Yes, you can access Message Queue for Apache Kafka instances of the Internet and VPC type over the Internet.

Message Queue for Apache Kafka provides instances of two network types: VPC, and Internet and VPC. To access Message Queue for Apache Kafka over the Internet, purchase an instance of the Internet and VPC type. Exceptions may occur if a client in mainland China connects to an instance outside mainland China over the Internet or a client outside mainland China connects to an instance in mainland China over the Internet.

Notice You can select the network type only when you purchase the instance, and cannot change it after purchase.