LXC also known as a Linux Containers is a free, open source, lightweight and operating system-level virtualization software that allows us to run a multiple isolated Linux systems on a single Linux host. LXC provides the cgroups functionality that allows the limitation of resources like, CPU, memory, network without the need for starting any virtual machines. You can start Linux container without using the separate kernel using LXC. LXC allows you to run multiple instances of an operating system or application on a single host, without inducing overhead on CPU and memory. Containers can be used to quickly set up a virtual environment for testing/QA purposes.
In this tutorial, we will explain how to set up LXC container on Alibaba Cloud Elastic Compute Service (ECS) with Ubuntu 16.04.
First, log in to your Alibaba Cloud ECS Console. Create a new ECS instance, choosing Ubuntu 16.04 as the operating system with at least 2GB RAM. Connect to your ECS instance and log in as the root user.
Once you are logged into your Ubuntu 16.04 instance, run the following command to update your base system with the latest available packages.
apt-get update -y
By default, LXC is available in the Ubuntu 16.04 default repository. You can install it by running the following command:
apt-get install lxc lxc-templates -y
After installing LXC, you can check the LXC using the following command:
If everything fine, you should see the following output:
Kernel configuration not found at /proc/config.gz; searching... Kernel configuration found at /boot/config-4.2.0-27-generic --- Namespaces --- Namespaces: enabled Utsname namespace: enabled Ipc namespace: enabled Pid namespace: enabled User namespace: enabled Network namespace: enabled Multiple /dev/pts instances: enabled --- Control groups --- Cgroup: enabled Cgroup clone_children flag: enabled Cgroup device: enabled Cgroup sched: enabled Cgroup cpu account: enabled Cgroup memory controller: enabled Cgroup cpuset: enabled --- Misc --- Veth pair device: enabled Macvlan: enabled Vlan: enabled Bridges: enabled Advanced netfilter: enabled CONFIG_NF_NAT_IPV4: enabled CONFIG_NF_NAT_IPV6: enabled CONFIG_IP_NF_TARGET_MASQUERADE: enabled CONFIG_IP6_NF_TARGET_MASQUERADE: enabled CONFIG_NETFILTER_XT_TARGET_CHECKSUM: enabled FUSE (for use with lxcfs): enabled --- Checkpoint/Restore --- checkpoint restore: enabled CONFIG_FHANDLE: enabled CONFIG_EVENTFD: enabled CONFIG_EPOLL: enabled CONFIG_UNIX_DIAG: enabled CONFIG_INET_DIAG: enabled CONFIG_PACKET_DIAG: enabled CONFIG_NETLINK_DIAG: enabled File capabilities: enabled Note : Before booting a new kernel, you can check its configuration usage : CONFIG=/path/to/config /usr/bin/lxc-checkconfig
LXC comes with lots of ready-made templates for creating Linux containers. You can list out them by running the following command:
lxc-alpine lxc-archlinux lxc-centos lxc-debian lxc-fedora lxc-openmandriva lxc-oracle lxc-slackware lxc-sshd lxc-ubuntu-cloud lxc-altlinux lxc-busybox lxc-cirros lxc-download lxc-gentoo lxc-opensuse lxc-plamo lxc-sparclinux lxc-ubuntu
Now, create your first Ubuntu container with the following command:
lxc-create -n new-container -t ubuntu
Once the container created succesfully, you should see the following output:
Download complete Copy /var/cache/lxc/xenial/rootfs-amd64 to /var/lib/lxc/new-container/rootfs ... Copying rootfs to /var/lib/lxc/new-container/rootfs ... Generating locales (this might take a while)... en_IN.UTF-8... done Generation complete. Creating SSH2 RSA key; this may take some time ... 2048 SHA256:kiRG9aMIT87ZRJ/+RJoKh9dO7ykS0MNQmNKlbgDveiM firstname.lastname@example.org (RSA) Creating SSH2 DSA key; this may take some time ... 1024 SHA256:Y0Ajo4RuUP3ty+BJOmHrQPscF+9oxDSfgLTALBE3/Yg email@example.com (DSA) Creating SSH2 ECDSA key; this may take some time ... 256 SHA256:TsHzuCEgoRAMobpdUJCVCyRQo2YgKpGEZLZp4OF1iBw firstname.lastname@example.org (ECDSA) Creating SSH2 ED25519 key; this may take some time ... 256 SHA256:wehDNjEy/AxVknDWj7BFTtvGKUnVXKLcmTTbm63OyM0 email@example.com (ED25519) invoke-rc.d: could not determine current runlevel invoke-rc.d: policy-rc.d denied execution of start. Current default time zone: 'Etc/UTC' Local time is now: Mon Jul 30 07:40:47 UTC 2018. Universal Time is now: Mon Jul 30 07:40:47 UTC 2018. ## # The default user is 'ubuntu' with password 'ubuntu'! # Use the 'sudo' command to run tasks as root in the container. ##
You should see that the Ubuntu container created with the default user ubuntu and password ubuntu.
You can now list the created container with the following command:
Ubuntu container is now created. You can now start the container with the following command:
lxc-start -n new-container -d
Next, take a console of the container by running the following command:
lxc-console -n new-container
You will be asked to provide username and password to log in. Provide the username ubuntu and password ubuntu to log in. You should see the following output after login:
Connected to tty 1 Type <Ctrl+a q> to exit the console, <Ctrl+a Ctrl+a> to enter Ctrl+a itself Ubuntu 16.04.5 LTS new-container pts/0 new-container login: ubuntu Password: Welcome to Ubuntu 16.04.5 LTS (GNU/Linux 4.4.0-45-generic x86_64) * Documentation: https://help.ubuntu.com * Management: https://landscape.canonical.com * Support: https://ubuntu.com/advantage The programs included with the Ubuntu system are free software; the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright. Ubuntu comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by applicable law. To run a command as administrator (user "root"), use "sudo <command>". See "man sudo_root" for details. ubuntu@new-container:~$
You can exit from the container any time by pressing "Ctrl+a" followed by "q"
You can get the details of the running container using the following command:
lxc-info -n new-container
Name: new-container State: RUNNING PID: 26342 IP: 10.0.3.66 CPU use: 0.20 seconds BlkIO use: 8.00 KiB Memory use: 13.44 MiB KMem use: 0 bytes Link: veth9DB525 TX bytes: 1.34 KiB RX bytes: 2.09 KiB Total bytes: 3.43 KiB
You can start and stop the container with the following command:
lxc-start -n new-container lxc-stop -n new-container
You can Pause and Unpause the container with the following command:
lxc-freeze -n new-container lxc-unfreeze -n new-container
You can also take a snapshot of the container. First, stop the running container with the following command:
lxc-stop -n new-container
Next, take a snapshot of the container with the following command:
lxc-snapshot -n new-container
lxc-snapshot: lxccontainer.c: do_lxcapi_snapshot: 3405 Snapshot of directory-backed container requested. lxc-snapshot: lxccontainer.c: do_lxcapi_snapshot: 3406 Making a copy-clone. If you do want snapshots, then lxc-snapshot: lxccontainer.c: do_lxcapi_snapshot: 3407 please create an aufs or overlayfs clone first, snapshot that lxc-snapshot: lxccontainer.c: do_lxcapi_snapshot: 3408 and keep the original container pristine.
You can see the location of the snapshot using the following command:
lxc-snapshot -L -n new-container
snap0 (/var/lib/lxc/new-container/snaps) 2018:07:30 13:43:16
You can restore the snapshot using the following command:
lxc-snapshot -r snap0 -n new-container
If you want to delete the container, run the following command:
lxc-stop -n new-container lxc-destroy -n new-container
LXC Web Panel is a GUI management tool to manage Linux containers. You can create, start, stop, clone, delete and restart Linux container from the web browser using LXC web panel.
You can install the LXC web panel to your system by running the following command:
wget https://lxc-webpanel.github.io/tools/install.sh -O - | bash
This command will download and install LXC web panel automatically to your system:
Installing requirement... + Installing Python pip Extracting templates from packages: 100% | + Flask Python... Collecting flask==0.9 Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/49/0a/fe5021b35436202d3d4225a766f3bdc7fb51521ad89e73c5162db36cdbc7/Flask-0.9.tar.gz (481kB) 100% |################################| 491kB 598kB/s Collecting Werkzeug>=0.7 (from flask==0.9) Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/20/c4/12e3e56473e52375aa29c4764e70d1b8f3efa6682bef8d0aae04fe335243/Werkzeug-0.14.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (322kB) 100% |################################| 327kB 517kB/s Collecting Jinja2>=2.4 (from flask==0.9) Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/7f/ff/ae64bacdfc95f27a016a7bed8e8686763ba4d277a78ca76f32659220a731/Jinja2-2.10-py2.py3-none-any.whl (126kB) 100% |################################| 133kB 544kB/s Collecting MarkupSafe>=0.23 (from Jinja2>=2.4->flask==0.9) Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/4d/de/32d741db316d8fdb7680822dd37001ef7a448255de9699ab4bfcbdf4172b/MarkupSafe-1.0.tar.gz Building wheels for collected packages: flask, MarkupSafe Running setup.py bdist_wheel for flask ... done Stored in directory: /root/.cache/pip/wheels/69/1b/77/d1aa13cdcc09430d1ba010a48e2cb59fda00f4ef18620ca8dc Running setup.py bdist_wheel for MarkupSafe ... done Stored in directory: /root/.cache/pip/wheels/33/56/20/ebe49a5c612fffe1c5a632146b16596f9e64676768661e4e46 Successfully built flask MarkupSafe Installing collected packages: Werkzeug, MarkupSafe, Jinja2, flask Successfully installed Jinja2-2.10 MarkupSafe-1.0 Werkzeug-0.14.1 flask-0.9 + Installing Git Cloning LXC Web Panel... Cloning into '/srv/lwp'... remote: Counting objects: 243, done. remote: Total 243 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 243 Receiving objects: 100% (243/243), 198.33 KiB | 141.00 KiB/s, done. Resolving deltas: 100% (108/108), done. Checking connectivity... done. Installation complete! Adding /etc/init.d/lwp... Done Starting server...done. Connect you on http://your-ip-address:5000/
Once the installation is completed, open your web browser and type the URL http://your-server-ip:5000. You will be redirected to the LXC login page as shown below:
Now, enter the default username admin and password admin, then click on the Log In button. You should see the LXC web panel in the following page:
You can update the LXC web panel using the following command:
wget https://lxc-webpanel.github.io/tools/update.sh -O - | bash
Congratulations! You have successfully installed LXC and LXC web panel to your system. You can now easily create and manage Linux container from the central location.
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