This article describes how to use Alibaba Cloud Configuration Center (ACM) in concert with Spring Cloud to help you simplify environment configuration management in a micro-service architecture, by testing different databases connected to the production environment and configuring different data source (including connection pool) parameters.

Environment attributes of configuration

During the continuous delivery of the system, the diversity and complexity of the system’s final running environment undoubtedly make it harder for us to manage configurations. Eugen Paraschiv briefly discussed this in his post Configuration Must Be Environment Specific. It is also elaborated in depth in the “Containerization, scheduling, and configuration management” section in Configuration management challenges in modern application architectures.

Due to the differences between the configurations of different environments, the artifacts of those environments are not consistent, and sometimes Docker can't deliver the "build once, run anywhere" experience as expected. Here are some simple examples to help you better understand.

  • The logLevel should be set to DEBUG in the development environment, INFO in the staging environment, and WARNING in the production environment.
  • The database runs on a 4-core 8 GB-RAM machine in the development environment, but on a 32-core 96 GB-RAM machine in the production environment.
  • The maximum thread number in the execution thread pool of the daily environment should be set to 15, while this number should be larger in the production environment, which is 150 by default.
  • In the online environment, application data sources in the Central Data Center need to connect to Database A, while application data sources in Shenzhen Data Center should connect to Database B due to the proximity.
  • Two-way synchronization switch should be switched off only in and only in Mini Taobao environment.
  • The new features should be made available only in the online Hangzhou Unit environment rather than other unit environments.

In this article we will briefly describe how to use Alibaba Cloud ACM in Spring Cloud to replace Spring Cloud Config in simplifying environment configuration management, and help you understand the ACM-based solutions to simplify micro-service environment configuration management. We will also list the pros and cons of ACM and Spring Cloud Config.

User stories

In daily engineering practice, we often picture a simple scenario with a user story to facilitate the elaboration and communication. This is an illustration used for preaching in the early stages:

Taking Movie Service as an example. Let's assume that we need to retrieve a list of all movies from the relational database MySQL(RDS). We only need the top-configuration machines for the production database, and we need to use different databases in the testing, pre-release, and production environments. Therefore, our applications need to have different data source configuration, connection pool configuration, database security configuration, and so on in different environments.

The following figure shows how to map different environments with ACM Namespace, and set different data source configurations for Movie Service in different running environments.

Create micro-service: movie service

  • Create Spring Boot Starter micro-service: movie service

    Movie service’s business logic is very straightforward: to list all movies in MySQL(RDS):

    Here we created a standard JPA application (similar to the sample project on Spring official website Accessing data with MySQL). The project structure is as shown in the following figure:

  • Introduce JPA, MySQL, connection pool HikariCP and WEB dependencies

  • Create MySQL(RDS) database and users

    mysql> create database db_example; -- Create the new database
    mysql> create user 'springuser'@'localhost' identified by 'ThePassword'; -- Creates the user
    mysql> grant all on db_example.* to 'springuser'@'localhost'; -- Gives all the privileges to the new user on the newly created database

    For detailed steps, see the “Create the database” section in Accessing data with MySQL.

  • Create a web Controller

     import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
     import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
     import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ResponseBody;
     import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
     public class MovieController {
         MovieRepository movieRepository;
         public @ResponseBody Iterable<Movie> listMovies() {
               return movieRepository.findAll();

Use Namespace in ACM to create isolated environment configuration

Note To use ACM on Alibaba Cloud, you must enable this service. Once you activate the service and log on, you can create namespaces and configurations in the ACM console.
  • Create three environments in ACM: dev, stage, and prod

  • Create configuration respectively for dev, stage, and prod environments

In the previous step, we set different values for the same configuration item in different environments. Taking the spring.datasource.url configuration item as an example, we connect different databases to different environments by setting different URLs, and only enables SSL (useSSL=true) in the production environment.

    spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/db_example? useSSL=false
    spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql:// useSSL=true

In addition, we have set a larger database connection pool and a smaller timeout value for the prod environment.


To make it easier to debug, we only enables SQL Trace in the dev environment.


Integrate Movie Service with ACM

Next, we integrate Movie Service with ACM to obtain the corresponding environment configuration from ACM. For instructions on how to use ACM in Spring Cloud, see Spring Cloud ACM.

  • Introduce ACM dependencies to Movie Service

  • Configure ACM connection information, namespace, accessKey, secretKey, and other information in

You can find your namespace_id, accessKey, secretKey, and other information in “namespace details” or “code example of configuration”.

Access Movie Service from your browser

View pushing and refreshing history of ACM configurations

If spring-boot-starter-actuator dependency has been introduced to Movie Service, and is set in, you can view the application’s configuration consumption and refreshing history from endpoint http://<<ip:port>>/acm.

You can also view the configuration’s push track, configuration version, and other information from the ACM console. For instructions, see ACM documentation.

Brief comparison between ACM and Spring Cloud Config

What’s comparedSpring cloud configAlibaba Cloud ACM
Spring Cloud seamless integrationSupportedSupported
Source code distribution methodOpen sourceTo be open-sourced soon
Billing methodFree of chargeFree of charge
Large scale (over 100,000 configuration items) production verificationNo publicly available cases of large scale production verificationVerified with Alibaba data center’s production environment featuring millions of configuration items, with over 100 million configuration changes pushed every day, and the Double 11 shopping spree and many other demanding scenarios
Configuration management UI consoleNo console, dependent on IDE, GIT, and other third-party toolsProfessional configuration management UI console
Multi-language supportMainly supports Java ecosystem, without any native clients for other languagesSupports Node.js, C++ and other native multi-language clients
Multi-data center, Local active-active disaster recovery, multi-zone, and other architecturesDependent on support of GIT, ZooKeeper, and so on, without an explicit official statementSupported
Configuration change pushDependent on RabbitMQ/KafkaBuilt-in push mechanism, without external dependency
Timeliness of large scale configuration pushDependent on SLA and Webhooks such as GIT Webhooks and so on. Enterprise level large scale production capability is yet to be verified.Industrial level production in milliseconds
Audit capability for configuration changesWeakBuilt-in audit mechanism (with an audit capability conforming to National Graded Protection of Information Security - Level 3)
Push trackUnable to view real-time monitoring that is configured to push to the clientProvides configuration change push tracks for monitoring configuration change push status
Data isolationSupports application, profile, label, git repo, and other isolation policiesIn addition to isolation policies provided by Spring Cloud, ACM supports multi-tenant, app, data_id, group and other multi-level isolation policies
Production and O&M costHigh (must have sufficient GIT/RabbitMQ knowledge and talent reserve)Low (no third-party component dependencies)
High availabilityN/A (customers must assume all risks)99.99% (Alibaba Cloud assumes the risks)
Secure communicationSupports SSLSupports SSL
Disaster toleranceTwo levels (storage, server cache)Three levels (plus local disaster recovery of the client)

Download project

Sample project used in this article can be downloaded from movie-service.tar.gz.

This project has passed the test in the following environments:

  • Spring Cloud Edgware.RELEASE
  • Spring Boot 1.5.9. RELEASE
  • HikariCP 2.7.6
  • MySQL 5.7.11
  • ACM 4.2.0
  • ACM Spring Cloud SDK 1.0.1
Note Before running this project locally, make sure to set your own ACM accessKey and secretKey in