After you add a website to Web Application Firewall (WAF), you can enable data risk control for the added website. Data risk control is used to protect crucial website services against attacks. These services include registrations, logons, campaigns, and forums. You can customize data risk control rules based on your business requirements.
- A WAF instance is purchased. The instance meets the following requirements:
- The instance is deployed in the Chinese mainland.
- Bot Management is enabled.
- Your website is added to WAF. For more information, see Add a website.
The data risk control feature is based on Alibaba Cloud big data. This feature uses industry-leading engines for risk decision-making and is integrated with human-machine identification technologies to protect crucial services against attacks in various scenarios. To use data risk control, you need only to add your website to WAF. You do not need to configure servers or clients.
Data risk control is suitable for a wide range of scenarios. These scenarios include spam user registration, SMS flood attacks, dictionary attacks, brute-force attacks, auto-purchase bots, promotion abuse, snatcher bots, vote manipulation, and spam.
- Static web pages that you can visit by using their URLs and web pages to which you
can be redirected by modifying
location.href, or by using the
window.openmethod or the anchor tag
<a>. The static web pages include HTML details pages, shared pages, website homepages, and documents.
- Web pages where you rewrite and commit code and web pages where you submit custom requests, such as when you submit forms, rewrite XMLHttpRequest (XHR), and send custom Ajax requests.
- Web pages whose code makes use of webhooks.
After you enable data risk control, we recommend that you select the warn mode and use data risk control together with the Log Service for WAF feature. This allows you to run a compatibility test. For more information, see Overview of the Log Service for WAF feature.
To protect native apps, we recommend that you use the Anti-Bot SDK. For more information, see Configure application protection.
- Log on to the Web Application Firewall console.
- In the top navigation bar, select the resource group and region to which the WAF instance belongs. The region can be Mainland China or International.
- In the left-side navigation pane, choose .
- In the upper part of the Website Protection page, select the domain name for which you want to configure the whitelist.
- Click the Bot Management tab, find the Data Risk Control section, and then click Settings.
- If you want to configure the Mode parameter and protection rules, you must enable data risk control.
- After data risk control is enabled, all requests that are destined for your website are checked. You can configure a whitelist for the bot management module. This way, the requests that match the rule bypass the check. For more information, see Configure a whitelist for Bot Management.
Mode The mode for data risk control. Valid values:
- Strict Interception: If WAF detects that your website is under attack, requests are required to pass strict multi-factor authentication.
- Block: If WAF detects that your website is under attack, requests are required to pass multi-factor authentication.
- Warn: If WAF detects that your website is under attack, requests are forwarded to your
website. However, logs that are related to the requests are generated. You can view
the detailed information in risk reports.
- Add a data risk control rule.
A newly added URL takes effect in about 10 minutes. You can view the newly added URL in the URL list. You can also modify or delete the URL based on your business requirements.
- On the Data Risk Control page, click the Protection Request tab and click Add Protection Request.
- In the Add Protection Request dialog box, enter the URL that you want to protect in the Protection Request URL field. For more information, see Introduction to a protected URL.
- Click Confirm.
After data risk control is enabled, you can use the Log Service for WAF feature to view the protection results. For more information, see View protection results.
Introduction to a protected URL
A protected URL is the endpoint that is used to perform service operations. A protected
URL is different from the URL of a web page. For example, you have a registration
page whose URL is
www.aliyundoc.com/new_user. The endpoint that you can use to obtain verification codes is
www.aliyundoc.com/getsmscode, whereas the endpoint that you can use to register is
In this example, you must add
www.aliyundoc.com/register.do as protected URLs. This way, WAF can protect the URLs from SMS flood attacks and
spam user registration. If you add
www.aliyundoc.com/new_user as a protected URL, common users are also required to pass slider CAPTCHA verification.
This impairs user experience.
- Protected URLs support exact match and do not support fuzzy match.
For example, if you add
www.aliyundoc.com/testas a protected URL, data risk control filters only the requests that are sent to this URL. Data risk control does not filter the requests that are sent to the subdirectories of this URL.
- Data risk control protects traffic based on website directories.
If you add
www.aliyundoc.com/book/*as a protected URL, data risk control filters the requests that are sent to the web pages in all the subdirectories of
www.aliyundoc.com/book. We recommend that you do not configure data risk control to monitor the entire website. If you add
www.aliyundoc.com/*as a protected URL, common users are required to pass slider CAPTCHA verification before they can visit the website homepage. This impairs user experience.
- Requests that are sent to a protected URL always trigger slider CAPTCHA verification. Make sure that common users cannot directly request a protected URL. Common users are required to pass multi-factor authentication before they can visit the protected URL.
- Data risk control does not apply to websites that support API operations. API calls are machine actions and cannot pass the slider CAPTCHA verification of data risk control. However, if a common user clicks a button on a page to call an API operation, data risk control still works.
View protection results
You can use the Log Service for WAF feature to view the protection results.
User Tom has a website whose domain name is
www.aliyundoc.com. Common users can register as website members at
www.aliyundoc.com/register.html. Tom notices that attackers can use malicious scripts to submit registration requests
and create accounts. The accounts that are created by attackers are used to participate
in prize draws that are held by the website. The registration requests are highly
similar to normal requests, and the request rate is maintained at a normal level.
In this case, the HTTP flood protection policy cannot identify this type of malicious
Tom adds the website to WAF and enables data risk control for the
www.aliyundoc.com domain name. The URL of the most crucial registration service is
www.aliyundoc.com/register.html. Therefore, Tom adds this URL as a protected URL.
into all web pages of the website. This allows Tom to monitor and analyze the behavior
of each user who visits
subpages. Then, data risk control determines whether the behavior of each user is
normal. Data risk control also determines whether a source IP address is malicious
based on the big data reputation library of Alibaba Cloud.
www.aliyundoc.com/register.html, WAF determines whether the user is an attacker based on the user behavioral and environmental data that is generated from the time the user visits the website to the time the user submits the registration request. For example, if a user directly submits a registration request and does not perform other operations before the request is submitted, the request is identified as suspicious.
- If data risk control determines that a request is from a normal user based on the past behavior of the user, the user can register accounts without verification.
- If data risk control identifies a request as suspicious, or the source IP address
has a record that the source IP address is used to send malicious requests, slider
CAPTCHA verification is triggered to verify the identity of the user. Only a user
that passes the verification can register accounts.
If slider CAPTCHA verification captures suspicious user behavior, such as the use of scripts to simulate real user behavior to pass slider CAPTCHA verification, data risk control uses other verification methods to verify the user identity until the user passes verification. Then, the user is identified as a normal user. If the user fails the verification, data risk control blocks the request.
During this process, data risk control is enabled for the entire website (
to analyze user behavior. However, protection and verification are required only for
www.aliyundoc.com/register.html to which users submit registration requests. Data risk control is triggered only
when a registration request is submitted.