This topic describes the precautions and limits when you migrate data from a PolarDB for Oracle cluster. To ensure that your data migration task runs as expected, read the precautions and limits before you configure the task.

Scenarios of migrating data from a PolarDB for Oracle cluster

You can view the precautions and limits based on the following migration scenarios:

Migrate data between PolarDB for Oracle clusters

The following table describes the precautions and limits.
Category Description
Limits on the source database
  • The server to which the source database belongs must have sufficient outbound bandwidth. Otherwise, the data migration speed decreases.
  • The tables to be migrated must have PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraints, and all fields must be unique. Otherwise, the destination database may contain duplicate data records.
  • If you select tables as the objects to be migrated and you need to edit tables, such as renaming tables or columns in the destination database, up to 1,000 tables can be migrated in a single data migration task. If you run a task to migrate more than 1,000 tables, a request error occurs. In this case, we recommend that you configure multiple tasks to migrate the tables or configure a task to migrate the entire database.
  • If you need to migrate incremental data, make sure that the following requirements are met:
    • The write-ahead logging (WAL) feature must be enabled.
    • For incremental data migration, the WAL logs of the source database must be stored for more than 24 hours. For full data and incremental data migration, the WAL logs of the source database must be stored for at least seven days. Otherwise, DTS may fail to obtain the WAL logs and the task may fail. In exceptional circumstances, data inconsistency or loss may occur. After full data migration is complete, you can set the retention period to more than 24 hours. Make sure that you set the retention period of WAL logs based on the preceding requirements. Otherwise, the service reliability and performance stated in the Service Level Agreement (SLA) of DTS may not be guaranteed.

  • Limits on operations to be performed on the source database:
    • During schema migration and full data migration, do not perform DDL operations to change the schemas of databases or tables. Otherwise, the data migration task fails.
    • If you perform only full data migration, do not write data to the source database during data migration. Otherwise, data inconsistency may occur between the source and destination databases. To ensure data consistency, we recommend that you select schema migration, full data migration, and incremental data migration as the migration types.
  • If the source database has long-running transactions and the task contains incremental data migration, the WAL logs that are generated before the long-running transactions are submitted may not be cleared and therefore pile up, resulting in insufficient storage space in the source database.
Other limits
  • A data migration task can migrate data from only a single database. To migrate data from multiple databases, you must create a data migration task for each database.
  • If you select a schema as the object to be migrated and create a table in the schema or execute the RENAME statement to rename a table in the schema, you must execute the ALTER TABLE schema.table REPLICA IDENTITY FULL; statement before you write data to the table.
    Note Replace the schema and table variables in the preceding statement with your schema name and table name.
  • To ensure that the latency of data migration is accurate, DTS adds a heartbeat table named dts_postgres_heartbeat to the source database. The following figure shows the schema of the heartbeat table. Schema of a heartbeat table
  • Before you migrate data, evaluate the impact of data migration on the performance of the source and destination databases. We recommend that you migrate data during off-peak hours. During full data migration, DTS uses the read and write resources of the source and destination databases. This may increase the loads of the database servers.
  • During full data migration, concurrent INSERT operations cause fragmentation in the tables of the destination database. After full data migration is complete, the tablespace of the destination database is larger than that of the source database.
  • Make sure that the precision settings for columns of the FLOAT or DOUBLE data type meet your business requirements. DTS uses the ROUND(COLUMN,PRECISION) function to retrieve values from columns of the FLOAT or DOUBLE data type. If you do not specify a precision, DTS sets the precision for the FLOAT data type to 38 digits and the precision for the DOUBLE data type to 308 digits.
  • DTS attempts to resume data migration tasks that failed within the last seven days. Before you switch workloads to the destination database, stop or release the data migration task. You can also execute the REVOKE statement to revoke the write permissions from the accounts used by DTS to access the destination database. Otherwise, the data in the source database will overwrite the data in the destination database after the task is resumed.

Migrate data from a PolarDB for Oracle cluster to a self-managed Oracle database

The following table describes the precautions and limits.
Category Description
Limits on the source database
  • The server to which the source database belongs must have sufficient outbound bandwidth. Otherwise, the data migration speed decreases.
  • The tables to be migrated must have PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraints, and all fields must be unique. Otherwise, the destination database may contain duplicate data records.
  • If you select tables as the objects to be migrated and you need to edit tables, such as renaming tables or columns in the destination database, up to 1,000 tables can be migrated in a single data migration task. If you run a task to migrate more than 1,000 tables, a request error occurs. In this case, we recommend that you configure multiple tasks to migrate the tables or configure a task to migrate the entire database.
  • If you need to migrate incremental data, make sure that the following requirements are met:
    • The write-ahead logging (WAL) feature must be enabled.
    • For incremental data migration, the WAL logs of the source database must be stored for more than 24 hours. For full data and incremental data migration, the WAL logs of the source database must be stored for at least seven days. Otherwise, DTS may fail to obtain the WAL logs and the task may fail. In exceptional circumstances, data inconsistency or loss may occur. After full data migration is complete, you can set the retention period to more than 24 hours. Make sure that you set the retention period of WAL logs based on the preceding requirements. Otherwise, the service reliability and performance stated in the Service Level Agreement (SLA) of DTS may not be guaranteed.

  • Limits on operations to be performed on the source database:
    • During full data migration, do not perform DDL operations to change the schemas of databases or tables. Otherwise, the data migration task fails.
    • If you perform only full data migration, do not write data to the source database during data migration. Otherwise, data inconsistency may occur between the source and destination databases. To ensure data consistency, we recommend that you select full data migration and incremental data migration as the migration types.
  • If the source database has long-running transactions and the task contains incremental data migration, the WAL logs that are generated before the long-running transactions are submitted may not be cleared and therefore pile up, resulting in insufficient storage space in the source database.
Other limits
  • Schema migration is not supported. Before you configure a data migration task, you must create databases and tables in the destination instance based on the databases and tables that you want to migrate.
  • A data migration task can migrate data from only a single database. To migrate data from multiple databases, you must create a data migration task for each database.
  • If you select a schema as the object to be migrated and create a table in the schema or execute the RENAME statement to rename a table in the schema, you must execute the ALTER TABLE schema.table REPLICA IDENTITY FULL; statement before you write data to the table.
    Note Replace the schema and table variables in the preceding statement with your schema name and table name.
  • To ensure that the latency of data migration is accurate, DTS adds a heartbeat table named dts_postgres_heartbeat to the source database. The following figure shows the schema of the heartbeat table. Schema of a heartbeat table
  • Before you migrate data, evaluate the impact of data migration on the performance of the source and destination databases. We recommend that you migrate data during off-peak hours. During full data migration, DTS uses the read and write resources of the source and destination databases. This may increase the loads of the database servers.
  • During full data migration, concurrent INSERT operations cause fragmentation in the tables of the destination database. After full data migration is complete, the tablespace of the destination database is larger than that of the source database.
  • Make sure that the precision settings for columns of the FLOAT or DOUBLE data type meet your business requirements. DTS uses the ROUND(COLUMN,PRECISION) function to retrieve values from columns of the FLOAT or DOUBLE data type. If you do not specify a precision, DTS sets the precision for the FLOAT data type to 38 digits and the precision for the DOUBLE data type to 308 digits.
  • DTS attempts to resume data migration tasks that failed within the last seven days. Before you switch workloads to the destination database, stop or release the data migration task. You can also execute the REVOKE statement to revoke the write permissions from the accounts used by DTS to access the destination database. Otherwise, the data in the source database will overwrite the data in the destination database after the task is resumed.
Special cases If the self-managed Oracle database is deployed in a Real Application Cluster (RAC) architecture and is connected to DTS over an Alibaba Cloud virtual private cloud (VPC), you must connect the Single Client Access Name (SCAN) IP address of the Oracle RAC and the virtual IP address (VIP) of each node to the VPC and configure routes. The settings ensure that your DTS task can run as expected. For more information, see Connect an on-premises database to Alibaba Cloud and Configure a route between DTS and Express Connect, VPN Gateway, or Smart Access Gateway.
Important When you configure the source Oracle database in the DTS console, you must enter the SCAN IP address of the Oracle RAC in the Database Endpoint or IP Address field.