Object Storage Service (OSS) allows you to configure object tags to classify objects. Tags allow you to configure lifecycle rules and access control lists (ACLs) for objects that have the same tag.

Background information

When you configure object tagging, take note of the following items:

  • You can add tags to an object when and after you upload the object. If the object already has tags, the existing tags are overwritten. For more information about object tags, see PutObjectTagging.
  • To add tags to an object, you must have permissions to call the PutObjectTagging operation.

    You can create a custom policy by using scripts to grant the permissions to RAM users. For more information, see Attach a custom policy to a RAM user.

  • The Last-Modified value of an object is not updated when the tags are changed.
  • You can add up to 10 tags to an object. The tags added to an object must have unique keys.
  • A tag key can be up to 128 characters in length. A tag value can be up to 256 characters in length.
  • Tag keys and tag values are case-sensitive.
  • The key and the value of a tag can contain letters, digits, spaces, and the following special characters:

    + - = . _ : /

    Note If you configure the tags in the HTTP header and the tags contain special characters, you can encode the keys and the values of the tags by using URL encoding.

Object tagging uses a key-value pair to identify objects. For more information about object tags, see Object tagging.

Add tags to an object when you upload the object

  • Add tags to an object when you upload the object by means of simple upload

    The following code provides an example on how to add tags to an object when you upload the object by means of simple upload:

    # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
    
    import oss2
    from oss2.headers import OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING
    
    # The AccessKey pair of an Alibaba Cloud account has permissions on all API operations. Using these credentials to perform operations in OSS is a high-risk operation. We recommend that you use a RAM user to call API operations or perform routine O&M. To create a RAM user, log on to the RAM console. 
    auth = oss2.Auth('yourAccessKeyId', 'yourAccessKeySecret')
    # Specify the endpoint of the region in which the bucket is located. For example, if the bucket is located in the China (Hangzhou) region, set the endpoint to https://oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com. 
    # Specify the bucket name. Example: examplebucket. 
    bucket = oss2.Bucket(auth, 'yourEndpoint', 'examplebucket')
    # Specify the full path of the object. The full path of the object cannot contain the bucket name. Example: exampledir/exampleobject.txt. 
    object_name = 'exampledir/exampleobject.txt'
    
    # Configure the tagging string. 
    tagging = "k1=v1&k2=v2&k3=v3"
    
    # If tags contain characters, you must perform URL encoding on the keys and values of the tags. 
    k4 = "k4+-="
    v4 = "+-=._:/"
    tagging += "&" + oss2.urlquote(k4) + "=" + oss2.urlquote(v4)
    
    # Configure the tags in the HTTP headers. 
    headers = dict()
    headers[OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING] = tagging
    
    # Specify the headers when you call the put_object operation so that the tags are added to the object when the object is uploaded. 
    result = bucket.put_object(object_name, 'content', headers=headers)
    print('http response status: ', result.status)
    
    # Display the tags added to the object. 
    result = bucket.get_object_tagging(object_name)
    for key in result.tag_set.tagging_rule:
        print('tagging key: {}, value: {}'.format(key, result.tag_set.tagging_rule[key]))
  • Add tags to an object when you upload the object by means of multipart upload

    The following code provides an example on how to add tags to an object when you upload the object by means of multipart upload:

    # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
    
    import os
    import oss2
    from oss2 import SizedFileAdapter, determine_part_size
    from oss2.models import PartInfo
    from oss2.headers import OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING
    
    # The AccessKey pair of an Alibaba Cloud account has permissions on all API operations. Using these credentials to perform operations in OSS is a high-risk operation. We recommend that you use a RAM user to call API operations or perform routine O&M. To create a RAM user, log on to the RAM console. 
    auth = oss2.Auth('yourAccessKeyId', 'yourAccessKeySecret')
    # Specify the endpoint of the region in which the bucket is located. For example, if the bucket is located in the China (Hangzhou) region, set the endpoint to https://oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com. 
    # Specify the bucket name. Example: examplebucket. 
    bucket = oss2.Bucket(auth, 'yourEndpoint', 'examplebucket')
    # Specify the full path of the object. The full path of the object cannot contain the bucket name. Example: exampledir/exampleobject.txt. 
    object_name = 'exampledir/exampleobject.txt'
    # Specify the full path of the local file. Example: D:\\localpath\\examplefile.txt. 
    # By default, if you specify only the name of the local file such as examplefile.txt without specifying the local path, the local file is uploaded from the path of the project to which the sample program belongs. 
    filename = 'D:\\localpath\\examplefile.txt'
    
    total_size = os.path.getsize(filename)
    # Use the determine_part_size method to determine the size of each part. 
    part_size = determine_part_size(total_size, preferred_size=100 * 1024)
    
    # Configure the tagging string. 
    tagging = "k1=v1&k2=v2&k3=v3"
    
    # If tags contain characters, you must perform URL encoding on the keys and values of the tags. 
    k4 = "k4+-="
    v4 = "+-=._:/"
    tagging += "&" + oss2.urlquote(k4) + "=" + oss2.urlquote(v4)
    
    # Configure the tags in the HTTP headers. 
    headers = dict()
    headers[OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING] = tagging
    
    # Initiate a multipart upload task. 
    # Specify the headers when you call the init_multipart_upload operation so that the tags are added to the object that you want to upload. 
    upload_id = bucket.init_multipart_upload(object_name, headers=headers).upload_id
    parts = []
    
    # Upload the parts one by one. 
    with open(filename, 'rb') as fileobj:
        part_number = 1
        offset = 0
        while offset < total_size:
            num_to_upload = min(part_size, total_size - offset)
            # The SizedFileAdapter(fileobj, size) method generates a new object and recalculates the position from which the append operation starts. 
            result = bucket.upload_part(object_name, upload_id, part_number,
                                        SizedFileAdapter(fileobj, num_to_upload))
            parts.append(PartInfo(part_number, result.etag))
    
            offset += num_to_upload
            part_number += 1
    
    # Complete the multipart upload task. 
    result = bucket.complete_multipart_upload(object_name, upload_id, parts)
    print('http response status: ', result.status)
    
    # Display the tags added to the object. 
    result = bucket.get_object_tagging(object_name)
    for key in result.tag_set.tagging_rule:
        print('tagging key: {}, value: {}'.format(key, result.tag_set.tagging_rule[key]))
    
    # Verify the result of the multipart upload task. 
    with open(filename, 'rb') as fileobj:
        assert bucket.get_object(object_name).read() == fileobj.read()
  • Add tags to an object when you upload it by means of append upload

    The following code provides an example on how to add tags to an object when you upload the object by means of append upload:

    # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
    
    import oss2
    from oss2.headers import OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING
    
    # The AccessKey pair of an Alibaba Cloud account has permissions on all API operations. Using these credentials to perform operations in OSS is a high-risk operation. We recommend that you use a RAM user to call API operations or perform routine O&M. To create a RAM user, log on to the RAM console. 
    auth = oss2.Auth('yourAccessKeyId', 'yourAccessKeySecret')
    # Specify the endpoint of the region in which the bucket is located. For example, if the bucket is located in the China (Hangzhou) region, set the endpoint to https://oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com. 
    # Specify the bucket name. Example: examplebucket. 
    bucket = oss2.Bucket(auth, 'yourEndpoint', 'examplebucket')
    # Specify the full path of the object. The full path of the object cannot contain the bucket name. Example: exampledir/exampleobject.txt. 
    object_name = 'exampledir/exampleobject.txt'
    
    # Configure the tagging string. 
    tagging = "k1=v1&k2=v2&k3=v3"
    
    # If tags contain characters, you must perform URL encoding on the keys and values of the tags. 
    k4 = "k4+-="
    v4 = "+-=._:/"
    tagging += "&" + oss2.urlquote(k4) + "=" + oss2.urlquote(v4)
    
    # Configure the tags in the HTTP headers. 
    headers = dict()
    headers[OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING] = tagging
    
    # Append the object. Specify the headers when you call the append_object operation so that the tags are added to the object. 
    # Only the tags configured when the object is appended for the first time are added to the object. 
    result = bucket.append_object(object_name, 0, '<yourContent>', headers=headers)
    
    # Display the tags added to the object. 
    result = bucket.get_object_tagging(object_name)
    for key in result.tag_set.tagging_rule:
        print('tagging key: {}, value: {}'.format(key, result.tag_set.tagging_rule[key]))
  • Add tags to an object when you upload the object by means of resumable upload

    The following code provides an example on how to add tags to an object when you upload the object by means of resumable upload:

    # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
    
    import oss2
    from oss2.headers import OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING
    
    # The AccessKey pair of an Alibaba Cloud account has permissions on all API operations. Using these credentials to perform operations in OSS is a high-risk operation. We recommend that you use a RAM user to call API operations or perform routine O&M. To create a RAM user, log on to the RAM console. 
    auth = oss2.Auth('yourAccessKeyId', 'yourAccessKeySecret')
    # Specify the endpoint of the region in which the bucket is located. For example, if the bucket is located in the China (Hangzhou) region, set the endpoint to https://oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com. 
    # Specify the bucket name. Example: examplebucket. 
    bucket = oss2.Bucket(auth, 'yourEndpoint', 'examplebucket')
    # Specify the full path of the object. The full path of the object cannot contain the bucket name. Example: exampledir/exampleobject.txt. 
    object_name = 'exampledir/exampleobject.txt'
    # Specify the full path of the local file. By default, if you do not specify the full path of a local file, the local file is uploaded from the path of the project to which the sample program belongs. 
    local_file = 'D:\\localpath\\examplefile.txt'
    
    # Configure the tagging string. 
    tagging = "k1=v1&k2=v2&k3=v3"
    
    # If tags contain characters, you must perform URL encoding on the keys and values of the tags. 
    k4 = "k4+-="
    v4 = "+-=._:/"
    tagging += "&" + oss2.urlquote(k4) + "=" + oss2.urlquote(v4)
    
    # Configure the tags in the HTTP headers. 
    headers = dict()
    headers[OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING] = tagging
    
    # When the object length is greater than or equal to the value of the multipart_threshold parameter, multipart upload is used. The multipart_threshold parameter is optional. The default value of multipart_threshold is 10 MB. If you do not specify a directory by using the store parameter, the .py-oss-upload directory is created in the HOME directory to store the checkpoint information. 
    # Specify the headers when you call the resumable_upload operation so that the tags are added to the object that you want to upload. 
    oss2.resumable_upload(bucket, object_name, local_file, headers=headers)
    
    result = bucket.get_object_tagging(object_name)
    for key in result.tag_set.tagging_rule:
        print('object tagging key: {}, value: {}'.format(key, result.tag_set.tagging_rule[key]))

Add tags to an uploaded object or modify the tags of the object

If an existing object has no tags or the added tags of the object do not meet your requirements, you can add tags to or modify the tags of the existing object.

The following code provides an example on how to add tags to or modify the tags of an existing object:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import oss2
from oss2.models import Tagging, TaggingRule

# The AccessKey pair of an Alibaba Cloud account has permissions on all API operations. Using these credentials to perform operations in OSS is a high-risk operation. We recommend that you use a RAM user to call API operations or perform routine O&M. To create a RAM user, log on to the RAM console. 
auth = oss2.Auth('yourAccessKeyId', 'yourAccessKeySecret')
# Specify the endpoint of the region in which the bucket is located. For example, if the bucket is located in the China (Hangzhou) region, set the endpoint to https://oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com. 
# Specify the name of the bucket. 
bucket = oss2.Bucket(auth, 'yourEndpoint', 'examplebucket')
# Specify the full path of the object. The full path of the object cannot contain the bucket name. Example: exampledir/exampleobject.txt. 
object_name = 'exampledir/exampleobject.txt'

# Create a tagging rule. 
rule = TaggingRule()
rule.add('key1', 'value1')
rule.add('key2', 'value2')

# Create tags. 
tagging = Tagging(rule)

# Add the tags to the object. 
result = bucket.put_object_tagging(object_name, tagging)
# Display the HTTP status code. 
print('http response status:', result.status)

Add tags to or modify the tags of a specified version of an object

If versioning is enabled for a bucket, you can add tags to or modify the tags of a specified version of an object in the bucket by specifying the version ID of the object.

The following code provides an example on how to add tags to or modify the tags of a specified version of an object:

Note For more information about how to obtain the version ID of an object, see List objects.
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import oss2
from oss2.models import Tagging

# The AccessKey pair of an Alibaba Cloud account has permissions on all API operations. Using these credentials to perform operations in OSS is a high-risk operation. We recommend that you use a RAM user to call API operations or perform routine O&M. To create a RAM user, log on to the RAM console. 
auth = oss2.Auth('yourAccessKeyId', 'yourAccessKeySecret')
# Specify the endpoint of the region in which the bucket is located. For example, if the bucket is located in the China (Hangzhou) region, set the endpoint to https://oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com. 
# Specify the bucket name. Example: examplebucket. 
bucket = oss2.Bucket(auth, 'yourEndpoint', 'examplebucket')
# Specify the full path of the object. The full path of the object cannot contain the bucket name. Example: exampledir/exampleobject.txt. 
object_name = 'exampledir/exampleobject.txt'
# Specify the version ID of the object. Example: CAEQMxiBgICAof2D0BYiIDJhMGE3N2M1YTI1NDQzOGY5NTkyNTI3MGYyMzJm****. 
version_id = 'CAEQMxiBgICAof2D0BYiIDJhMGE3N2M1YTI1NDQzOGY5NTkyNTI3MGYyMzJm****'

tagging = Tagging()
# Specify the key and the value of the object tag. In this example, the key is set to owner and the value is set to John. 
tagging.tag_set.add('owner', 'John')
tagging.tag_set.add('type', 'document')

params = dict()
params['versionId'] = version_id

bucket.put_object_tagging(object_name, tagging, params=params)

Add tags to an object when you copy the object

You can use the one of following methods to configure the object tagging when you copy an object:
  • Copy: The tag of the source object is copied to the destination object.
  • Replace: The tag of the destination object is set to the tag specified in the request instead of the tag of the source object.

The following examples describe how to add tags to an object smaller than 1 GB in simple copy mode and larger than 1 GB in multipart copy mode:

  • Add tags to an object when you copy the object in simple copy mode

    The following code provides an example on how to add tags to an object smaller than 1 GB when you copy the object in simple copy mode:

    # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
    
    import oss2
    from oss2.headers import OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING, OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING_COPY_DIRECTIVE
    
    # The AccessKey pair of an Alibaba Cloud account has permissions on all API operations. Using these credentials to perform operations in OSS is a high-risk operation. We recommend that you use a RAM user to call API operations or perform routine O&M. To create a RAM user, log on to the RAM console. 
    auth = oss2.Auth('yourAccessKeyId', 'yourAccessKeySecret')
    # Specify the endpoint of the region in which the bucket is located. For example, if the bucket is located in the China (Hangzhou) region, set the endpoint to https://oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com. 
    # Specify the bucket name. Example: examplebucket. 
    bucket = oss2.Bucket(auth, 'yourEndpoint', 'examplebucket')
    # Specify the full path of the source object. The full path of the object cannot contain the bucket name. Example: srcexampledir/exampleobject.txt. 
    src_object_name = 'srcexampledir/exampleobject.txt'
    # Specify the full path of the destination object. The full path of the object cannot contain the bucket name. Example: destexampledir1/exampleobject.txt. 
    dest_object_name1 = 'destexampledir1/exampleobject.txt'
    # Specify the full path of the destination object. The full path of the object cannot contain the bucket name. Example: destexampledir2/exampleobject.txt. 
    dest_object_name2 = 'destexampledir2/exampleobject.txt'
    
    # Configure the tagging string. 
    tagging = "k1=v1&k2=v2&k3=v3"
    
    # If tags contain characters, you must perform URL encoding on the keys and values of the tags. 
    k4 = "k4+-="
    v4 = "+-=._:/"
    tagging += "&" + oss2.urlquote(k4) + "=" + oss2.urlquote(v4)
    
    # Set OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING_COPY_DIRECTIVE to COPY or keep the default value in the HTTP headers, so that the tags of the source object are added to the dest_object_name1 object. 
    headers=dict()
    headers[OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING_COPY_DIRECTIVE] = 'COPY'
    bucket.copy_object(bucket.bucket_name, src_object_name, dest_object_name1, headers=headers)
    
    # Set OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING_COPY_DIRECTIVE to REPLACE in the HTTP headers, so that the tags specified in OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING are added to the dest_object_name2 object. 
    headers[OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING_COPY_DIRECTIVE] = 'REPLACE'
    headers[OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING] = tagging
    bucket.copy_object(bucket.bucket_name, src_object_name, dest_object_name2, headers=headers)
    
    # Display the tags added to the src_object_name object. 
    result = bucket.get_object_tagging(src_object_name)
    for key in result.tag_set.tagging_rule:
        print('src tagging key: {}, value: {}'.format(key, result.tag_set.tagging_rule[key]))
    
    # Display the tags added to the dest_object_name1 object. The tags added to the dest_object_name1 object are the same as those of the src_object_name object. 
    result = bucket.get_object_tagging(dest_object_name1)
    for key in result.tag_set.tagging_rule:
        print('dest1 object tagging key: {}, value: {}'.format(key, result.tag_set.tagging_rule[key]))
    
    # Display the tags added to the dest_object_name2 object. The tags added to the dest_object_name2 object are those specified in OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING. 
    result = bucket.get_object_tagging(dest_object_name2)
    for key in result.tag_set.tagging_rule:
        print('dest2 object tagging key: {}, value: {}'.format(key, result.tag_set.tagging_rule[key]))
  • Add tags to an object when you copy the object in multipart copy mode

    The following code provides an example on how to add tags to an object larger than 1 GB when you copy the object in multipart copy mode:

    # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
    
    import os
    import oss2
    from oss2 import determine_part_size
    from oss2.models import PartInfo
    from oss2.headers import OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING
    
    # The AccessKey pair of an Alibaba Cloud account has permissions on all API operations. Using these credentials to perform operations in OSS is a high-risk operation. We recommend that you use a RAM user to call API operations or perform routine O&M. To create a RAM user, log on to the RAM console. 
    auth = oss2.Auth('yourAccessKeyId', 'yourAccessKeySecret')
    # Specify the endpoint of the region in which the bucket is located. For example, if the bucket is located in the China (Hangzhou) region, set the endpoint to https://oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com. 
    # Specify the bucket name. Example: examplebucket. 
    bucket = oss2.Bucket(auth, 'yourEndpoint', 'examplebucket')
    # Specify the full path of the source object. The full path of the object cannot contain the bucket name. Example: srcexampledir/exampleobject.txt. 
    src_object_name = 'srcexampledir/exampleobject.txt'
    # Specify the full path of the destination object. The full path of the object cannot contain the bucket name. Example: destexampledir/exampleobject.txt. 
    dest_object_name = 'destexampledir/exampleobject.txt'
    
    # Display the size of the source object. 
    head_info = bucket.head_object(src_object_name)
    total_size = head_info.content_length
    print('src object size:', total_size)
    
    # Use the determine_part_size method to determine the size of each part. 
    part_size = determine_part_size(total_size, preferred_size=100 * 1024)
    print('part_size:', part_size)
    
    # Configure the tagging string. 
    tagging = "k1=v1&k2=v2&k3=v3"
    
    # If tags contain characters, you must perform URL encoding on the keys and values of the tags. 
    k4 = "k4+-="
    v4 = "+-=._:/"
    tagging += "&" + oss2.urlquote(k4) + "=" + oss2.urlquote(v4)
    
    # Configure the tags in the HTTP headers. 
    headers = dict()
    headers[OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING] = tagging
    
    # Initiate a multipart upload task. 
    # Specify the headers when you call the init_multipart_upload operation so that the tags are added to the destination object. 
    upload_id = bucket.init_multipart_upload(dest_object_name, headers=headers).upload_id
    parts = []
    
    # Upload the parts one by one. 
    part_number = 1
    offset = 0
    while offset < total_size:
        num_to_upload = min(part_size, total_size - offset)
        end = offset + num_to_upload - 1;
        result = bucket.upload_part_copy(bucket.bucket_name, src_object_name, (offset, end), dest_object_name, upload_id, part_number)
        # Save the information about each part.
        parts.append(PartInfo(part_number, result.etag))
    
        offset += num_to_upload
        part_number += 1
    
    # Complete the multipart upload task. 
    result = bucket.complete_multipart_upload(dest_object_name, upload_id, parts)
    
    # Obtain the metadata of the destination object. 
    head_info = bucket.head_object(dest_object_name)
    
    # Display the size of the destination object. 
    dest_object_size = head_info.content_length
    print('dest object size:', dest_object_size)
    
    # Compare the size of the destination object with that of the source object. 
    assert dest_object_size == total_size
    
    # Display the tags of the source object. 
    result = bucket.get_object_tagging(src_object_name)
    for key in result.tag_set.tagging_rule:
        print('src tagging key: {}, value: {}'.format(key, result.tag_set.tagging_rule[key]))
    
    # Display the tags added to the destination object. 
    result = bucket.get_object_tagging(dest_object_name)
    for key in result.tag_set.tagging_rule:
        print('dest tagging key: {}, value: {}'.format(key, result.tag_set.tagging_rule[key]))                   

Add tags to a symbolic link

The following code provides an example on how to add tags to a symbolic link:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import oss2
from oss2.headers import OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING

# The AccessKey pair of an Alibaba Cloud account has permissions on all API operations. Using these credentials to perform operations in OSS is a high-risk operation. We recommend that you use a RAM user to call API operations or perform routine O&M. To create a RAM user, log on to the RAM console. 
auth = oss2.Auth('yourAccessKeyId', 'yourAccessKeySecret')
# Specify the endpoint of the region in which the bucket is located. For example, if the bucket is located in the China (Hangzhou) region, set the endpoint to https://oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com. 
# Specify the bucket name. Example: examplebucket. 
bucket = oss2.Bucket(auth, 'yourEndpoint', 'examplebucket')
# Specify the full path of the destination object. The full path of the object cannot contain the bucket name. Example: exampledir/exampleobject.txt. 
object_name = 'exampledir/exampleobject.txt'
# Specify the full path of the symbolic link object. Example: shortcut/myobject.txt. 
symlink_name = 'shortcut/myobject.txt'

# Configure the tagging string. 
tagging = "k1=v1&k2=v2&k3=v3"

# If tags contain characters, you must perform URL encoding on the keys and values of the tags. 
k4 = "k4+-="
v4 = "+-=._:/"
tagging += "&" + oss2.urlquote(k4) + "=" + oss2.urlquote(v4)

# Configure the tags in the HTTP headers. 
headers = dict()
headers[OSS_OBJECT_TAGGING] = tagging

# Add a symbolic link to the object. 
# Specify the headers when you call the put_symlink operation so that the tags are added to the symbolic link. 
result = bucket.put_symlink(object_name, symlink_name, headers=headers)
print('http response status: ', result.status)

# Display the tags added to the symbolic link. 
result = bucket.get_object_tagging(symlink_name)
for key in result.tag_set.tagging_rule:
    print('tagging key: {}, value: {}'.format(key, result.tag_set.tagging_rule[key]))

References

  • For the complete sample code that is used to configure object tagging, visit GitHub.
  • For more information about the API operation that you can call to configure object tagging, see PutObjectTagging.