This topic describes how to manually deploy a Java web environment on an Elastic Compute Service (ECS) instance. This topic is applicable to individual users who are new to website construction on ECS instances.

Prerequisites

  • An Alibaba Cloud account is created. To create an Alibaba Cloud account, go to the Create Your Alibaba Cloud Account page.
  • To use ECS instances that are located in mainland China regions, make sure that you have completed real-name verification for your account.
  • An ECS instance is created. For more information, see Create an instance by using the wizard.

Background information

The following instance type and software versions are used in this topic. The actual operation depends on your instance type and software versions.
  • Instance type: ecs.c6.large
  • Operating system: CentOS 7.4
  • Apache Tomcat: Apache Tomcat 8.5.53
    Note Apache Tomcat 8.5.53 is used in this topic. The source code is constantly upgraded, and you can obtain a version appropriate to your requirements.
  • JDK: JDK 1.8.0_241
  • FTP tool: WinSCP

Step 1: Download the source code

  1. Download Apache Tomcat from Apache Tomcat.
  2. Download JDK.
    1. Download the JDK installation package from Java Downloads.
      Note If you run the wget command on an instance to download the JDK installation package and an error is reported when you decompress the package, you can download the JDK installation package to your local computer and upload it to the instance.
    2. Log on to the ECS console.
    3. In the left-side navigation pane, choose Instances & Images > Instances.
    4. Select the region where the instance is deployed.
    5. On the Instances page, find the instance and view its public IP address in the IP Address column.
    6. In WinSCP, connect to the instance by using the public IP address.
    7. Upload the downloaded Apache Tomcat and JDK installation package to the root directory of the instance.

Step 2: Prepare for installation

  1. Add an inbound rule to the security group of the instance to allow traffic on the required ports. For more information, see Add security group rules.
    In this example, SSH port 22 and HTTP port 8080 are enabled.
  2. Connect to the instance. For more information, see Connect to a Linux instance by using password authentication.
  3. Disable the firewall.
    1. Run the systemctl status firewalld command to check the status of the firewall.
      Check the status of the firewall
      • If the firewall is in the inactive state, the firewall is disabled.
      • If the firewall is in the active state, the firewall is enabled. In this example, the firewall is in the active state. Therefore, you must disable the firewall.
    2. Disable the firewall. If the firewall is in the inactive state, skip this step.
      • To temporarily disable the firewall, run the systemctl stop firewalld command.
        Note After you run this command, the firewall is temporarily disabled. It enters the active state after you restart the instance next time.
      • To permanently disable the firewall, run the systemctl disable firewalld command.
        Note You can enable the firewall again. For more information, see Firewalld documentation.
  4. Disable Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux).
    1. Run the getenforce command to check the status of SELinux.
      Check the status of SELinux
      • If the status of SELinux is Disabled, SELinux is disabled.
      • If the status of SELinux is Enforcing, SELinux is enabled. In this example, SELinux is in the Enforcing state. You must disable SELinux.
    2. Disable SELinux. If SELinux is in the Disabled state, skip this step.
      • To temporarily disable SELinux, run the setenforce 0 command.
        Note After you run this command, SELinux is temporarily disabled. It enters the enforcing state after you restart Linux next time.
      • To permanently disable SELinux, do as follows: Run the vi /etc/selinux/config command, edit the SELinux configuration file, and press Enter. Move your pointer to the line of SELINUX=enforcing and press i to enter the edit mode. Change SELINUX=enforcing to SELINUX=disabled and press Esc. Then, enter :wq and press Enter to save and close the SELinux configuration file.
        Note You can enable SELinux again. For more information, see SELinux documentation.
    3. Restart the system to make the changes take effect.
  5. To ensure system security, we recommend that you create a standard user to run Apache Tomcat.
    In this example, a standard user named www is created.
    useradd www
  6. Run the following command to create a root directory for the Java website:
    mkdir -p /data/wwwroot/default
  7. Upload the WAR package of Java web project files to the root directory and change the owner of files under the root directory to www.
    In this example, the following commands are run to create a Apache Tomcat test page under the root directory and change the owner of files under the root directory to www:
    echo Tomcat test > /data/wwwroot/default/index.jsp
    chown -R www.www /data/wwwroot

Step 3: Install JDK

  1. Run the following command to create a directory:
    mkdir /usr/java
  2. Run the following commands in sequence to grant the execute permissions on jdk-8u241-linux-x64.tar.gz and decompress it to /usr/java:
    chmod +x jdk-8u241-linux-x64.tar.gz
    tar xzf jdk-8u241-linux-x64.tar.gz -C /usr/java
  3. Set environment variables.
    1. Run the vi /etc/profile command to open the /etc/profile file.
    2. Press the I key to add the following content:
      # set java environment
      export JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.8.0_241
      export CLASSPATH=$JAVA_HOME/lib/tools.jar:$JAVA_HOME/lib/dt.jar:$JAVA_HOME/lib
      export PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH
    3. Press the Esc key to exit the edit mode. Enter :wq and press the Enter key to save and close the configuration file.
  4. Run the following command to load the environment variables:
    source /etc/profile
  5. Run the following command to view the JDK version:
    java -version
    The following command output indicates that JDK is installed. jdk180241

Step 4: Install Apache Tomcat

  1. Run the following commands in sequence.
    1. Decompress apache-tomcat-8.5.53.tar.gz.
      tar xzf apache-tomcat-8.5.53.tar.gz
    2. Rename the Apache Tomcat directory.
      mv apache-tomcat-8.5.53 /usr/local/tomcat/
    3. Configure the owner of the file.
      chown -R www.www /usr/local/tomcat/
    The /usr/local/tomcat/ directory contains the following subdirectories:
    • bin: stores Apache Tomcat script files, such as scripts used to enable and disable Apache Tomcat.
    • conf: stores various global configuration files of the Apache Tomcat server, among which server.xml and web.xml are the most important files.
    • webapps: serves as the main web publishing directory of Apache Tomcat. It stores web application files by default.
    • logs: stores Apache Tomcat operation log files.
  2. Configure the server.xml file.
    1. Run the following command to go to the /usr/local/tomcat/conf/ directory:
      cd /usr/local/tomcat/conf/
    2. Run the following command to rename the server.xml file:
      mv server.xml server.xml_bk
    3. Create a server.xml file.
      1. Run the following command to create and open the server.xml file:
        vi server.xml
      2. Press the I key to add the following content:
        <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
        <Server port="8006" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">
        <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.JreMemoryLeakPreventionListener"/>
        <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.GlobalResourcesLifecycleListener"/>
        <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.ThreadLocalLeakPreventionListener"/>
        <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener"/>
        <GlobalNamingResources>
        <Resource name="UserDatabase" auth="Container"
         type="org.apache.catalina.UserDatabase"
         description="User database that can be updated and saved"
         factory="org.apache.catalina.users.MemoryUserDatabaseFactory"
         pathname="conf/tomcat-users.xml"/>
        </GlobalNamingResources>
        <Service name="Catalina">
        <Connector port="8080"
         protocol="HTTP/1.1"
         connectionTimeout="20000"
         redirectPort="8443"
         maxThreads="1000"
         minSpareThreads="20"
         acceptCount="1000"
         maxHttpHeaderSize="65536"
         debug="0"
         disableUploadTimeout="true"
         useBodyEncodingForURI="true"
         enableLookups="false"
         URIEncoding="UTF-8"/>
        <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost">
        <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.LockOutRealm">
        <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.UserDatabaseRealm"
          resourceName="UserDatabase"/>
        </Realm>
        <Host name="localhost" appBase="/data/wwwroot/default" unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true">
        <Context path="" docBase="/data/wwwroot/default" debug="0" reloadable="false" crossContext="true"/>
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve" directory="logs"
        prefix="localhost_access_log." suffix=".txt" pattern="%h %l %u %t &quot;%r&quot; %s %b" />
        </Host>
        </Engine>
        </Service>
        </Server>
      3. Press the Esc key to exit the edit mode. Enter :wq and press the Enter key to save and close the configuration file.
  3. Configure the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) memory parameters.
    1. Run the following command to create and open the /usr/local/tomcat/bin/setenv.sh file:
      vi /usr/local/tomcat/bin/setenv.sh
    2. Press the I key to add the following content:
      Specify the JAVA_OPTS parameter to set the JVM memory information and encoding format.
      JAVA_OPTS='-Djava.security.egd=file:/dev/./urandom -server -Xms256m -Xmx496m -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8'
    3. Press the Esc key to exit the edit mode. Enter :wq and press the Enter key to save and close the configuration file.
  4. Configure a script to enable Apache Tomcat to run on system startup.
    1. Run the following command to download the script.
      Note The script originates from the community and is for reference only. Alibaba Cloud does not make any guarantee, express or implied, with respect to the reliability of the script, as well as potential impacts of operations on the script. If you cannot download the script by running the wget command, you can use a browser to access https://raw.githubusercontent.com/oneinstack/oneinstack/master/init.d/Tomcat-init to obtain the script content.
      wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/oneinstack/oneinstack/master/init.d/Tomcat-init
    2. Run the following command to move and rename Tomcat-init:
      mv Tomcat-init /etc/init.d/tomcat
    3. Run the following command to grant the execute permissions on the /etc/init.d/tomcat file:
      chmod +x /etc/init.d/tomcat
    4. Run the following command to configure the JAVA_HOME script to enable Apache Tomcat to run on system startup.
      Notice The JDK version in the script must be the same as that you installed. Otherwise, Apache Tomcat cannot start.
      sed -i 's@^export JAVA_HOME=.*@export JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.8.0_241@' /etc/init.d/tomcat                  
  5. Run the following commands in sequence to enable Apache Tomcat to run on system startup:
    1. chkconfig --add tomcat
    2. chkconfig tomcat on
  6. Run the following command to start Apache Tomcat:
    service tomcat start             
  7. Open your browser and enter a URL in the http://<Public IP address of the ECS instance>:8080 format in the address bar to connect to the instance.
    The following response indicates that Apache Tomcat is installed. Response

What to do next

When Apache Tomcat becomes available, we recommend that you configure websites on the instance and map domain names to the public IP address of the instance.