PolarDB for PostgreSQL(Compatible with Oracle) provides the built-in spatio-temporal database engine Ganos. This engine can store, index, query, analyze, and compute spatial and spatio-temporal data in an efficient manner.

Static points of interest (POIs) evolve into application location information. Electronic maps evolve into moving object trajectories. Satellite remote sensing evolves into ubiquitous IoT. As a result, spatio-temporal information is the most basic dimension of the digital framework. Spatial and spatio-temporal data is unstructured, large in size, data-intensive, and computing-intensive. The spatial and spatio-temporal data features high security compliance. The spatio-temporal SQL engine Ganos is developed for PolarDB for PostgreSQL(Compatible with Oracle). Ganos can retrieve and process data of different spatio-temporal dimensions in databases. If you use a traditional method, data must be extracted and collected across databases. Compared with this method, Ganos significantly improves database performance and programs can be more efficiently developed. In addition, Ganos provides cloud information services that feature multiple structures and modes to support 5G programs, satellite remote sensing, spatio-temporal big data of industries, and smart city solutions.

The current version of Ganos provided by PolarDB for PostgreSQL(Compatible with Oracle) supports the following five types of spatial or spatio-temporal databases:
  • Geometric object databases: provide modeling and management for spatial geometric objects such as points, lines, planes, and solids in geographic information systems (GISs).
  • Moving Objects Databases (MODs): provide modeling and management for the spatio-temporal trajectories, attributes, and events of moving objects.
  • Remote sensing image databases: provide modeling and management for raster objects such as remote sensing images, digital elevation models (DEMs), and volume pixels.
  • Geometric network databases: provide modeling for geometric networks such as road networks and allow you to calculate various shortest paths.
  • Lidar point cloud databases: provide modeling and management for the Lidar point cloud data of autonomous driving and three-dimensional laser radars.

You can import the multi-model spatial or spatio-temporal data of your business to databases in a unified manner, store the data in an integrated manner, and query and retrieve the data in a short time. In addition, you can analyze and compute the data based on your business requirements.

Compliant with OpenGIS standards and compatible with PostGIS

Geometric objects include polygons and POIs represented by geo-fences. Ganos is highly compatible with PostGIS syntax. In addition, Ganos provides better performance than PostGIS in aspects such as geometry and spatial indexes, topology algorithm efficiency, vector display acceleration, and parallel query optimization. The SQL interfaces provided by Ganos comply with International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and OpenGIS standards. The SQL interfaces also support the two-dimensional, three-dimensional, or four-dimensional coordinate systems. In a four-dimensional coordinate system, the coordinates of a point are of the form (x,y,z,m). In addition, the SQL interfaces allow you to create multi-dimensional spatial indexes and support plane coordinates and spherical coordinates.

Support for remote sensing image databases that integrate software and hardware in the cloud

Ganos allows you to import, export, merge, cut, collect the statistics about, and analyze diverse raster data. The modeling objects include panchromatic, multispectral, and hyperspectral remote sensing images, DEMs, and three-dimensional volume pixels. In addition, Ganos is integrated with the parallel computing acceleration capability of cloud GPUs and stable, efficient, and low-cost object storage expansion that is provided by Object Storage Service (OSS). Tests show that time-consuming operations such as write operations and data resampling are 5 times to 27 times more efficient in Ganos. Ganos provides key capabilities for you to manage data of remote sensing images provided by objects such as satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

Support for multi-dimensional and multi-model MODs of trajectories and events

Ganos contains the MOD engine. This engine manages the spatio-temporal trajectories of moving objects such as people, vehicles, and aircraft in four-dimension environments. Ganos complies with standards in OGC Moving Features Access (2017). Ganos has independent trajectory models and provides the attribute-based and event-based modeling capability. In addition, Ganos supports various complex operations on trajectories, such as trajectory construction, compression, segmentation, and similarity evaluation. Spatio-temporal computing based on native trajectory models provides approximately 50 to 100 times the performance of spatio-temporal computing based on point models.

Analysis of topology network paths and storage and query of large-scale point cloud data

The geometric network database engine of Ganos can construct the edge-node topology network. This engine also supports concepts such as turns and U-turns. In addition, the engine supports path planning algorithms such as the travel salesman problem (TSP) algorithm, k shortest path (KSP) algorithm, and turn restricted shortest path (TRSP) algorithm. To meet the requirements of autonomous driving and three-dimensional data modeling, Ganos allows you to store, manage, and analyze large-scale Lidar point cloud data. Ganos also provides various efficient compression algorithms and more than 40 functions for spatial relationships, operations, and statistics calculations.

Extensive solutions for industry ecosystems

Ganos can be applied in various fields such as public services, business, military services, civilian services, science, and education. The fields can be further divided into new business forms and geospatial industries. The new business forms include IoT, traveling, logistics, social contact, retail, and location-based services (LBSs). The geospatial industries include land, surveying and mapping, hydraulic engineering, agriculture, public security, emergency, transportation, telecommunication, energy, and aerospace.

  • Ganos provides a solution for lightweight cloud GIS. In this solution, the traditional solution that consists of PostgreSQL, PostGIS, and GeoServer is changed to the cloud native service that consists of PolarDB for PostgreSQL, Ganos, and GeoServer.
  • Ganos provides a solution for Apsara Stack GIS. Ganos has been adapted to mainstream basic GIS platforms such as SuperMap and ArcGIS of Esri. Ganos allows you to construct a cloud native management platform for spatio-temporal data. In addition, this solution provides the modelling capability for all the spatial data that consists of overground, underground, indoor, outdoor, terrestrial, and marine data.
  • Ganos provides a new solution for remote sensing. This solution supports OSS, transparent access, and drivers of the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). The solution also allows you to browse resources from QGIS and use GeoServer to publish data as an image service.
  • Ganos provides a solution for the IoT spatio-temporal data. This solution allows you to use a streaming engine, such as Apache Kafka or Apache Flink, and messaging middleware to receive spatio-temporal streaming data. This way, you can use the data to create models for MODs, Lidar point cloud data, or time series databases.

The basic spatio-temporal cloud computing capabilities of Ganos are in the process of being applied to other basic cloud computing platforms. The Ganos team continues to help independent software vendors (ISVs) improve the computing capabilities. In addition, the team continues to promote spatio-temporal cloud computing as a basic engine for digital transformation to benefit more customers.