This topic describes how to synchronize data from an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance to an AnalyticDB for MySQL V3.0 cluster by using Data Transmission Service (DTS). After you synchronize data, you can use AnalyticDB for MySQL to build internal business intelligence (BI) systems, interactive query systems, and real-time report systems.

Prerequisites

  • An ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance is created. For more information, see Create an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance.
  • The destination AnalyticDB for MySQL V3.0 cluster is created. For more information, see Create a cluster.
  • The available storage space of the destination AnalyticDB for MySQL V3.0 cluster is larger than the total size of the data in the source ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance.

Limits

Note By default, DTS disables FOREIGN KEY constraints for the destination database in a data synchronization task. Therefore, the cascade and delete operations of the source database are not synchronized to the destination database.
Category Description
Limits on the source database
  • The tables to be synchronized must have PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraints and all fields must be unique. Otherwise, the destination database may contain duplicate data records.
  • If you select tables as the objects to be synchronized and you need to edit the tables, such as renaming tables or columns, in the destination database, you can synchronize up to 1,000 tables in a single data synchronization task. If you run a task to synchronize more than 1,000 tables, a request error occurs. In this case, we recommend that you configure multiple tasks to synchronize the tables in batches or configure a task to synchronize the entire database.
  • The following requirements for binary logs must be met:
    • The binary logging feature must be enabled. For more information about how to enable binary logging, see Modify the parameters of an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance. In addition, the binlog_row_image parameter must be set to full. Otherwise, error messages are returned during precheck and the data synchronization task cannot be started.
      Important
      • If the source database is a self-managed MySQL database, you must enable binary logging and set binlog_format to row and binlog_row_image to full.
      • If the self-managed MySQL database is deployed in a dual-primary cluster, you must set log_slave_updates to ON. This ensures that DTS can obtain all binary logs. For more information, see Create an account for a user-created MySQL database and configure binary logging.
    • For an incremental data synchronization task, the binary logs of the source database are retained for at least 24 hours. For a full data and incremental data synchronization task, the binary logs of the source database are retained for at least seven days. Otherwise, DTS may fail to obtain the binary logs and the task may fail. In exceptional circumstances, data inconsistency or loss may occur. After full data synchronization is complete, you can set the retention period to more than 24 hours. Make sure that you set the retention period of binary logs based on the preceding requirements. Otherwise, the Service Level Agreement (SLA) of DTS does not ensure service reliability and performance. For more information about binary log files and log backup files of an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance, see View and delete the binary log files of an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance.

  • During data synchronization, do not perform DDL operations to modify the primary key or add comments because the operations cannot take effect. For example, do not execute the ALTER TABLE table_name COMMENT='Table comments'; statement.
Other limits
  • Prefix indexes cannot be synchronized. If the source database contains prefix indexes, data may fail to be synchronized.
  • Due to the limits of AnalyticDB for MySQL, if the disk space usage of the nodes in an AnalyticDB for MySQL cluster reaches 80%, the task is delayed and error messages are returned. We recommend that you estimate the required disk space based on the objects that you want to synchronize. You must ensure that the destination cluster has sufficient storage space.
  • Before you synchronize data, evaluate the impact of data synchronization on the performance of the source and destination databases. We recommend that you synchronize data during off-peak hours. During full data synchronization, DTS uses read and write resources of the source and destination databases. This may increase the loads on the database servers.
  • During full data synchronization, concurrent INSERT operations cause fragmentation in the tables of the destination database. After full data synchronization is complete, the tablespace of the destination database is larger than that of the source database.
  • If you select one or more tables instead of an entire database as the objects to synchronize, do not use gh-ost or pt-online-schema-change to perform DDL operations on the tables during data synchronization. Otherwise, data may fail to be synchronized.

    If you use only DTS to write data to the destination database, you can use Data Management (DMS) to perform online DDL operations on source tables during data synchronization. For more information, see Perform lock-free DDL operations.

  • If you use only DTS to write data to the destination database in the AnalyticDB for MySQL cluster, you can use DMS to perform online DDL operations on source tables during data synchronization. For more information, see Perform lock-free DDL operations.
  • During data synchronization, we recommend that you use only DTS to write data to the destination database. This prevents data inconsistency between the source and destination databases. For example, if you use tools other than DTS to write data to the destination database, data loss may occur in the destination database when you use DMS to perform online DDL operations.
Special cases
If the source database is a self-managed MySQL database, take note of the following items:
  • If you perform a primary/secondary switchover on the source database when the data synchronization task is running, the task fails.
  • DTS calculates synchronization latency based on the timestamp of the latest synchronized data in the destination database and the current timestamp in the source database. If no DML operation is performed on the source database for a long time, the synchronization latency may be inaccurate. If the latency of the synchronization task is too high, you can perform a DML operation on the source database to update the latency.
    Note If you select an entire database as the object to be synchronized, you can create a heartbeat table. The heartbeat table is updated or receives data every second.
  • DTS executes the CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS 'test' statement in the source database as scheduled to move forward the binary log file position.

Billing

Synchronization type Task configuration fee
Schema synchronization and full data synchronization Free of charge.
Incremental data synchronization Charged. For more information, see Billing overview.

Supported synchronization topologies

  • One-way one-to-one synchronization
  • One-way one-to-many synchronization
  • One-way many-to-one synchronization

SQL operations that can be synchronized

Operation type SQL statement
DML INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE
DDL CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE, RENAME TABLE, TRUNCATE TABLE, ADD COLUMN, and DROP COLUMN
Warning If the data type of a field in the source table is changed during data synchronization, an error message is returned and the data synchronization task is interrupted. You can perform the following steps to troubleshoot the issue:
  1. When DTS synchronizes data to the destination AnalyticDB for MySQL cluster, the data type of a field in the source table is changed. As a result, the data synchronization task fails. In this example, the source table is named customer.
  2. In the destination AnalyticDB for MySQL V3.0 cluster, create a table named customer_new that has the same schema as the customer table.
  3. Execute the INSERT INTO SELECT statement to copy the data of the customer table and insert the data into the customer_new table. This ensures that the data of the two tables is consistent.
  4. Rename or delete the customer table. Then, change the name of the customer_new table to customer.
  5. Start the data synchronization task again in the DTS console.

Procedure

  1. Go to the Data Synchronization Tasks page.
    1. Log on to the DMS console.
    2. In the top navigation bar, click DTS.
    3. In the left-side navigation pane, choose DTS (DTS) > Data Synchronization.
    Note You can also log on to the new DTS console and go to the Data Synchronization Tasks page.
  2. From the drop-down list next to Data Synchronization Tasks, select the region in which the data synchronization instance resides.
    Note If you use the new DTS console, you must select the region in which the data synchronization instance resides in the top navigation bar.
  3. Click Create Task. On the page that appears, configure the source and destination databases.
    Warning After you select the source and destination instances, we recommend that you read the limits displayed in the upper part of the page. This helps you create and run the data synchronization task.
    Section Parameter Description
    N/A Task Name

    The name of the task. DTS automatically generates a task name. We recommend that you specify a descriptive name to identify the task. You do not need to specify a unique task name.

    Source Database Select Instance
    The instance that you want to use. You can choose whether to use an existing instance based on your business requirements.
    • If you use an existing instance, DTS automatically applies the parameter settings of the instance.
    • If you do not use an existing instance, you must set parameters for the database.
    Database Type The type of the source database. Select MySQL.
    Access Method The access method of the source database. Select Alibaba Cloud Instance.
    Instance Region The region in which the source ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance resides.
    Replicate Data Across Alibaba Cloud Accounts Specifies whether to synchronize data across Alibaba Cloud accounts. In this example, No is selected.
    RDS Instance ID The ID of the source ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance.
    Database Account The database account of the source ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance. The account must have the SELECT permissions on the objects to be synchronized and the REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE permissions.
    Database Password

    The password of the database account.

    Encryption

    Specifies whether to encrypt the connection to the database. You can select Non-encrypted or SSL-encrypted based on your business requirements. If you want to select SSL-encrypted, you must enable SSL encryption for the ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance before you configure the data synchronization task. For more information, see Configure SSL encryption for an ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL instance.

    Destination Database Select Instance
    The instance that you want to use. You can choose whether to use an existing instance based on your business requirements.
    • If you use an existing instance, DTS automatically applies the parameter settings of the instance.
    • If you do not use an existing instance, you must set parameters for the database.
    Database Type The type of the destination database. Select AnalyticDB for MySQL 3.0.
    Access Method The access method of the destination database. Select Alibaba Cloud Instance.
    Instance Region The region in which the destination AnalyticDB for MySQL V3.0 cluster resides.
    Instance ID The ID of the destination AnalyticDB for MySQL V3.0 cluster.
    Database Account The database account of the destination AnalyticDB for MySQL V3.0 cluster. The account must have read and write permissions on the destination database.
    Database Password

    The password of the database account.

  4. In the lower part of the page, click Test Connectivity and Proceed.
    Note
    • You do not need to modify the security settings for ApsaraDB instances, such as ApsaraDB RDS for MySQL and ApsaraDB for MongoDB, or self-managed databases that are hosted on Elastic Compute Service (ECS) instances. DTS automatically adds the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the whitelists of ApsaraDB instances or the security group rules of ECS instances. For more information, see Add the CIDR blocks of DTS servers to the security settings of on-premises databases.
    • After data synchronization is complete, we recommend that you remove the CIDR blocks of DTS servers from the whitelists or security group rules.
  5. Select objects for the task and configure advanced settings.
    • Basic Settings
      Parameter Description
      Task Stages

      By default, Incremental Data Synchronization is selected. You must also select Schema Synchronization and Full Data Synchronization. After the precheck is complete, DTS synchronizes the historical data of the selected objects from the source database to the destination database. The historical data is the basis for subsequent incremental synchronization.

      Note If Full Data Synchronization is selected, you can synchronize the schema and data of the table that is created by executing the CREATE TABLE statement to the destination database.
      Processing Mode of Conflicting Tables
      • Precheck and Report Errors: checks whether the destination database contains tables that have the same names as tables in the source database. If the source and destination databases do not contain tables that have identical table names, the precheck is passed. Otherwise, an error is returned during the precheck and the data synchronization task cannot be started.

        Note You can use the object name mapping feature to rename the tables that are synchronized to the destination database. You can use this feature if the source and destination databases contain identical table names and the tables in the destination database cannot be deleted or renamed. For more information, see Map object names .
      • Ignore Errors and Proceed: skips the precheck for identical table names in the source and destination databases.
        Warning If you select Ignore Errors and Proceed, data inconsistency may occur and your business may be exposed to potential risks.
        • If the source and destination databases have the same schemas, and a data record has the same primary key as an existing data record in the destination database:
          • During full data synchronization, DTS does not synchronize the data record to the destination database. The existing data record in the destination database is retained.
          • During incremental data synchronization, DTS synchronizes the data record to the destination database. The existing data record in the destination database is overwritten.
        • If the source and destination databases have different schemas, data may fail to be initialized. In this case, only some columns are synchronized or the data synchronization task fails.
      DDL and DML Operations to Be Synchronized

      The DDL and DML operations that you want to synchronize. For more information, see SQL operations that can be synchronized.

      Note To select the SQL operations performed on a specific database or table, right-click an object in the Selected Objects section. In the dialog box that appears, select the SQL operations that you want to synchronize.
      Merge Tables
      • Yes: In online transaction processing (OLTP) scenarios, sharding is implemented to speed up the response to business tables. In online analytical processing (OLAP) scenarios, you can store a large volume of data in a single table. This makes your SQL queries more efficient. You can merge multiple source tables that have the same schema into a single destination table. This feature allows you to synchronize data from multiple tables in the source database to a single table in the destination database. For more information, see Enable the multi-table merging feature.
        Note
        • After you select multiple tables from the source database, you must change the names of these tables to the name of the destination table. To do this, you can use the object name mapping feature. For more information, see Map object names .
        • DTS adds a column named __dts_data_source to the destination table. This column is used to record the data source. The data type of this column is TEXT. DTS specifies the column values based on the following format: <DTS instance ID>:<Database name>:<Schema name>:<Table name>. Such column values allow DTS to identify each source table. For example, dts********:dtstestdata:testschema:customer1 indicates that the source table is customer1.
        • If you set this parameter to Yes, all the selected source tables in the task are merged into a single destination table. If you do not need to merge specific source tables, you can create a separate data synchronization task for these tables.
        Warning We recommend that you do not perform DDL operations to change the schemas of source databases or tables. Otherwise, data inconsistency may occur or the data synchronization task fails.
      • No: This value is selected by default.
      Capitalization of Object Names in Destination Instance

      The capitalization of database names, table names, and column names in the destination instance. By default, DTS default policy is selected. You can select other options to make sure that the capitalization of object names is consistent with that in the source or destination database. For more information, see Specify the capitalization of object names in the destination instance.

      Source Objects

      Select one or more objects from the Source Objects section and click the Rightwards arrow icon to add the objects to the Selected Objects section.

      Note
      • You can select columns, tables, or databases as the objects to be synchronized. If you select tables or columns as the objects to be synchronized, DTS does not synchronize other objects such as views, triggers, or stored procedures to the destination database.
      • If you select a database as the object to be synchronized, DTS synchronizes data based on the following default rules:
        • If the table to be synchronized in the source database has a primary key, such as a single-column primary key or a composite primary key, the primary key columns are specified as the distribution keys.
        • If the table to be synchronized in the source database does not have a primary key, an auto-increment primary key column is automatically generated in the destination table. This may cause data inconsistency between the source and destination databases.
      Selected Objects
      • To rename an object that you want to synchronize to the destination instance, right-click the object in the Selected Objects section. For more information, see Map the name of a single object.
      • To rename multiple objects at a time, click Batch Edit in the upper-right corner of the Selected Objects section. For more information, see Map multiple object names at a time.
      Note
      • To select the SQL operations performed on a specific database or table, right-click an object in the Selected Objects section. In the dialog box that appears, select the SQL operations that you want to synchronize. For more information about the SQL operations that can be synchronized, see SQL operations that can be synchronized.
      • To specify WHERE conditions to filter data, right-click an object in the Selected Objects section. In the dialog box that appears, specify the conditions. For more information, see Use SQL conditions to filter data.
    • Advanced Settings
      Parameter Description
      Set Alerts
      Specifies whether to configure alerting for the data synchronization task. If the task fails or the synchronization latency exceeds the specified threshold, alert contacts will receive notifications. Valid values:
      • No: does not configure alerting.
      • Yes: configures alerting. If you select Yes, you must also specify the alert threshold and alert contacts.
      Replicate Temporary Tables When DMS Performs DDL Operations
      In this scenario, DTS does not synchronize DDL operations. You must set this parameter to No. However, DTS may support DDL operations for this scenario in the future. In this case, if you use DMS to perform online DDL operations on the source database, you can specify whether to synchronize temporary tables generated by the operations. Valid values:
      • Yes: DTS synchronizes the data of temporary tables generated by online DDL operations.
        Note If online DDL operations generate a large amount of data, the data synchronization task may take an extended period of time to complete.
      • No: DTS does not synchronize the data of temporary tables generated by online DDL operations. Only the original DDL data of the source database is synchronized.
        Note If you select No, the tables in the destination database may be locked.
      Retry Time for Failed Connections
      The retry time range for failed connections. If the source or destination database fails to be connected after the data synchronization task is started, DTS immediately retries a connection within the time range. Valid values: 10 to 1440. Unit: minutes. Default value: 120. We recommend that you set the parameter to a value greater than 30. If DTS reconnects to the source and destination databases within the specified time range, DTS resumes the data synchronization task. Otherwise, the data synchronization task fails.
      Note
      • If you set different retry time ranges for multiple data synchronization tasks that have the same source or destination database, the shortest retry time range that is set takes precedence.
      • When DTS retries a connection, you are charged for the DTS instance. We recommend that you specify the retry time range based on your business requirements. You can also release the DTS instance at the earliest opportunity after the source and destination instances are released.
      Configure ETL
      Specifies whether to configure the extract, transform, and load (ETL) feature. For more information, see What is ETL? Valid values:
  6. In the lower part of the page, click Next: Configure Database and Table Fields. On the page that appears, set the primary key columns and distribution key columns of the tables that you want to synchronize to the destination AnalyticDB for MySQL cluster.
    Note
    • If you select Schema Synchronization as Task Stages, you must set the Type, Primary Key Column, and Distribution Key parameters for the tables that you want to synchronize to the AnalyticDB for MySQL V3.0 cluster. For more information, see CREATE TABLE.
    • In the Primary Key Column field, you can specify multiple columns to form a composite primary key. In this case, you must specify one or more primary key columns as the distribution keys.
  7. In the lower part of the page, click Next: Save Task Settings and Precheck.
    Note
    • Before you can start the data synchronization task, DTS performs a precheck. You can start the data synchronization task only after the task passes the precheck.
    • If the task fails to pass the precheck, you can click the Info icon icon next to each failed item to view details.
      • You can troubleshoot the issues based on the causes and run a precheck again.
      • If you do not need to troubleshoot the issues, you can ignore failed items and run a precheck again.
  8. Wait until the success rate becomes 100%. Then, click Next: Purchase Instance.
  9. On the Purchase Instance page, set the Billing Method and Instance Class parameters for the data synchronization instance. The following table describes the parameters.
    Section Parameter Description
    New Instance Class Billing Method
    • Subscription: You pay for the instance when you create an instance. The subscription billing method is more cost-effective than the pay-as-you-go billing method for long-term use.
    • Pay-as-you-go: A pay-as-you-go instance is charged on an hourly basis. The pay-as-you-go billing method is suitable for short-term use. If you no longer require a pay-as-you-go instance, you can release the pay-as-you-go instance to reduce costs.
    Instance Class DTS provides several instance classes that have different performance in synchronization speed. You can select an instance class based on your business scenario. For more information, see Specifications of data synchronization instances.
    Subscription Duration If you select the subscription billing method, set the subscription duration and the number of instances that you want to create. The subscription duration can be one to nine months or one to three years.
    Note This parameter is displayed only if you select the subscription billing method.
  10. Read and select the check box for Data Transmission Service (Pay-as-you-go) Service Terms.
  11. Click Buy and Start to start the data synchronization task. You can view the progress of the task in the task list.