This topic describes the DDL syntax in Realtime Compute and the issues that require your attention during the DDL use, including field mapping and case sensitivity.

Syntax

CREATE TABLE tableName
      (columnName dataType [, columnName dataType ]*)
      [ WITH (propertyName=propertyValue [, propertyName=propertyValue ]*) ];
			

Description

Realtime Compute does not provide a built-in data storage feature. Therefore, all DDL statements that involve table creation are reference declarations of external data tables or storage systems. The sample code is as follows:

CREATE TABLE mq_stream(
 a VARCHAR,
 b VARCAHR,
 c VARCAHR
) WITH (
 type='mq',
 topic='blink_mq_test',
 accessId='yourAccessId',
 accessKey='yourAccessKey'
);

The preceding code does not create a topic of the MQ source table in Flink SQL. Instead, it declares a reference to a table named mq_stream. For all DML operations related to this MQ topic in downstream operators, the topic name can be replaced with the alias mq_stream.

  • The declaration of a table is valid only in the current job in Realtime Compute. A Realtime Compute job is generated after a SQL file is submitted. The preceding declaration of the mq_stream table is valid only in the current SQL file. Other SQL files in the same Realtime Compute project can also declare the mq_stream table.
  • According to the standard SQL definition, keywords, table names, and field names in DDL statements are case-insensitive.
  • Table and field names must start with a letter or digit, and can contain only letters, digits, and underscores (_).
  • Depending on the nature of the upstream plug-in used, DDL declarations may establish the field mappings between the declaration table and external table based on other factors rather than solely on the field names. We recommend that you declare the same field names and number of fields as those in the referenced external tables. This can prevent data errors caused by confusing declarations.
    Note If the upstream plug-in supports retrieving values based on keys of key-value pairs, the declaration table and its referenced external table do not need to have the same number of fields. However, the field names must be the same. If the upstream plug-in does not support retrieving values based on keys, the number of fields and their order must be the same between the declaration table and external table.

Field mapping

Two field mapping methods are supported for a declaration table depending on whether the external data source has a schema.
  • Sequential mapping

    This method applies to data sources without a schema, for example, MQ. These data sources are usually unstructured storage systems that do not support retrieving values based on keys. We recommend that you customize field names in DDL SQL statements and use the same field types and number of fields in the declaration table as those in the external table.

    A sample record in MQ is provided as follows:

    asavfa,sddd32,sdfdsv

    Specify MQ field names according to the naming conventions.

    CREATE TABLE mq_stream(
     a VARCHAR,
     b VARCHAR,
     c VARCAHR
    ) WITH (
     type='mq',
     topic='blink_mq_test',
     accessId='yourAccessId',
     accessKey='yourAccessSecret'
    );
  • Name mapping
    This method applies to data sources with a schema. These data storage systems define field names and field types at the table storage level, and support retrieving values based on keys. We recommend that you use the same schema definition in Flink SQL declarations as that of the external data storage system. Specifically, the names, number, and order of fields in the declaration table must be the same as those in the external table.
    Note If field names in the external data storage system are case-sensitive (for example, Table Store), enclose the case-sensitive field names in backticks ( `). In the DDL syntax, field names in the declaration table must be the same as those in the external table.

Case-sensitivity

In the standard SQL definition, fields are case-insensitive. For example, the following two statements have the same meaning:

create table stream_result (
    name varchar,
    value varchar
);
create table STREAM_RESULT (
    NAME varchar,
    VALUE varchar
);

However, most external data sources referenced by Realtime Compute are case-sensitive. For example, Table Store is case-sensitive. The following statement shows how to define the uppercase NAME field for Table Store:

create  table STREAM_RESULT (
    `NAME` varchar,
    `VALUE` varchar
);

In all subsequent DML statements, enclose the field in backticks (`) whenever it is referenced, as shown in the following statement:

INSERT INTO table_a
SELECT
  `NAME`,
  `VALUE`
FROM
  table_b;

Related topics

For more information about how to create source tables, dimension tables, and result tables in Realtime Compute, see the following topics: