Seven Things Enterprises Must Know Before They Embrace Open Source

Open source Introduction:

In the new era, the development of open source is becoming more and more vigorous, the relationship between open source and cloud is becoming more and more complex, and the degree of coupling is getting higher and higher. Take off the engine.

In the new era, the development of open source is becoming more and more vigorous, the relationship between open source and cloud is becoming more and more complex, and the degree of coupling is getting higher and higher. Take off the engine.

In May 1997, Eric S.Raymond published "The Cathedral and the Bazaar" known as the "Open Source Bible", and the open source movement has since then had its own Declaration of Independence. Since the development of open source, from the emergence of personal heroes such as Linus Torvalds, Kenneth Lane Thompson, Richard Matthew Stallman, Eric Steven Raymond, etc., to more and more enterprise organizations realizing the value of open source and joining in open source, open, equal and collaborative , The shared open source model has gradually become a new generation of software development model. Open source has become one of the leading forces in global software technology and industrial innovation. Especially in the cloud era, open source covers all scenarios of software development.

This article attempts to introduce the evolution process of software development and delivery methods from the history of enterprise software, combined with the development law of open source software, analyze common misunderstandings in open source software development and use, discuss the business model and ecology of open source software, and in the cloud era , open source software The combination and mutual promotion of software and cloud.

Open Source Why open source is hard to avoid

Feature 1 : Open source. Improve the application breadth and depth of open source basic software

Basic software is the "soul" of the computing industry. In the past few decades, with the vigorous development of open source, early open source software was concentrated on the application side, but important basic software, such as operating systems, databases, etc., still adopted a closed and proprietary development model and business model.

Today, basic software has gradually evolved into an open source and open way. 97% of software developers and 99% of enterprises use open source software, and the adoption of open source software for basic software, industrial software, and emerging platform software has become an important driving force for overtaking on curves. The "Open Source Ecological White Paper (2020)" of the Academy of Information and Communications Technology pointed out that in recent years, domestic enterprises have gradually focused on the layout of open source projects in the field of basic software, and a number of open source projects have emerged in the fields of operating systems, databases, and middleware, among which there are many top open source projects from international foundations. project.

Feature 2: Open source.The value created by open source software is prominent

Open source has become the driving force of global digital technology innovation and has grown into a powerful technological innovation model. It has moved from the initial software industry to hardware, chips, video, IoT, AI, and other fields. The business model of open source is also gradually maturing. Today, new products are open-sourced, new architectures are open-sourced, new platforms are open-sourced, and even top research results are released in open-source form. Open source has gradually become a crucial innovation direction for global technological progress.

Feature 3: Open source .The country attaches unprecedented importance to open source software

In 2021, the "14th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China and the Outline of Vision 2035" clearly pointed out that "support for the development of innovative consortia such as digital technology open source communities, improve open source intellectual property rights and legal systems, encourage Enterprise Open Software Source Code, Hardware Design and Application Services". There is no doubt that open source will be supported at the national strategic level and will embark on the fast lane of leapfrog development.

General Office of the People's Bank of China, the Secretariat of the Central Cyberspace Administration of China, the General Office of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the General Office of the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission, and the General Office of the China Securities Regulatory Commission jointly issued the "Opinions on Regulating the Application and Development of Open Source Technology in the Financial Industry" (hereinafter referred to as the "Opinions"). ). In recent years, open source technology has been widely used in various fields of the financial industry, playing an active role in promoting technological innovation and digital transformation of financial institutions, but it also faces many challenges such as security and controllability. The promulgation of the "Opinions" will help standardize the rational application of open source technologies by financial institutions, improve the application level and independent controllability, and promote the healthy and sustainable development of open source technologies.

This article is excerpted from the first issue of 2022 "Yunqi Strategic Reference", a bimonthly magazine for digital transformation. Please scan the code to subscribe , and the staff will send it to you after review. Please fill in the link below to subscribe ), the staff will send it to you after review.

Open Source The development of software and the history of open source

In the early days of the computer industry, software existed as an auxiliary role to help hardware function. Before the birth of Unix in the 1970s, there was no precedent for developing an operating system in a high-level language. Since the software is not universal, and the software itself does not exist as an independent sales entity, it is only a software development project, and it is also a common practice to deliver the source code at the same time as the project is delivered. The customer needs to maintain the operation of the system continuously, and the developer is unwilling to assume the maintenance responsibility for the whole life cycle of the software.

With the birth of Unix and mainly implemented in C language, an open general-purpose operating system became possible, and the development and licensing of software became possible with the pursuit of compatibility and versatility of hardware and software. In the early days of Unix's development, due to the special attitude of its owner AT&T to avoid entering the software industry (the reason is that the main telecommunications business is under severe anti-monopoly pressure and is unwilling to add extra trouble), when it is licensed to users, it is Provided in source code form with no follow-up technical support, allowing users to fix problems in their own environment and port to new hardware platforms. Authorized universities, governments and some commercial organizations at this stage laid the foundation for the subsequent development of Unix, and also planted the seeds for subsequent Unix disputes and divisions.

In the 1980s, with the enhancement and popularization of computers, general-purpose software that can run on a large number of computers gradually gave birth to the commercial software industry and continued to flourish. A large number of software companies emerged and many are still industry giants today, such as Microsoft, SAP, Oracle, Adobe, etc. A feature of this era is that with the expansion of computer users from professionals to ordinary users, the delivery form of software has gradually changed to only provide running programs instead of source code, and what is sold to users is also the license defined by the manufacturer. , In addition to selling software, manufacturers also provide technical support services for a fee: upgrade software for customers, fix problems, and provide operating environments for new equipment. Consumers, as users, no longer have the right to modify and run software, and the authorized use of software and technical support services have formed an important business model in the commercial software industry.

In the world of personal computers, there has been no fundamental change in the way customers use software today. Since the vast majority of users are not software development professionals, there is no need to modify the system or application software by themselves, this model is well adapted to user needs and continues.

In the server field, the Unix camp originated from the early codes distributed by AT&T. Sun, HP, DEC, IBM, etc. developed their own Unix systems based on different hardware architectures, forming a so-called open system ecosystem. The need for universality and compatibility has spawned subsequent unified standards such as POSIX, but the ambiguity of Unix's authorization and legal provisions, as well as the attitudes and ambitions of subsequent holders have caused a lot of problems, and various systems derived from Unix have been changed to Each of its own brands developed separately, and there was also a lack of unified coordination with the Unix backbone. This split gave WindowsNT a huge business opportunity and developed into today's WindowsServer series of operating systems. These commercial operating systems still only provide runtime use. Licensed to end users and provides commercial technical support services.

In the 1980s, another important event in the software industry was the establishment of the Free Software Foundation (FSF). In academic and scientific research institutions, the "hacker spirit" has always been the pursuit of many people. The basis of the pursuit is having the right to modify the source code. It has to be said here that the GNU (GNU is Not Unix) action initiated by Richard Stallman (whose various criticisms against him do not affect the meaning and value of GNU and FSF) has redeveloped and realized the greatness of Unix. Part of the tool system, and these software are distributed under the license of GPL. The GPL mandates continuous supply of source code for derivative software. GNU implements most of the common tool systems of Unix, but still cannot get rid of the dependence on the core of the Unix operating system until 1991 The development of the Linux kernel started by Linus Torvalds filled this gap. The Linux kernel and peripheral tool system also adopted the GPL license to form a Linux ecosystem, and a large number of rich Unix usage and The active participation of universities, scientific research institutions and commercial organizations with development experience has contributed to the rapid growth and maturity of Linux.

After the mid-1990s, the Internet began to flourish, and various Unix derivatives and Windows NT also supported this development in its infancy.

With the explosive growth of user scale, cost has become a factor that cannot be ignored, especially many new Internet companies are unwilling to spend precious funds on expensive hardware equipment and rigid software licensing. At this stage, Intel also gradually entered the ranks of server CPU providers from the PC CPU provider. The scale advantage also makes its CPU capability comparable to the server's RISCCPU. These CPUs provide cores for various Unix servers running open systems. Because of its advantages of no mandatory charging and open source code modification, Linux has been selected as the background service running platform by many emerging Internet companies. Widespread application and large-scale deployment have also helped Linux continue to develop rapidly, evolving into a server operating system that supports key businesses. At the same time, various open source systems on top of the operating system have also been widely used and continuously developed, gradually forming It shows the general status quo of today's Internet giants based on open source software and self- developed business software.

In the 21st century, with the widespread use of open source software in the Internet field, combined with the gradual establishment of Intel's dominance in the CPU field and the continuous decline of various closed open systems, many commercial enterprises have also begun to accept open source operating systems and open source technologies. The richness of platform software and application scenarios has further promoted the development of various open source software, forming a pattern that is still fiercely competitive today.

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