Tablestore provides the following single-row operations: PutRow, GetRow, UpdateRow, and DeleteRow.

Prerequisites

  • The OTSClient instance is initialized. For more information, see Initialization.
  • A data table is created. Data is written to the table.

PutRow

You can call this operation to write a row of data. If the row already exists, this operation deletes the existing row (all columns and all versions of the original row), and then writes data to the row.

  • API operations
        /**
         * Write a row of data. If the row already exists, this operation deletes the existing row (all columns and all versions of the original row), and then writes data to the row. The number of the consumed capacity units (CUs) is returned.
          * @api
         * @param [] $request The request parameters.
         * @return [] The response. 
         * @throws OTSClientException The exception that is returned when a parameter error occurs or the Tablestore server returns a verification error.
         * @throws OTSServerException The exception that is returned when the Tablestore server returns an error.
         */
        public function putRow(array $request); 
                
  • Request parameters
    Parameter Description
    table_name The name of the table.
    condition You can use conditional update to set row existence conditions or column-based conditions. For more information, see Configure conditional update.
    • row_existence: the row existence condition.
      Note
      • RowExistenceExpectationConst::CONST_IGNORE indicates that new data is inserted into a row no matter whether the specified row exists. If the specified row exists, the existing data is overwritten.
      • RowExistenceExpectationConst::CONST_EXPECT_EXIST indicates that new data is inserted only when the specified row exists. The existing data is overwritten.
      • RowExistenceExpectationConst::CONST_EXPECT_NOT_EXIST indicates that data is inserted only when the specified row does not exist.
    • column_condition: the column-based condition.
    primary_key The primary key of the row.
    Note
    • The number and type of primary key columns configured must be consistent with those of primary key columns of the table.
    • When the primary key column is an auto-increment column, you need only to set the value of the auto-increment column to placeholders. For more information, see Configure an auto-increment primary key column.
    • The primary key of a table can contain one to four primary key columns. Primary key columns are sorted in the order in which they are added. For example, the schema of PRIMARY KEY (A, B, C) is different from that of PRIMARY KEY (A, C, B). Tablestore sorts rows based on the values of all primary key columns.
    • Each item specifies the values in the following sequence: the primary key name, primary key value (PrimaryKeyValue), and primary key type (PrimaryKeyType). PrimaryKeyType is optional.
    • The value of PrimaryKeyValue can be an integer, a binary, or a string.
    • PrimaryKeyType can be set to PrimaryKeyTypeConst::CONST_INTEGER, PrimaryKeyTypeConst::CONST_STRING (UTF-8 encoded string), PrimaryKeyTypeConst::CONST_BINARY, or PrimaryKeyTypeConst::CONST_PK_AUTO_INCR (auto-increment primary key columns). If the type of data to query is INTEGER or STRING, this parameter can be ignored. Otherwise, the type must be specified.
    attribute_columns The attribute column of the row.
    • Each item specifies the values in the following sequence: the attribute column name, attribute column value (ColumnValue), attribute column value type (ColumnType, which is optional), and timestamp (optional).
    • ColumnType can be set to ColumnTypeConst::CONST_INTEGER, ColumnTypeConst::CONST_STRING, ColumnTypeConst::CONST_BINARY, ColumnTypeConst::CONST_BOOLEAN, or ColumnTypeConst::CONST_DOUBLE, which respectively indicate the INTEGER, STRING (UTF-8 encoded string), BINARY, BOOLEAN, and DOUBLE types. If the type is BINARY, the type must be specified. Otherwise, the type can be ignored or set to null.
    • The timestamp is the version number of the data. For more information, see Max versions and TTL.

      You can customize a version number or specify that the system generates the version number. If the timestamp is not set, the version number is generated by the system.

      • The version number is calculated based on the number of milliseconds that have elapsed since the epoch time January 1, 1970, 00:00:00 UTC.
      • When you choose to customize the version number, make sure that the version number is a 64-bit timestamp accurate to the millisecond within the valid version range.
    return_content Specifies the data type to return.

    return_type: Set the value to ReturnTypeConst::CONST_PK, which returns the primary key values. This parameter is used for auto-increment primary key columns.

  • Request format
    $result = $client->putRow([
        'table_name' => '<string>', // Set the table name.
        'condition' => [
            'row_existence' => <RowExistence>,   
            'column_condition' => <ColumnCondition>
        ],
        'primary_key' => [                              // Set the primary key.
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>], 
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>],
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>, <PrimaryKeyType>]
        ],  
        'attribute_columns' => [         // Set the attribute column.
                ['<string>', <ColumnValue>], 
                ['<string>', <ColumnValue>, <ColumnType>],
                ['<string>', <ColumnValue>, <ColumnType>, <integer>]
        ],
        'return_content' => [
            'return_type' => <ReturnType>
        ]
    ]);         
  • Response parameters
    Parameter Description
    consumed The number of capacity units (CUs) consumed by this operation.
    capacity_unit: the read/write CUs.
    • read: read throughput
    • write: write throughput
    primary_key The value of the primary key, which is consistent with that in the request.
    Note If you set ReturnTypeConst::CONST_PK, the value of the primary key is returned.
    attribute_columns The value of the attribute column, which is consistent with that in the request. No attribute columns are returned in this example.
  • Response format
    [
        'consumed' => [
            'capacity_unit' => [
                'read' => <integer>,
                'write' => <integer>
            ]
        ],
        'primary_key' => [ 
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>], 
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>],
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>, <PrimaryKeyType>]
        ],  
        'attribute_columns' => []
    ]        
  • Example 1

    The following code provides an example on how to write a row that contains 10 attribute columns and write one version of data for each column. The system generates a version number (timestamp) for the row.

    $attr = array();
    for($i = 0; $i < 10; $i++) {
        $attr[] = ['Col'. $i, $i]; 
    }
    $request = [
        'table_name' => 'MyTable',
        'condition' => RowExistenceExpectationConst::CONST_IGNORE, // You can set the condition to IGNORE, EXPECT_EXIST, or EXPECT_NOT_EXIST.
        'primary_key' => [ // Set the primary key.
            ['PK0', 123],
            ['PK1', 'abc']
        ],
        'attribute_columns' => $attr
    ];
    $response = $otsClient->putRow ($request);
                
  • Example 2

    The following code provides an example on how to write a row that contains 10 attribute columns and write three versions of data for each column. The system generates a version number (timestamp) for the row.

    $attr = array();
    $timestamp = getMicroTime();
    for($i = 0; $i < 10; $i++) {
        for($j = 0; $j < 3; $j++) {
            $attr[] = ['Col'. $i, $j, null, $timestamp+$j];
        }
    }
    $request = [
        'table_name' => 'MyTable',
        'condition' => RowExistenceExpectationConst::CONST_IGNORE, // You can set the condition to IGNORE, EXPECT_EXIST, or EXPECT_NOT_EXIST.
        'primary_key' => [ // Set the primary key.
            ['PK0', 123],
            ['PK1', 'abc']
        ],
        'attribute_columns' => $attr
    ];
    $response = $otsClient->putRow ($request);
                
  • Example 3

    The following code provides an example on how to write a row that contains 10 attribute columns and write three versions of data for each column when the expected row does not exist. The system generates a version number (timestamp) for the row.

    $attr = array();
    $timestamp = getMicroTime();
    for($i = 0; $i < 10; $i++) {
        for($j = 0; $j < 3; $j++) {
            $attr[] = ['Col'. $i, $j, null, $timestamp+$j];
        }
    }
    $request = [
        'table_name' => 'MyTable',
        'condition' => RowExistenceExpectationConst::CONST_EXPECT_NOT_EXIST, // Configure the condition to write data when the expected row does not exist.
        'primary_key' => [ // Set the primary key.
            ['PK0', 123],
            ['PK1', 'abc']
        ],
        'attribute_columns' => $attr
    ];
    $response = $otsClient->putRow ($request);
                
  • Example 4

    The following code provides an example on how to write a row that contains 10 attribute columns and write three versions of data for each column when the expected row exists and the value of Col0 is greater than 100. The system generates a version number (timestamp) for the row.

    $attr = array();
    $timestamp = getMicroTime();
    for($i = 0; $i < 10; $i++) {
        for($j = 0; $j < 3; $j++) {
            $attr[] = ['Col'. $i, $j, null, $timestamp+$j];
        }
    }
    $request = [
        'table_name' => 'MyTable',
        'condition' => [
            'row_existence' => RowExistenceExpectationConst::CONST_EXPECT_EXIST, // Delete the row if it exists.
            'column_condition' => [                  // If the condition is met, the data is updated.
                'column_name' => 'Col0',
                'value' => 100,
                'comparator' => ComparatorTypeConst::CONST_GREATER_THAN
            ]
        ,
        'primary_key' => [ // Set the primary key.
            ['PK0', 123],
            ['PK1', 'abc']
        ],
        'attribute_columns' => $attr
    ];
    $response = $otsClient->putRow ($request);
                

GetRow

You can call this operation to read a row of data.

The following results of the read request may be returned:
  • If the row exists, the primary key columns and attribute columns of the row are returned.
  • If the row does not exist, no row is returned and no error is reported.
  • API operations
        /**
         * Read a row of data.
         * @api
         * @param [] $request The request parameters.
         * @return [] The response. 
         * @throws OTSClientException The exception that is returned when a parameter error occurs or the Tablestore server returns a verification error.
         * @throws OTSServerException The exception that is returned when the Tablestore server returns an error.
         */
        public function getRow(array $request);
                
  • Request parameters
    Parameter Description
    table_name The name of the table.
    primary_key The primary key of the row.
    Note The number and type of primary key columns configured must be consistent with those of primary key columns of the table.
    max_versions The maximum number of read versions.
    Note You must specify at least one of max_versions and time_range.
    • If you specify only max_versions, data of up to the specified number of versions is returned from the latest to the earliest.
    • If you specify only time_range, all data within a range or a version of data is returned.
    • If you specify both max_versions and time_range, data of up to the specified number of versions within the time range is returned from the latest to the earliest.
    time_range Reads data within a range of versions or a version of data. For more information, see TimeRange.
    Note You must specify at least one of max_versions and time_range.
    • If you specify only max_versions, data of up to the specified number of versions is returned from the latest to the earliest.
    • If you specify only time_range, all data within a range or a version of data is returned.
    • If you specify both max_versions and time_range, data of up to the specified number of versions within the time range is returned from the latest to the earliest.
    • To query data within a range, you must set start_time and end_time. start_time specifies the start timestamp. end_time indicates the end timestamp. The time range is a left-closed and right-open interval, which is [start_time, end_time).
    • If you query data within a range of versions, set specific_time. specific_time specifies a specific timestamp.

    You can set one of specific_time and [start_time, end_time).

    Valid values: [0, INT64.MAX). Unit: milliseconds.

    columns_to_get The set of columns to read. The column name can be the primary key column or attribute column.

    If you do not specify this parameter, all data in the row is returned.

    Note
    • If you query a row of data, the system returns the data in all columns of the row. You can set the columns_to_get parameter to read the data only in specified columns. If col0 and col1 are added to columns_to_get, only the values of the col0 and col1 columns are returned.
    • When columns_to_get and column_filter are used at the same time, the columns specified by columns_to_get are returned. Then, the returned columns are filtered.
    start_column The start column to read, which is used to read wide rows. The response contains the start column.

    The columns are sorted based on their names in alphabetical order. Example: A table contains columns a, b, and c. If the value of start_column is b, data that is read starts from column b, and columns b and c are returned.

    end_column The end column to read, which is used to read wide rows. The response does not contain the end column.

    The columns are sorted based on their names in alphabetical order. Example: A table contains columns a, b, and c. If the value of end_column is b, data that is read ends at column b, and column a is returned.

    token This parameter specifies the starting position of a wide row in the next read operation. This function is unavailable.
    column_filter Filters the read results on the server side and returns only the rows of data that meet the conditions in the filter. For more information, see Configure filter.
    Note When columns_to_get and column_filter are used at the same time, the columns specified by columns_to_get are returned. Then, the returned columns are filtered.
  • Request format
    $result = $client->getRow([
        'table_name' => '<string>',                     // Set the table name.
        'primary_key' => [                              // Set the primary key.
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>], 
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>],
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>, <PrimaryKeyType>]
        ], 
        'max_versions' => <integer>,
        'time_range' => [
            'start_time' => <integer>,
            'end_time' => <integer>,
            'specific_time' => <integer>
        ],
        'start_column' => '<string>',
        'end_column' => '<string>',
        'token' => '<string>',
        'columns_to_get' => [
            '<string>',
            '<string>',
            //...   
        ],
        'column_filter' =>  <ColumnCondition>
    ]);
                
  • Response parameters
    Parameter Description
    consumed The number of CUs consumed by this operation.
    capacity_unit: the read/write CUs.
    • read: read throughput
    • write: write throughput
    primary_key The value of the primary key, which is consistent with that in the request.
    Note If the row does not exist, primary_key is an empty list [].
    attribute_columns The value of the attribute column.
    Note If the row does not exist, the attribute_columns is an empty list [].
    • Each item specifies the values in the following sequence: the attribute column name, attribute column value (ColumnValue), attribute column value type (ColumnType), and timestamp.

      The timestamp is a 64-bit integer, which indicates the multiple different versions of the attribute column data.

    • The attribute columns in the response are sorted by attribute column name in alphabetical order. The versions of the attribute columns are sorted by timestamp in descending order.
    • The order of attribute_columns may be inconsistent with that of the columns_to_get in the request.
    next_token This parameter specifies the position of a wide row in the next read operation. This function is unavailable.
  • Response format
    [
        'consumed' => [
            'capacity_unit' => [
                'read' => <integer>,
                'write' => <integer>
            ]
        ],
        'primary_key' => [ 
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>], 
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>],
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>, <PrimaryKeyType>]
        ],  
        'attribute_columns' => [
                ['<string>', <ColumnValue>, <ColumnType>, <integer>]
                ['<string>', <ColumnValue>, <ColumnType>, <integer>]
                ['<string>', <ColumnValue>, <ColumnType>, <integer>]
        ],
        'next_token' => '<string>'
    ]
                
  • Example 1

    The following code provides an example on how to read the latest version of data and the column:

    $request = [
        'table_name' => 'MyTable',
        'primary_key' => [ // Set the primary key.
            ['PK0', 123],
            ['PK1', 'abc']
        ],
        'max_versions' => 1,                     // Set this parameter to read the latest version.
        'columns_to_get' => ['Col0']             // Set the column to read.
    ];
    $response = $otsClient->getRow ($request);
                
  • Example 2

    The following code provides an example on how to use filter:

    $request = [
        'table_name' => 'MyTable',
        'primary_key' => [ // Set the primary key.
            ['PK0', 123],
            ['PK1', 'abc']
        ],
        'max_versions' => 1,                     // Set this parameter to read the latest version.
        'column_filter' => [                     // Set the filter to return a row if the value of Col0 is 0.
            'column_name' => 'Col0',
            'value' => 0,
            'comparator' => ComparatorTypeConst::CONST_EQUAL,
            'pass_if_missing' => false          // If the Col0 column does not exist, the row is not returned.
        ]
    ];
    $response = $otsClient->getRow ($request);
                

UpdateRow

You can call this operation to update data of a specified row. You can add or delete attribute columns of a row, delete a specified version of data from an attribute column, or update the existing data in an attribute column. If the row does not exist, a new row is added.
Note If the UpdateRow request contains only columns to delete, and the specified row does not exist, a new row is not added.
  • API operations
        /**
         * Update a row of data.
         * @api
         * @param [] $request The request parameters.
         * @return [] The response.
         * @throws OTSClientException The exception that is returned when a parameter error occurs or the Tablestore server returns a verification error.
         * @throws OTSServerException The exception that is returned when the Tablestore server returns an error.
         */
        public function updateRow(array $request);
                
  • Request parameters
    Parameter Description
    table_name The name of the table.
    condition You can use conditional update to set row existence conditions or column-based conditions. For more information, see Configure conditional update.
    primary_key The primary key of the row.
    Note The number and type of primary key columns configured must be consistent with those of primary key columns of the table.
    update_of_attribute_columns The attribute column to be updated.
    • To add an attribute column or update the value of an existing attribute column, you must specify the name, value and type (optional) of the attribute column, and a timestamp (optional).

      The timestamp is the version number of the data. It can be automatically generated or customized. If you do not specify this parameter, Tablestore automatically generates a timestamp. For more information, see Max versions and TTL.

      • The version number is calculated based on the number of milliseconds that have elapsed since 00:00:00 UTC on January 1, 1970.
      • If you choose to specify the version number, ensure that the version number is a 64-bit timestamp accurate to the millisecond within the valid version range.
    • You need only to set the name of the attribute column and the timestamp to delete a specified version of data in an attribute column.

      A timestamp is a 64-bit integer that indicates a specified version of data. Unit: milliseconds.

    • You need only to set the name of the attribute column to delete an attribute column.
      Note A row exists even if all attribute columns in the row are deleted. To delete a row, use the DeleteRow operation.
    return_content Specifies the data type to return.

    return_type: Set the value to ReturnTypeConst::CONST_PK, which returns the primary key values. This parameter is used for auto-increment primary key columns.

  • Request format
    $result = $client->updateRow([
        'table_name' => '<string>', // Set the table name.
        'condition' => [
            'row_existence' => <RowExistence>,
            'column_condition' => <ColumnCondition>
        ],
        'primary_key' => [                              // Set the primary key.
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>], 
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>],
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>, <PrimaryKeyType>]
        ], 
        'update_of_attribute_columns' => [         // Set the attribute column to update.
            'PUT' => [
                ['<string>', <ColumnValue>], 
                ['<string>', <ColumnValue>, <ColumnType>],
                ['<string>', <ColumnValue>, <ColumnType>, <integer>]
            ],
            'DELETE' => [
                ['<string>', <integer>], 
                ['<string>', <integer>], 
                ['<string>', <integer>], 
                ['<string>', <integer>]
            ],
            'DELETE_ALL' => [
                '<string>',
                '<string>',
                '<string>',
                '<string>'
            ],        
        ],
        'return_content' => [
            'return_type' => <ReturnType>
        ]
    ]);
                
  • Response parameters
    Parameter Description
    consumed The number of capacity units (CUs) consumed by this operation.
    capacity_unit: the read/write CUs.
    • read: read throughput
    • write: write throughput
    primary_key The value of the primary key, which is consistent with that in the request.
    Note If you set ReturnTypeConst::CONST_PK, the value of the primary key is returned.
    attribute_columns The value of the attribute column, which is consistent with that in the request. No attribute columns are returned in this example.
  • Response format
    [
        'consumed' => [
            'capacity_unit' => [
                'read' => <integer>,
                'write' => <integer>
            ]
        ],
        'primary_key' => [ 
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>], 
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>],
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>, <PrimaryKeyType>]
        ],  
        'attribute_columns' => []
    ]
                
  • Example 1

    The following code provides an example on how to update several columns, delete the specified version of a column, and delete the specified column:

    $request = [
        'table_name' => 'MyTable',
        'condition' => RowExistenceExpectationConst::CONST_IGNORE,
        'primary_key' => [ // Set the primary key.
            ['PK0', 123],
            ['PK1', 'abc']
        ],
        'update_of_attribute_columns' => [
            'PUT' => [                       // Update several columns.
                ['Col0', 100],
                ['Col1', 'Hello'],
                ['Col2', 'a binary', ColumnTypeConst::CONST_BINARY],
                ['Col3', 100, null, 1526418378526]
            ],
            'DELETE' => [                    // Delete a version of a column.
                ['Col10', 1526418378526]
            ],
            'DELETE_ALL' => [
                'Col11'                      // Delete a column.
            ]
        ]
    ];
    $response = $otsClient->updateRow($request);
                
  • Example 2

    The following code provides an example on how to configure update conditions:

    $request = [
        'table_name' => 'MyTable',
        'primary_key' => [ // Set the primary key.
            ['PK0', 123],
            ['PK1', 'abc']
        ],
        'condition' => [
            'row_existence' => RowExistenceExpectationConst::CONST_EXPECT_EXIST, // Update the row if it exists.
            'column_filter' => [                                                 // Update the row when the value of Col0 is greater than 100.
                'column_name' => 'Col0',
                'value' => 100,
                'comparator' => ComparatorTypeConst::CONST_GREATER_THAN
            ]
        ],    
        'update_of_attribute_columns' => [
            'PUT' => [                       // Update several columns.
                ['Col0', 100],
                ['Col1', 'Hello'],
                ['Col2', 'a binary', ColumnTypeConst::CONST_BINARY],
                ['Col3', 100, null, 1526418378526]
            ],
            'DELETE' => [                    // Delete a version of a column.
                ['Col10', 1526418378526]
            ],
            'DELETE_ALL' => [
                'Col11'                      // Delete a column.
            ]
        ]
    ];         

DeleteRow

You can call this operation to delete a row of data. If the specified row does not exist, no change is made to the table.

  • API operations
        /**
         * Delete a row of data.
         * @api
         * @param [] $request The request parameters.
         * @return [] The response. 
         * @throws OTSClientException The exception that is returned when a parameter error occurs or the Tablestore server returns a verification error.
         * @throws OTSServerException The exception that is returned when the Tablestore server returns an error.
         */
        public function deleteRow(array $request);
                
  • Request parameters
    Parameter Description
    table_name The name of the table.
    condition You can use conditional update to set row existence conditions or column-based conditions. For more information, see Configure conditional update.
    primary_key The primary key of the row.
    Note The number and type of primary key columns configured must be consistent with those of primary key columns of the table.
    return_content Specifies the data type to return.

    return_type: Set the value to ReturnTypeConst::CONST_PK, which returns the primary key values. This parameter is used for auto-increment primary key columns.

  • Request format
    $result = $client->deleteRow([
        'table_name' => '<string>', // Set the table name.
        'condition' => [
            'row_existence' => <RowExistence>,
            'column_condition' => <ColumnCondition>
        ],
        'primary_key' => [                              // Set the primary key.
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>], 
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>],
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>, <PrimaryKeyType>]
        ],
        'return_content' => [
            'return_type' => <ReturnType>
        ]
    ]);
                
  • Response parameters
    Parameter Description
    consumed The number of capacity units (CUs) consumed by this operation.
    capacity_unit: the read/write CUs.
    • read: read throughput
    • write: write throughput
    primary_key The value of the primary key, which is consistent with that in the request.
    Note If you set ReturnTypeConst::CONST_PK, the value of the primary key is returned.
    attribute_columns The value of the attribute column, which is consistent with that in the request. No attribute columns are returned in this example.
  • Response format
    [
        'consumed' => [
            'capacity_unit' => [
                'read' => <integer>,
                'write' => <integer>
            ]
        ],
        'primary_key' => [
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>], 
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>],
            ['<string>', <PrimaryKeyValue>, <PrimaryKeyType>]
        ],
        'attribute_columns' => []
    ]
                
  • Example 1

    The following code provides an example on how to delete a row of data:

    $request = [
        'table_name' => 'MyTable',
        'condition' => RowExistenceExpectationConst::CONST_IGNORE,
        'primary_key' => [ // Set the primary key.
            ['PK0', 123],
            ['PK1', 'abc']
        ],
        'return_content' => [
            'return_type' => ReturnTypeConst::CONST_PK     // Set return_type to return the value of the primary key for auto-increment primary key columns.
        ]
    ];
    $response = $otsClient->deleteRow($request);
                
  • Example 2

    The following code provides an example on how to set deletion conditions:

    $request = [
        'table_name' => 'MyTable',
        'condition' => [
            'row_existence' => RowExistenceExpectationConst::CONST_EXPECT_EXIST, // Delete the row if it exists.
            'column_filter' => [          // Delete the row when the value of Col0 is greater than 100.
                'column_name' => 'Col0',
                'value' => 100,
                'comparator' => ComparatorTypeConst::CONST_GREATER_THAN
            ],
        ],
        'primary_key' => [ // Set the primary key.
            ['PK0', 123],
            ['PK1', 'abc']
        ]
    ];
    $response = $otsClient->deleteRow ($request);