Anomaly Detection for Time Series Data with Deep Learning -- essentially classifies normal and abnormal behaviors. To detect abnormal behaviors, use the prediction method-Alibaba Cloud Developer Community

A sample network anomaly detection project

Suppose we wanted to detect network anomalies with the understanding that an anomaly might point to hardware failure, application failure, or an intrusion.

What our model will show us

The RNN will train on a numeric representation of network activity logs, feature vectors that translate the raw mix of text and numerical data in logs.

By feeding a large volume of network activity logs, with each log line a time step, to the RNN, the neural net will learn what normal expected network activity looks like. When this trained network is fed new activity from the network, it will be able classify the activity as normal and expected, or anomalous.

Training a neural net recognize expected behavior has an advantage, because it is rare to have a large volume of abnormal data , or certainly not enough to accurately classify all abnormal behavior. We train our network on the normal data we have , so that it alerts us to non-normal activity in the future. We train for the opposite where we have enough data about attacks.

As an aside, the trained network does not necessarily note that certain activities happen at certain times (it does not know that a particular day is Sunday), but it does notice those more obvious temporal patterns we would be aware of, along with other connections between events that might not be apparent.

We'll outline how to approach this problem using Deeplearning4j, a widely used open-source library for deep learning on the JVM. Deeplearning4j comes with a variety of tools that are useful throughout the model development process: DataVec is a collection of tools to assist with the extract-transform-load (ETL) tasks used to prepare data for model training. Just as Sqoop helps load data into Hadoop, DataVec helps load data into neural nets by cleaning, preprocessing, normalizing and standardizing data. It's similar to Trifacta's Wrangler but focused a bit more on binary data.

Getting started

The first stage includes typical big data tasks and ETL: We need to gather, move, store, prepare, normalize, and vectorize the logs. The size of the time steps must be decided. Data transformation may require significant effort, since JSON logs, text logs and logs with inconsistent labeling patterns will have to be read and converted into a numeric array. DataVec can help transform and normalize that data. As is the norm when developing machine learning models, the data must be split into a training set and a test (or evaluation) set.

Training the network

The net's initial training will run on the training split of the input data.

For the first training runs, you may need to adjust some hyperparameters (“hyperparameters” are parameters that control the “configuration” of the model and how it trains) so that the model actually learns from the data, and does so in a reasonable amount of time. We discuss a few hyperparameters below. As the model trains, you should look for a steady decrease in error.

There is a risk that a neural network model will "overfit" on the data. A model that has been trained to the point of overfitting the dataset will get good scores on training data, but will not make accurate decisions about data it has never seen before. It doesn't “generalize” -- in machine-learning parlance. Deeplearning4J provides regularization tools and “early stopping” that help prevent overfitting while training.

Training the neural net is the step that will take the most time and hardware. Running training on GPUs will lead to a significant decrease in training time, especially for image recognition, but additional hardware comes with additional cost so it's important that your deep-learning framework use hardware as efficiently as possible. Cloud services such as Azure and Amazon provide access to GPU-based instances, and neural nets can be trained on heterogenous clusters with scalable commodity servers as well as purpose-built machines.

Productionizing the model

Deeplearning4J provides a ModelSerializer class to save a trained model. A trained model can be saved and either be used (I .e., deployed to production) or updated later with further training.

When performing network anomaly detection in production, log files need to be serialized into the same format that the model trained on, and based on the output of the neural network, you would get reports on whether the current activity was in the range of normal expected network behavior.

Sample code

The configuration of a recurrent neural network might look something like this:

MultiLayerConfiguration conf = new NeuralNetConfiguration.Builder() .seed(123) .optimizationAlgo(OptimizationAlgorithm.STOCHASTIC_GRADIENT_DESCENT).iterations(1) .weightInit(WeightInit.XAVIER) .updater(Updater.NESTEROVS).momentum(0.9) .learningRate(0.005) .gradientNormalization(GradientNormalization.ClipElementWiseAbsoluteValue) .gradientNormalizationThreshold(0.5) .list() .layer(0, new GravesLSTM.Builder().activation("tanh").nIn(1).nOut(10).build()) .layer(1, new RnnOutputLayer.Builder(LossFunctions.LossFunction.MCXENT) .activation("softmax").nIn(10).nOut(numLabelClasses).build()) .pretrain(false).backprop(true).build(); MultiLayerNetwork net = new MultiLayerNetwork(conf); net.init();

Let's describe a few important lines of this code:

  • .seed(123)

sets a random seed to initialize the neural net's weights, in order to obtain reproducible results. Typically, coefficients are initialized randomly, and so to obtain consistent results while adjusting other hyperparameters, we need to set a seed, so we can use the same random weights over and over as we tune and test.

  • .optimizationAlgo(OptimizationAlgorithm.STOCHASTIC_GRADIENT_DESCENT).iterations(1)

determines which optimization algorithm to use (in this case, stochastic gradient descent) to determine how to modify the weights to improve the error score. You probably won't have to modify this.

  • .learningRate(0.005)

When using stochastic gradient descent, the error gradient (that is, the relation of a change in coefficients to a change in the net's error) is calculated and the weights are moved along this gradient in an attempt to move the error towards a minimum. SGD gives us the direction of less error and the learning rate determines how big of a step is taken in that direction. If the learning rate is too high, you may overshoot the error minimum; if it is too low, your training will take forever. This is a hyperparameter you may need to adjust.

Getting Help

There is an active community of Deeplearning4J users who can be found on several support channels on Gitter.

About the Author

Tom Hanlon is currently at Skymind.IO where he is developing a Training Program for Deeplearning4J. The consistent thread in Tom's career has been data, from MySQL to Hadoop and now neural networks.



this article is forwarded from Zhang Xinhua-sky blog, original link: , if you need to reprint, please contact the original author.

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