NGINX is a small and efficient web server software that can be used to build an LNMP web service environment. LNMP is an acronym of the names of its original four open source components: Linux operating system, NGINX web server, MySQL relational database management system, and PHP programming language. This topic describes how to manually build an LNMP environment on an Elastic Compute Service (ECS) instance that runs a CentOS 7 operating system.

Prerequisites

  • An ECS instance is created and a public IP address is assigned to the instance. For more information, see Creation method overview.
  • An inbound rule is added to a security group of the ECS instance to allow traffic on ports 22, 80, and 443. For more information, see Add security group rules.
    Note For security purposes, this topic describes only the ports on which traffic must be allowed to deploy and test an LNMP environment. You can configure security group rules to allow traffic on more ports based on your needs. For example, if you want to connect to a MySQL database on an ECS instance, you can configure an inbound rule in a security group of the instance to allow traffic on port 3306, which is the default port used for MySQL.

Background information

This topic is intended for individual users who are familiar with Linux operating systems but new to using Alibaba Cloud ECS to build websites.

You can also purchase an LNMP image in Alibaba Cloud Marketplace and create an ECS instance from the image to build websites.

An ECS instance with the following configurations is used in the example. The operations may vary based on the configurations of your instance.
  • Instance type: ecs.c6.large
  • CPU: 2 vCPUs
  • Memory: 4 GiB
  • Operating system: a CentOS 7.2 64-bit public image
  • Network type: Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)
  • IP address: a public IP address
The following software versions are used in the sample procedure:
  • NGINX 1.16.1
  • MySQL 5.7.28
  • PHP 7.0.33
Note If you use software versions different from the preceding ones, you may need to adjust commands and parameter settings.

Step 1: Prepare the compilation environment

  1. Connect to the CentOS 7 instance.
  2. Disable the firewall.
    1. Run the systemctl status firewalld command to check the status of the firewall.
      Check the status of the firewall
      • If the firewall is in the inactive state, the firewall is disabled.
      • If the firewall is in the active state, the firewall is enabled. In this example, the firewall is in the active state, and you must disable the firewall.
    2. Disable the firewall. Skip this step if the firewall is already disabled.
      • To temporarily disable the firewall, run the systemctl stop firewalld command.
        Note After you run this command, the firewall is disabled. The next time you restart the Linux operating system, the firewall is enabled and enters the active state.
      • To permanently disable the firewall, run the systemctl disable firewalld command.
        Note You can re-enable the firewall after it is disabled. For more information, visit the official firewalld website.
  3. Disable Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux).
    1. Run the getenforce command to check the status of SELinux.
      Check the status of SELinux
      • If SELinux is in the Disabled state, SELinux is disabled.
      • If SELinux is in the Enforcing state, SELinux is enabled. In this example, SELinux is in the Enforcing state, and you must disable SELinux.
    2. Disable SELinux. Skip this step if SELinux is already disabled.
      • To temporarily disable SELinux, run the setenforce 0 command.
        Note After you run this command, SELinux is disabled. The next time you restart the Linux operating system, SELinux is enabled and enters the Enforcing state.
      • To permanently disable SELinux, run the vim /etc/selinux/config command to edit the SELinux configuration file. Press the Enter key. Move the pointer over the SELINUX=enforcing line and press the I key to enter the edit mode. Change SELINUX=enforcing to SELINUX=disabled and press the Esc key. Enter :wq and press the Enter key to save and close the SELinux configuration file. Restart the operating system to apply the settings.
        Note You can re-enable SELinux after it is disabled. For more information, see Enable or disable SELinux.

Step 2: Install NGINX

Note This topic provides the installation method for a single version of NGINX. If you want to install other versions of NGINX, see the FAQ section in this topic.
  1. Run the following command to install NGINX:
    yum -y install nginx
  2. Run the following command to check the version of NGINX:
    nginx -v
    The following command output indicates that NGINX is installed:
    nginx version: nginx/1.16.1

Step 3: Install MySQL

  1. Run the following command to update the YUM repository:
    rpm -Uvh  http://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql57-community-release-el7-9.noarch.rpm
  2. Run the following command to install MySQL:
    Note If you are using an operating system whose kernel version is el8, you may receive the No match for argument error message. In this case, run the yum module disable mysql command to disable the default mysql module before you install MySQL.
    yum -y install mysql-community-server
  3. Run the following command to check the version of MySQL:
    mysql -V
    The following command output indicates that MySQL is installed:
    mysql  Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.7.28, for Linux (x86_64) using  EditLine wrapper
  4. Run the following command to start MySQL:
    systemctl start mysqld
  5. Run the following command to enable MySQL to start on system startup:
    systemctl enable mysqld
    systemctl daemon-reload

Step 4: Install PHP

  1. Update the YUM repository.
    1. Run the following commands to add the EPEL repository:
      yum install \
      https://repo.ius.io/ius-release-el7.rpm \
      https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-7.noarch.rpm
    2. Run the following command to add the Webtatic repository:
      rpm -Uvh https://mirror.webtatic.com/yum/el7/webtatic-release.rpm
  2. Run the following command to install PHP:
    yum -y install php70w-devel php70w.x86_64 php70w-cli.x86_64 php70w-common.x86_64 php70w-gd.x86_64 php70w-ldap.x86_64 php70w-mbstring.x86_64 php70w-mcrypt.x86_64  php70w-pdo.x86_64   php70w-mysqlnd  php70w-fpm php70w-opcache php70w-pecl-redis php70w-pecl-mongodb
  3. Run the following command to check the version of PHP:
    php -v
    The following command output indicates that PHP is installed:
    PHP 7.0.33 (cli) (built: Dec  6 2018 22:30:44) ( NTS )
    Copyright (c) 1997-2017 The PHP Group
    Zend Engine v3.0.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2017 Zend Technologies
        with Zend OPcache v7.0.33, Copyright (c) 1999-2017, by Zend Technologies                

Step 5: Configure NGINX

  1. Run the following command to back up the NGINX configuration file:
    cp /etc/nginx/nginx.conf /etc/nginx/nginx.conf.bak
  2. Modify the NGINX configuration file to add NGINX support for PHP.
    Note If you do not add this support, PHP-based pages cannot be displayed when you access them by using a browser.
    1. Run the following command to open the configuration file of NGINX:
      vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
    2. Press the I key to enter the edit mode.
    3. Modify or add the following information inside the server braces:
              # Retain the default values for all settings except the following settings: 
              # To configure the default homepage to display when the website is accessed, modify information inside the location/ braces to the following information: 
              location / {
                  index index.php index.html index.htm;
              }
              # Add the following information to make NGINX use Fast Common Gateway Interface (FastCGI) to process your PHP requests: 
              location ~ .php$ {
                  root /usr/share/nginx/html;    # Replace /usr/share/nginx/html with your website root directory. In this example, /usr/share/nginx/html is used as the website root directory. 
                  fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;   # NGINX forwards your PHP requests to PHP FastCGI Process Manager (PHP-FPM) by using port 9000 of the ECS instance. 
                  fastcgi_index index.php;
                  fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
                  include fastcgi_params;   # NGINX calls the FastCGI operation to process the PHP requests. 
              }                

      The following figure shows the added configuration information.

      nginx-configuration
    4. Press the Esc key, enter :wq, and then press the Enter key to save and close the configuration file.
  3. Run the following command to start the NGINX service:
    systemctl start nginx 
  4. Run the following command to enable NGINX to start on system startup:
    systemctl enable nginx

Step 6: Configure MySQL

  1. Run the following command to check the /var/log/mysqld.log file, and obtain and record the initial password of the root user:
    grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysqld.log

    The following command output is displayed:

    2016-12-13T14:57:47.535748Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: p0/G28g>lsHD
    Note This initial password will be used when you reset the password of the root user.
  2. Run the following command to perform security configurations for MySQL:
    mysql_secure_installation

    Perform the following operations:

    1. Reset the password of the root user.
      Enter password for user root: # Enter the initial password that you obtained in the preceding step.
      The 'validate_password' plugin is installed on the server.
      The subsequent steps will run with the existing configuration of the plugin.
      Using existing password for root.
      Estimated strength of the password: 100 
      Change the password for root ? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y # Enter Y to change the password of the root user.
      New password: # Enter a new password. The password must be 8 to 30 characters in length and contain uppercase letters, lowercase letters, digits, and special characters. Special characters include ( ) ` ~ !@ # $ % ^ & * - + = | { } [ ] : ; ' < > , . ?/
      Re-enter new password: # Re-enter the new password.
      Estimated strength of the password: 100 
      Do you wish to continue with the password provided?(Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y
    2. Enter Y to delete the anonymous user account.
      By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a production environment.
      Remove anonymous users? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y  # Enter Y to delete the anonymous user.
      Success.
    3. Enter Y to deny remote access by the root user.
      Disallow root login remotely? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y # Enter Y to deny remote access by the root user.
      Success.
    4. Enter Y to delete the test database and the access permissions on the database.
      Remove test database and access to it? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y # Enter Y to delete the test database and the access permissions on the database.
      - Dropping test database...
      Success.
    5. Enter Y to reload privilege tables.
      Reload privilege tables now? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y # Enter Y to reload privilege tables.
      Success.
      All done!

For more information, see the official MySQL documentation.

Step 7: Configure PHP

  1. Create the phpinfo.php file to show the PHP information.
    1. Run the following command to create the file:
      vim <Website root directory>/phpinfo.php  # Replace <Website root directory> with your website root directory. 

      The website root directory is the root value within the location ~ .php$ braces that you configured in the nginx.conf file, as shown in the following figure.

      lnmp-root-dir

      In this example, the website root directory is /usr/share/nginx/html. You can run the following command:

      vim /usr/share/nginx/html/phpinfo.php
    2. Press the I key to enter the edit mode.
    3. Enter the following content. The phpinfo() function shows all configuration information of PHP.
      <?php echo phpinfo(); ?>
    4. Press the Esc key, enter :wq, and then press the Enter key to save and close the configuration file.
  2. Run the following command to start PHP-FPM:
    systemctl start php-fpm
  3. Run the following command to enable PHP-FPM to start on system startup:
    systemctl enable php-fpm

Step 8: Test the connection to the LNMP environment

  1. Open your browser.
  2. In the address bar, enter http://<Public IP address of the ECS instance>/phpinfo.php.
    The following page indicates that the LNMP environment is deployed. LNMP deployed

What to do next

After you confirm that the LNMP environment is deployed, we recommend that you run the following command to delete the phpinfo.php file to ensure system security:
rm -rf <Website root directory>/phpinfo.php   # Replace the <website root directory> with the website root directory that you configured in the nginx.conf file.
In this example, the website root directory is /usr/share/nginx/html. Run the following command:
rm -rf /usr/share/nginx/html/phpinfo.php

FAQ

How do I install other NGINX versions?
  1. Use a browser to visit the NGINX open source community to obtain the download URLs of NGINX versions.

    Select the NGINX version that you want to install. NGINX 1.8.1 is used in this example.

  2. Connect to the ECS instance on which you want to deploy an LNMP environment.
  3. Run the wget command to download NGINX 1.8.1.
    You can obtain the URL of the NGINX installation package for the required version from the NGINX open source community. Then, run the wget <URL> command to download the NGINX installation package to the ECS instance. For example, to download the NGINX 1.8.1 installation package, run the following command:
    wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.8.1.tar.gz
  4. Run the following command to install NGINX dependencies:
    yum install -y gcc-c++
    yum install -y pcre pcre-devel
    yum install -y zlib zlib-devel
    yum install -y openssl openssl-devel
  5. Run the following command to decompress the NGINX 1.8.1 installation package. Then, go to the folder in which NGINX resides:
    tar zxvf nginx-1.8.1.tar.gz
    cd nginx-1.8.1
  6. Run the following commands in sequence to compile the source code:
    ./configure \
     --user=nobody \
     --group=nobody \
     --prefix=/usr/local/nginx \
     --with-http_stub_status_module \
     --with-http_gzip_static_module \
     --with-http_realip_module \
     --with-http_sub_module \
     --with-http_ssl_module
    make && make install
  7. Run the following command to go to the sbin directory of NGINX, and then start NGINX:
    cd /usr/local/nginx/sbin/
    ./nginx
  8. Use a browser to access <Public IP address of the ECS instance>.
    If the following page appears, NGINX is installed and started. nginx