本文介绍通过OpenTelemetry Python SDK将Python应用的Trace数据接入到日志服务的操作步骤。

前提条件

  • 已创建Trace实例。更多信息,请参见创建Trace实例
  • 已安装Python 3.7及以上版本。
  • 已在Python上安装OpenTelemetry Python SDK。
    如果未安装,可使用以下命令进行安装。
    pip install opentelemetry-api==1.1.0
    pip install opentelemetry-sdk==1.1.0
    pip install opentelemetry-exporter-otlp==1.1.0

接入流程

  1. 初始化OpenTelemetry Provider。
  2. 判断是否符合半自动接入条件。
    • 如果符合,则您可以使用半自动方式接入Trace数据。

      当半自动方式无法覆盖您的所有场景时,余下场景您需要使用手动方式接入Trace数据。

    • 如果不符合,则您可以使用手动方式接入Trace数据。

步骤1:初始化OpenTelemetry Provider

您可以通过如下代码完成OpenTelemetry Provider的初始化。其中,代码中的变量需根据实际情况替换。关于变量的详细说明,请参见表 1
注意 您需要在创建Traces之前,完成OpenTelemetry Provider的初始化。
# For Opentelemetry
import socket
from opentelemetry import trace
from opentelemetry.exporter.otlp.trace_exporter import OTLPSpanExporter
from opentelemetry.sdk.resources import Resource
from opentelemetry.sdk.trace import TracerProvider
from opentelemetry.sdk.trace.export import BatchSpanProcessor
from opentelemetry.sdk.trace.export import ConsoleSpanExporter
from opentelemetry.sdk.trace.export import SimpleSpanProcessor


class OpenTelemetrySLSProvider(object):

    def __init__(self, service="", version="", endpoint='stdout',
                 project=None, instance=None, access_key_id=None, access_key_secret=None):
        '''
        :param service: Your Application Service Name
        :param version: Your Application Version
        :param endpoint: console or https://sls_endpoint:10010
        :param project: SLS project
        :param instance: SLS OTEL InstanceId
        :param access_key_id: Aliyun AccesskeyId
        :param access_key_secret:  Aliyun AccesskeySecret
        '''
        self.sls_otel_endpoint = endpoint
        self.sls_otel_project = project
        self.sls_otel_akid = access_key_id
        self.sls_otel_aksecret = access_key_secret
        self.sls_otel_instanceid = instance
        self.local_mode = False
        if endpoint == "stdout":
            self.local_mode = True
            self.resource = Resource(attributes={
                "host.name": socket.gethostname(),
                "service.name": service,
                "service.version": version})
        else:
            self.resource = Resource(attributes={
                "host.name": socket.gethostname(),
                "service.name": service,
                "service.version": version,
                "sls.otel.project": self.sls_otel_project,
                "sls.otel.akid": self.sls_otel_akid,
                "sls.otel.aksecret": self.sls_otel_aksecret,
                "sls.otel.instanceid": self.sls_otel_instanceid
            })

    def initTracer(self):
        trace.set_tracer_provider(TracerProvider(resource=self.resource))
        if self.local_mode:
            trace.get_tracer_provider().add_span_processor(SimpleSpanProcessor(ConsoleSpanExporter()))
        else:
            otlp_exporter = OTLPSpanExporter(endpoint=self.sls_otel_endpoint)
            trace.get_tracer_provider().add_span_processor(BatchSpanProcessor(otlp_exporter))
        
# debug mode
#sls_ot_provider = OpenTelemetrySLSProvider(service="example", version="v0.1.0")
 
# write to sls
sls_ot_provider = OpenTelemetrySLSProvider(service="${service}", version="${version}",
                                         endpoint='${endpoint}',
                                         project="${project}",
                                         instance="${instance}",
                                         access_key_id="${access-key-id}",
                                         access_key_secret="${access-key-secret}"
                                         )
表 1. 变量说明
变量 说明 示例
${service} 服务名。根据您的实际场景取值即可。 payment
${version} 服务版本号。建议按照va.b.c格式定义。 v0.1.2
${endpoint} 接入地址,格式为https://${project}.${region-endpoint}:Port,其中:
  • ${project}:日志服务Project名称。
  • ${region-endpoint}:Project访问域名,支持公网和阿里云内网(经典网络、VPC)。更多信息,请参见服务入口
  • Port:网络端口,固定为10010。
说明
  • 如果配置为stdout,即endpoint='stdout',表示将数据打印到标准输出。
  • 如果配置为空值,表示不上传Trace数据到日志服务。
https://test-project.cn-hangzhou.log.aliyuncs.com:10010
${project} 日志服务Project名称。 test-project
${instance} Trace服务实例名称。 test-traces
${access-key-id} 阿里云账号AccessKey ID。

建议您使用只具备日志服务Project写入权限的RAM用户的AccessKey(包括AccessKey ID和AccessKey Secret)。授予RAM用户向指定Project写入数据权限的具体操作,请参见授权。如何获取AccessKey的具体操作,请参见访问密钥

${access-key-secret} 阿里云账号AccessKey Secret。

建议您使用只具备日志服务Project写入权限的RAM用户的AccessKey。

步骤2:接入数据

您可以通过半自动或手动方式接入Trace数据到日志服务。OpenTelemetry Python SDK提供多种类型的instrumentation包,支持常用框架的半自动埋点,如果您使用的是指定的instrumentation包,则支持通过半自动方式接入数据。

  • 半自动埋点
    此处以flask和requests为例。
    1. 安装instrumentation包。
      pip install opentelemetry-instrumentation-flask
      pip install opentelemetry-instrumentation-requests
    2. 运行代码。

      如下代码中的变量需根据实际情况替换。更多信息,请参见表 1

      # flask-example-1.py
      
      # for flask
      import flask
      import requests
      
      # for Opentelemetry instrumentation
      import socket
      from opentelemetry.instrumentation.flask import FlaskInstrumentor
      from opentelemetry.instrumentation.requests import RequestsInstrumentor
      
      # For Opentelemetry
      from opentelemetry import trace
      from opentelemetry.exporter.otlp.trace_exporter import OTLPSpanExporter
      from opentelemetry.sdk.resources import Resource
      from opentelemetry.sdk.trace import TracerProvider
      from opentelemetry.sdk.trace.export import BatchSpanProcessor
      from opentelemetry.sdk.trace.export import ConsoleSpanExporter
      from opentelemetry.sdk.trace.export import SimpleSpanProcessor
      
      
      class OpenTelemetrySLSProvider(object):
      
          def __init__(self, service="", version="", endpoint='stdout',
                       project=None, instance=None, access_key_id=None, access_key_secret=None):
              '''
              :param service: Your Application Service Name
              :param version: Your Application Version
              :param endpoint: console or https://sls_endpoint:10010
              :param project: SLS project
              :param instance: SLS OTEL InstanceId
              :param access_key_id: Aliyun AccesskeyId
              :param access_key_secret:  Aliyun AccesskeySecret
              '''
              self.sls_otel_endpoint = endpoint
              self.sls_otel_project = project
              self.sls_otel_akid = access_key_id
              self.sls_otel_aksecret = access_key_secret
              self.sls_otel_instanceid = instance
              self.local_mode = False
              if endpoint == "stdout":
                  self.local_mode = True
                  self.resource = Resource(attributes={
                      "host.name": socket.gethostname(),
                      "service.name": service,
                      "service.version": version})
              else:
                  self.resource = Resource(attributes={
                      "host.name": socket.gethostname(),
                      "service.name": service,
                      "service.version": version,
                      "sls.otel.project": self.sls_otel_project,
                      "sls.otel.akid": self.sls_otel_akid,
                      "sls.otel.aksecret": self.sls_otel_aksecret,
                      "sls.otel.instanceid": self.sls_otel_instanceid
                  })
      
          def initTracer(self):
              trace.set_tracer_provider(TracerProvider(resource=self.resource))
              if self.local_mode:
                  trace.get_tracer_provider().add_span_processor(SimpleSpanProcessor(ConsoleSpanExporter()))
              else:
                  otlp_exporter = OTLPSpanExporter(endpoint=self.sls_otel_endpoint)
                  trace.get_tracer_provider().add_span_processor(BatchSpanProcessor(otlp_exporter))
      
      # write to sls
      sls_ot_provider = OpenTelemetrySLSProvider(service="${service}", version="${version}",
                                               endpoint='${endpoint}',
                                               project="${project}",
                                               instance="${instance}",
                                               access_key_id="${access-key-id}",
                                               access_key_secret="${access-key-secret}"
                                               )
      # for console debug
      #sls_ot_provider = OpenTelemetrySLSProvider(service="example", version="v0.1.0")
      
      sls_ot_provider.initTracer()
      
      # flask init
      app = flask.Flask(__name__)
      
      # instrumentation init
      FlaskInstrumentor().instrument_app(app)
      RequestsInstrumentor().instrument()
      
      @app.route("/")
      def hello():
          tracer = trace.get_tracer(__name__)
          with tracer.start_as_current_span("request_server"):
              requests.get("http://www.taobao.com")
          return "hello"
      
      
      app.run(debug=True, port=5000)
                          
    3. 访问服务,触发Trace数据生成并发送。
      127.0.0.1:5000/hello
  • 手动埋点

    运行如下代码,其中代码中的变量需根据实际情况替换。关于代码的详细说明,请参见表 1

    # ot-manual-example.py
    import time
    
    # For Opentelemetry
    import socket
    from opentelemetry import trace
    from opentelemetry.exporter.otlp.trace_exporter import OTLPSpanExporter
    from opentelemetry.sdk.resources import Resource
    from opentelemetry.sdk.trace import TracerProvider
    from opentelemetry.sdk.trace.export import BatchSpanProcessor
    from opentelemetry.sdk.trace.export import ConsoleSpanExporter
    from opentelemetry.sdk.trace.export import SimpleSpanProcessor
    
    
    class OpenTelemetrySLSProvider(object):
    
        def __init__(self, service="", version="", endpoint='stdout',
                     project=None, instance=None, access_key_id=None, access_key_secret=None):
            '''
            :param service: Your Application Service Name
            :param version: Your Application Version
            :param endpoint: console or https://sls_endpoint:10010
            :param project: SLS project
            :param instance: SLS OTEL InstanceId
            :param access_key_id: Aliyun AccesskeyId
            :param access_key_secret:  Aliyun AccesskeySecret
            '''
            self.sls_otel_endpoint = endpoint
            self.sls_otel_project = project
            self.sls_otel_akid = access_key_id
            self.sls_otel_aksecret = access_key_secret
            self.sls_otel_instanceid = instance
            self.local_mode = False
            if endpoint == "stdout":
                self.local_mode = True
                self.resource = Resource(attributes={
                    "host.name": socket.gethostname(),
                    "service.name": service,
                    "service.version": version})
            else:
                self.resource = Resource(attributes={
                    "host.name": socket.gethostname(),
                    "service.name": service,
                    "service.version": version,
                    "sls.otel.project": self.sls_otel_project,
                    "sls.otel.akid": self.sls_otel_akid,
                    "sls.otel.aksecret": self.sls_otel_aksecret,
                    "sls.otel.instanceid": self.sls_otel_instanceid
                })
                
        def initTracer(self):
            trace.set_tracer_provider(TracerProvider(resource=self.resource))
            if self.local_mode:
                trace.get_tracer_provider().add_span_processor(SimpleSpanProcessor(ConsoleSpanExporter()))
            else:
                otlp_exporter = OTLPSpanExporter(endpoint=self.sls_otel_endpoint)
                trace.get_tracer_provider().add_span_processor(BatchSpanProcessor(otlp_exporter))
    
    # write to sls
    sls_ot_provider = OpenTelemetrySLSProvider(service="${service}", version="${version}",
                                               endpoint='${endpoint}',
                                               project="${project}",
                                               instance="${instance}",
                                               access_key_id="${access-key-id}",
                                               access_key_secret="${access-key-secret}"
                                               )
    
    # for console debug
    #sls_ot_provider = OpenTelemetrySLSProvider(service="example", version="v0.1.0")
    
    # Trace Example
    sls_ot_provider.initTracer()
    tracer = trace.get_tracer(__name__)
    
    with tracer.start_as_current_span("foo"):
        print("Hello world!")
    
    
    labels = {"environment": "staging"}
    requests_counter.add(25, labels)
    
    time.sleep(60)

常见问题

如何检查是否正确安装OpenTelemetry SDK?

以如下代码为例,将如下代码保存为tracing.py,执行tracing.py命令,如果正常输出则表示Python OpenTelemetry相关的基础依赖安装正确。

# tracing-example-1.py
from opentelemetry import trace
from opentelemetry.sdk.trace import TracerProvider
from opentelemetry.sdk.trace.export import (
    ConsoleSpanExporter,
    SimpleSpanProcessor,
)

trace.set_tracer_provider(TracerProvider())
trace.get_tracer_provider().add_span_processor(
    SimpleSpanProcessor(ConsoleSpanExporter())
)

tracer = trace.get_tracer(__name__)

with tracer.start_as_current_span("foo"):
    print("Hello world!")
python trace

后续步骤