[IT168 special draft]] the most well-known terminal service of Citrix is probably the earlier terminal service (resold to MS), and the subsequent application delivery and network acceleration are also widely recognized. With the development of virtualization technology and the upsurge of application, desktop virtualization solutions have also received Citrix's attention, and its XenDesktop Citrix VDI solutions are being adopted by more and more enterprises.
At present, VMwareVDI(View3.0) is the most widely used desktop virtualization solution in the market. However, due to the RDP protocol used for client connection, PPT, etc.) the user experience is not very ideal. However, the Citrix VDI solution is that the client uses the ICA(Independent Computing Architecture) network protocol to connect, and the user experience in multimedia aspects such as HD is quite good. If we make full use of the company's WANSCALE acceleration products, this effect will be better, especially when you use WAN to connect clients from branches in various regions to the desktop in the VDI of the data center.
Due to the open architecture, XenDesktop can flexibly support various virtualization platforms and terminal devices. These virtualization platforms include XenServer, VMwareVI (SMB), and Microsoft's SCVMM(Hyper-V). Different from other desktop virtualization solutions, XenDesktop can use a single image to deliver personalized desktops to virtual and physical devices in the data center or through terminal devices, thus simplifying desktop management. At the same time, the built-in performance monitoring tool of this solution enables IT to better manage service levels.
Simply put, XenDesktop is to build a Virtual desktop architecture of VDI(Virtual desktop Infrastructure) on the server. The client can access the desktop system on the server anytime and anywhere through the network, just like using a physical machine locally. This has several advantages: first, you only need to maintain the desktop image on the server side, which can reduce a large number of desktop maintenance costs on the physical client; the second is that new desktop systems can be quickly and efficiently distributed to employees; The third is that employees are not limited by space location and can link to their own desktop environment at any time.
The application scenarios of Citrix desktop virtualization solutions are not very different from those of other vendors. However, due to the superiority of its ICA network protocol, Citrix desktop virtualization solutions are more widely and deeply applied in multimedia. Nowadays, most enterprises have implemented the Active Directory-based infrastructure, but CitrixVDI have different requirements from VMwareVDI. In CitrixVDI solutions, to create and expand the OU architecture of the desktop group in the domain, you have the domain administrator permission. However, in some special enterprises, such as the current company where Lao Fang is located, there are some difficulties in implementing the OU architecture: an enterprise is a large transnational and cross-regional group. Although it is a single-domain environment, the management authority of domain control is owned by the headquarters. In China, it is only an OU group, the highest permission on the Active Directory is the OU management permission assigned to China. This permission is insufficient to create Desktop Farm in the domain OU. Therefore, it cannot be as automatic and flexible as having the domain administrator permission. However, Citrix still considered the existence of this situation and provided corresponding solutions. There are corresponding documents on its official website to explain the solution in this case. (Lao Fang is also willing to communicate with you in this respect)
the topology of this experiment (Deployment) is shown in the following figure. On the left is a thin client or a client with Windows OS such as XP and VISTA, access the VDI solution infrastructure in the data center through WAN or LAN (the right part in the following figure).
Figure 1. CitrixVDI experimental hardware and functional role topology
in the preceding figure, two physical machines are configured as follows:
motherboard: JETWAY Hummer HA07 GE upgrades BIOS to 20090412
CPU: AMD Athlon 7750 Dual-Core Black Edition (Black box K10 architecture)
memory: 6G DDR2 800
system: Windows 2003 Ent 64-bit (to WIN 7 x 64-bit in the future)
Windows 2003 Ent 64-bit OS is installed on one of the machines, and VMware Workstation 6.5.2 is installed on it. Three VMware Workstation -2003 Ent 32-bit OS are installed on the Windows, including DDC/LicenseServer, PVS/DHCP/XenCenter, and AD.
XenServer5.5.0 free edition is installed on one of the machines with the same configuration. At the same time, this desktop has been tested by SecurAble to fully support the hardware virtualization function. As shown in the following illustration.
Figure 2 detection hardware supports virtualization
next, combined with Figure 1, the main components and functions of the Citrix XenDesktop are described as follows:
Citrix Desktop Delivery Controller: short for DDC, this control component can control the connection between users and virtual desktops, customers can centrally manage applications and desktops in the data center, and control the delivery to end users through the network. This role is installed on the machine CitrixDDC.afopcn.com in figure 1.
Citrix Provisioning Server: short for PVS, which is the core component of Citrix virtualization solution, Provisioning Server can be said to be the scheduling center of the whole system. It is delivered on demand through the network to form all parts of the complete Server, including OS, application and configuration. Provisioning Server split each part of the Server into an independent virtual image -- VDisk, and store it on the network as a document. When a Server is started, it is no longer started from a local disk, but started from a VDisk on the network. Provisioning Server, the specified application components are delivered to the Server by using streaming technology. (Many friends are not unfamiliar with this, especially many friends who have working experience in Internet cafes are more likely to be familiar with it, and many diskless workstations are made of this) this role is installed on the machine CitrixPVS.afopcn.com in figure 1.
Citrix Provisioning Server for Desktops: stream technology is used to deliver a single standard desktop image to a physical desktop on demand through network services. Centralized configuration, delivery, and management of shared desktop images reduce the total cost and improve security and flexibility.
Citrix XenDesktop Setup Wizard: the quick Wizard tool for virtual clients, which combines Citrix components to help us quickly create multiple virtual desktops. This role is installed on the machine CitrixPVS.afopcn.com in figure 1.
Citrix XenServer: on the virtual server side, the same function can be achieved by using Hyper-V or SMB. As far as we know, XenDesktop can be used on Hyper-V VM. Background Citrix has many years of cooperation with Microsoft. This role is installed in the independent machine XenServer shown in Figure 1.
XenCenter: XenServer console. This role is installed on the machine CitrixPVS.afopcn.com in figure 1.
Desktop Receiver: the software runs on terminal devices (such as thin clients and machines running XP) that directly connect to the virtual desktop with ICA network protocol enabled. Generally, you need to download and install DDC when accessing DDC through the WEB, just like the client provides some tool options for operating the desktop. Multiple Desktop Receiver can be run on the same terminal device to connect to more than one Desktop. This role is only used when connecting to the desktop.
ICA Protocol: ICA(Independent Computing Architecture) network protocol consists of three parts. On the server side, ICA can separate the logic execution of application software from the user interface and transmit the protocol IPX, SPX, netBEUI, envoy, and PPP to transmit the user interface to the client. On the client, users can see and use the user interface of the application, but 100% of the application logic is executed on the server. The ICA network protocol transmits the updated data on the keyboard, mouse and screen through the standard protocol. It is understood that the average bandwidth is only 10-20K, the low bandwidth usage and high transmission efficiency of ICA ensure that 32-bit applications can be accessed and used efficiently on the client.
Citrix License Serve: it is a component that provides operation authorization for DDC and PVS. This component is also installed when DDC roles are installed. This role Service is installed on the XenDDC.afopcn.com machine.
The preceding components vary according to the version of the XenDesktop. For more information, see the following. In this experiment, the Enterprise version is used (as a small and medium-sized enterprise, this version provides sufficient functions), the authorization obtained through the Internet has a three-month use period, and its functions are not restricted:
the relationship between various roles and physical machines is shown in the following figure (note that the 8GB memory of desktop 1 is allocated to another desktop 2GB, so each 6GB):
as shown in the figure, you may see that the XenAPP role is not installed on servers. In a real production environment, we recommend that you install this role to simplify the management of virtual desktops and save costs.
in addition, XenDesktop can flexibly support various virtualization platforms:
oVMware Infrastructure 3. (Esx Server)
in other words, the host role of XenServer5.5.0 can be replaced by the above two, thus becoming the dwelling place for virtual desktops and templates.
Install three windows 2003 ent with sp2 operating systems on desktop 1, respectively named windc, CitrixDDC, and CitrixPVS. And add the latest system patches. Prepare for the next role installation.
Before installing and configuring the following components, go to http://www.citrix.com/English/ss/downloads/index.asp? ntref = hp_nav_US.
Finally, the main components and summary tips of each chapter are introduced. In order to make it easier for installation and configuration, the installation and configuration of each component are introduced separately. In other words, the installation of the entire architecture components is introduced in a certain order, and then the components are introduced in the configuration order. Finally, a chapter is used to integrate the entire configuration to build and test the virtual desktop:
1. CitrixVDI architecture and components
2. Install and configure XenServer
3. Installation and configuration of CitrixDDC (including OU creation in AD and application for 90-day License)
4. Installation and configuration of CitrixPVS (including DHCP and Citrix Setup Wizard installation)
the next article will introduce how to install and configure CitrixVDI based on XenServer components, and focus on the precautions. The installation of AD DC and DNS reverse resolution are also described.
This article is forwarded from rickyfang 51CTO blog, original link: http://blog.51cto.com/rickyfang/196470 , if you need to reprint, please contact the original author.