This topic describes how to migrate a self-managed MongoDB database to ApsaraDB for MongoDB by using mongodump and mongorestore, which are built in MongoDB for data backup and restoration. You can install self-managed MongoDB databases on an on-premises server or an ECS instance, and use mongodump and mongorestore to migrate these databases to an ApsaraDB for MongoDB sharded cluster instance.

Background information

Prerequisites

  • mongodump and mongorestore are installed on a different server from the self-managed MongoDB databases, but run the same version as the databases. For more information about the installation procedure, visit Install MongoDB at the MongoDB official website.
    Note You can also run the mongodump and mongorestore commands on the server where the self-managed MongoDB databases reside.
  • The storage capacity of the destination sharded cluster instance is larger than the storage space occupied by the self-managed MongoDB databases. If the storage capacity is insufficient, you can upgrade the instance. For more information, see Configuration change overview.

Precautions

  • This is full data migration. To ensure data consistency, we recommend that you stop writing data to the self-managed MongoDB databases before you migrate data.
  • If you have run the mongodump command to back up a self-managed MongoDB database, move the backup files in the dump folder to another directory and make sure that the dump folder is empty. If it is not empty, its historical backup files are overwritten the next time you back up a database.
  • Run the mongodump and mongorestore commands on the servers. Do not run these commands on the mongo shell.

Step 1: Back up the self-managed MongoDB databases

  1. On the server where the self-managed MongoDB databases reside, run the following command to back up all the databases:
    mongodump --host <mongodb_host> --port <port>  -u <username>  --authenticationDatabase  <database>
    Note
    • <mongodb_host>: the address of the server where the self-managed MongoDB databases reside. In this case, enter 127.0.0.1.
    • <port>: the service port of the self-managed MongoDB databases. The default value is 27017.
    • <username>: the username that is used to log on to a self-managed MongoDB database.
    • <database>: the database corresponding to the username if authentication is enabled.
    Example:
    mongodump --host 127.0.0.1 --port 27017 -u root --authenticationDatabase admin
  2. When Enter password: is displayed, enter the password of the database user and press Enter. The data backup operation starts.

Wait till the data backup is complete. The data of the self-managed MongoDB databases is backed up to the dump folder of the directory where you run this command.

Step 2: (Optional) Configure data sharding

If data sharding is not configured, data is written only to the primary shard. The storage and computing resources of other shards are not used. For more information, see Configure sharding to maximize the performance of shards.

Note You must create required databases and collections in the destination sharded cluster instance before data migration. However, you can configure data sharding for the databases and collections before or after data migration.

Step 3: Migrate data to the destination sharded cluster instance

  1. Obtain the public or internal connection string of a mongos in the destination sharded cluster instance. For more information, see Overview of sharded cluster instance connections.
    Note You must manually apply for a public endpoint. For more information, see Apply for a public endpoint for a sharded cluster instance.
  2. Add the IP address of the server where the self-managed MongoDB databases reside to a whitelist of the destination sharded cluster instance. For more information, see Configure a whitelist for a sharded cluster instance.
    Note
    • If you want to connect to a sharded cluster instance over an internal network, you must add the private IP address of the ECS instance where the self-managed MongoDB databases reside to a whitelist of the sharded cluster instance.
    • If you want to connect to a sharded cluster instance over the Internet, you must add the public IP address of the server where the self-managed MongoDB databases reside to a whitelist of the sharded cluster instance.
  3. On the server where the self-managed MongoDB databases reside, run the following command to restore all the backup files to the destination sharded cluster instance:
    mongorestore --host <Mongos_host>  -u <username> --authenticationDatabase <database> <Backup directory>
    Note
    • <Mongos_host>: the connection string of any mongos in the ApsaraDB for MongoDB instance.
    • <username>: the username that you use to log on to a database of the destination sharded cluster instance. The initial username is root.
    • <database>: the database corresponding to the username if authentication is enabled. If the username is root, enter admin.
    • <Backup directory>: the directory where the backup files are stored. The default value is dump.

    Example:

    mongorestore --host s-bp**********-pub.mongodb.rds.aliyuncs.com:3717 -u root --authenticationDatabase admin dump
  4. When Enter password: is displayed, enter the password of the database user and press Enter. The data restoration operation starts.
    Note

After data restoration is complete, switch over your business to the destination sharded cluster instance. We recommend that you perform the switchover during off-peak hours to minimize impact on your business.