This topic describes how to use hotlink protection.

To prevent your data stored in Object Storage Service (OSS) from unauthorized access, you can configure a Referer whitelist for your bucket by specifying the following parameters:
  • Referer Whitelist: specifies that only specified domain names are allowed to access your resources.
  • Allow Empty Referer: determines whether requests that contain an empty Referer field are allowed. If you specify that an empty Referer field is not allowed, only HTTP and HTTPS requests that contain an allowed Referer field can access your OSS resources.

For more information about hotlink protection, see Hotlink protection.

Configure hotlink protection

The following code provides an example on how to configure a Referer whitelist for a bucket:

#include "oss_api.h"
#include "aos_http_io.h"
/* Specify the endpoint of the region in which the bucket is located. For example, if the bucket is located in the China (Hangzhou) region, set the endpoint to https://oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com. */
const char *endpoint = "yourEndpoint";
/* The AccessKey pair of an Alibaba Cloud account has permissions on all API operations. Using these credentials to perform operations in OSS is a high-risk operation. We recommend that you use a RAM user to call API operations or perform routine O&M. To create a RAM user, log on to the RAM console. */
const char *access_key_id = "yourAccessKeyId";
const char *access_key_secret = "yourAccessKeySecret";
/* Specify the bucket name. Example: examplebucket. */
const char *bucket_name = "examplebucket";
void init_options(oss_request_options_t *options)
{
    options->config = oss_config_create(options->pool);
    /* Use a char* string to initialize the aos_string_t data type. */
    aos_str_set(&options->config->endpoint, endpoint);
    aos_str_set(&options->config->access_key_id, access_key_id);
    aos_str_set(&options->config->access_key_secret, access_key_secret);
    /* Specify whether to use CNAME. The value 0 indicates that CNAME is not used. */
    options->config->is_cname = 0;
    /* Configure network parameters such as the timeout period. */
    options->ctl = aos_http_controller_create(options->pool, 0);
}
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    /* Call the aos_http_io_initialize method in main() to initialize global resources such as networks and memory. */
    if (aos_http_io_initialize(NULL, 0) != AOSE_OK) {
        exit(1);
    }
    /* Create a memory pool to manage memory. aos_pool_t is equivalent to apr_pool_t. The code used to create a memory pool is included in the APR library. */
    aos_pool_t *pool;
    /* Create a memory pool. The value of the second parameter is NULL. This value indicates that the pool does not inherit other memory pools. */
    aos_pool_create(&pool, NULL);
    /* Create and initialize options. This parameter includes global configuration information such as endpoint, access_key_id, access_key_secret, is_cname, and curl. */
    oss_request_options_t *oss_client_options;
    /* Allocate the memory resources in the memory pool to the options. */
    oss_client_options = oss_request_options_create(pool);
    /* Initialize oss_client_options. */
    init_options(oss_client_options);
    /* Initialize the parameters. */
    aos_string_t bucket;
    aos_table_t *resp_headers = NULL; 
    aos_status_t *resp_status = NULL;
    oss_referer_config_t referer_config;
    aos_str_set(&bucket, bucket_name);
    aos_list_init(&referer_config.referer_list);
    oss_create_and_add_refer(pool, &referer_config, "http://www.aliyun.com");
    oss_create_and_add_refer(pool, &referer_config, "https://www.aliyun.com");
    referer_config.allow_empty_referer = 0;
    /* Add a Referer whitelist. You can use an asterisk (*) or a question mark (?) as a wildcard character to set the Referer parameter. */
    resp_status = oss_put_bucket_referer(oss_client_options, &bucket, &referer_config, &resp_headers);
    if (aos_status_is_ok(resp_status)) {
        printf("put bucket referer succeeded\n");
    } else {
        printf("put bucket referer failed\n");      
    }
    /* Release the memory pool. This operation releases the memory resources allocated for the request. */
    aos_pool_destroy(pool);
    /* Release the allocated global resources. */
    aos_http_io_deinitialize();
    return 0;
}

Query the hotlink protection configurations

The following code provides an example on how to query a Referer whitelist of a bucket:

#include "oss_api.h"
#include "aos_http_io.h"
/* Specify the endpoint of the region in which the bucket is located. For example, if the bucket is located in the China (Hangzhou) region, set the endpoint to https://oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com. */
const char *endpoint = "yourEndpoint";
/* The AccessKey pair of an Alibaba Cloud account has permissions on all API operations. Using these credentials to perform operations in OSS is a high-risk operation. We recommend that you use a RAM user to call API operations or perform routine O&M. To create a RAM user, log on to the RAM console. */
const char *access_key_id = "yourAccessKeyId";
const char *access_key_secret = "yourAccessKeySecret";
/* Specify the bucket name. Example: examplebucket. */
const char *bucket_name = "examplebucket";
void init_options(oss_request_options_t *options)
{
    options->config = oss_config_create(options->pool);
    /* Use a char* string to initialize the aos_string_t data type. */
    aos_str_set(&options->config->endpoint, endpoint);
    aos_str_set(&options->config->access_key_id, access_key_id);
    aos_str_set(&options->config->access_key_secret, access_key_secret);
    /* Specify whether to use CNAME. The value 0 indicates that CNAME is not used. */
    options->config->is_cname = 0;
    /* Configure network parameters such as the timeout period. */
    options->ctl = aos_http_controller_create(options->pool, 0);
}
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    /* Call the aos_http_io_initialize method in main() to initialize global resources such as networks and memory. */
    if (aos_http_io_initialize(NULL, 0) != AOSE_OK) {
        exit(1);
    }
    /* Create a memory pool to manage memory. aos_pool_t is equivalent to apr_pool_t. The code used to create a memory pool is included in the APR library. */
    aos_pool_t *pool;
    /* Create a memory pool. The value of the second parameter is NULL. This value indicates that the pool does not inherit other memory pools. */
    aos_pool_create(&pool, NULL);
    /* Create and initialize options. This parameter includes global configuration information such as endpoint, access_key_id, access_key_secret, is_cname, and curl. */
    oss_request_options_t *oss_client_options;
    /* Allocate the memory resources in the memory pool to the options. */
    oss_client_options = oss_request_options_create(pool);
    /* Initialize oss_client_options. */
    init_options(oss_client_options);
    /* Initialize the parameters. */
    aos_string_t bucket;
    aos_table_t *resp_headers = NULL; 
    aos_status_t *resp_status = NULL;
    oss_referer_config_t referer_config;
    oss_referer_t *referer;
    aos_str_set(&bucket, bucket_name);
    aos_list_init(&referer_config.referer_list);
    /* Query the Referer whitelist of the bucket. */
    resp_status = oss_get_bucket_referer(oss_client_options, &bucket, &referer_config, &resp_headers);
    if (aos_status_is_ok(resp_status)) {
        printf("get bucket referer succeeded\n");
        aos_list_for_each_entry(oss_referer_t, referer, &referer_config.referer_list, node) {
            printf("get referer %s\n", referer->referer.data);
        }
    } else {
        printf("get bucket referer failed\n");      
    }
    /* Release the memory pool. This operation releases the memory resources allocated for the request. */
    aos_pool_destroy(pool);
    /* Release the allocated global resources. */
    aos_http_io_deinitialize();
    return 0;
}

Clear the hotlink protection configurations

The following code provides an example on how to clear a Referer whitelist of a bucket:

#include "oss_api.h"
#include "aos_http_io.h"
/* Specify the endpoint of the region in which the bucket is located. For example, if the bucket is located in the China (Hangzhou) region, set the endpoint to https://oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com. */
const char *endpoint = "yourEndpoint";
/* The AccessKey pair of an Alibaba Cloud account has permissions on all API operations. Using these credentials to perform operations in OSS is a high-risk operation. We recommend that you use a RAM user to call API operations or perform routine O&M. To create a RAM user, log on to the RAM console. */
const char *access_key_id = "yourAccessKeyId";
const char *access_key_secret = "yourAccessKeySecret";
/* Specify the bucket name. Example: examplebucket. */
const char *bucket_name = "examplebucket";
void init_options(oss_request_options_t *options)
{
    options->config = oss_config_create(options->pool);
    /* Use a char* string to initialize the aos_string_t data type. */
    aos_str_set(&options->config->endpoint, endpoint);
    aos_str_set(&options->config->access_key_id, access_key_id);
    aos_str_set(&options->config->access_key_secret, access_key_secret);
    /* Specify whether to use CNAME. The value 0 indicates that CNAME is not used. */
    options->config->is_cname = 0;
    /* Configure network parameters such as the timeout period. */
    options->ctl = aos_http_controller_create(options->pool, 0);
}
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    /* Call the aos_http_io_initialize method in main() to initialize global resources such as networks and memory. */
    if (aos_http_io_initialize(NULL, 0) != AOSE_OK) {
        exit(1);
    }
    /* Create a memory pool to manage memory. aos_pool_t is equivalent to apr_pool_t. The code used to create a memory pool is included in the APR library. */
    aos_pool_t *pool;
    /* Create a memory pool. The value of the second parameter is NULL. This value indicates that the pool does not inherit other memory pools. */
    aos_pool_create(&pool, NULL);
    /* Create and initialize options. This parameter includes global configuration information such as endpoint, access_key_id, access_key_secret, is_cname, and curl. */
    oss_request_options_t *oss_client_options;
    /* Allocate the memory resources in the memory pool to the options. */
    oss_client_options = oss_request_options_create(pool);
    /* Initialize oss_client_options. */
    init_options(oss_client_options);
    /* Initialize the parameters. */
    aos_string_t bucket;
    aos_table_t *resp_headers = NULL; 
    aos_status_t *resp_status = NULL;
    oss_referer_config_t referer_config;
    aos_str_set(&bucket, bucket_name);
    aos_list_init(&referer_config.referer_list);
    referer_config.allow_empty_referer = 1;
    /* You cannot delete hotlink protection configurations directly. To clear hotlink protection configurations, you must create a rule that allows an empty Referer field to replace the existing rule. */
    resp_status = oss_put_bucket_referer(oss_client_options, &bucket, &referer_config, &resp_headers);
    if (aos_status_is_ok(resp_status)) {
        printf("delete bucket referer succeeded\n");
    } else {
        printf("delete bucket referer failed\n");      
    }
    /* Release the memory pool. This operation releases the memory resources allocated for the request. */
    aos_pool_destroy(pool);
    /* Release the allocated global resources. */
    aos_http_io_deinitialize();
    return 0;
}

References

  • For more information about the API operation that you can call to configure hotlink protection, see PutBucketReferer.
  • For more information about the API operation that you can call to query hotlink protection configurations, see GetBucketReferer.