime.


ioConfig describes the data source. An example of Hadoop index is as follows:
    "type": "hadoop",
    "inputSpec": {
        "type": "static",
        "paths": "hdfs://emr-header-1.cluster-6789:9000/druid/quickstart/wikiticker-2015-09-16-sampled.json"

This part is not required for streaming data that is processed through Tranquility.


TuningConfig refers to additional settings. For example, you can specify MapReduce parameters to use Hadoop to create an index for batch data. The contents of tuningConfig may vary based on the data source.