This topic describes how to collect NGINX logs and configure indexes. You can specify the required settings in the Log Service console.

Background information

The command log_format and access_log can be used to access NGINX logs. You can configure the commands in the /etc/nginx/nginx.conf file. The log_format command is used to specify the log format. The access_log command is used to specify the path at which the NGINX log files are saved.

  • Log format
    The following sample code shows the default format of the log_format command:
    log_format main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                     '$request_time $request_length '
                     '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                     '"$http_user_agent"';
    The following sample code shows the default format of the access_log command:
    access_log /var/logs/nginx/access.log main

    The following table describes the parameters of the log format.

    Field Description
    remote_addr The IP address of the client.
    remote_user The username of the client.
    request The request URL that is used to access the client.
    status HTTP status code.
    body_bytes_sent The number of bytes in the response that is returned to the client. The size of the response header is excluded. The value of this parameter is the same as the value of the bytes_sent parameter in the mod_log_config module of Apache.
    connection The serial number of the TCP connection.
    connection_requests The number of requests that is received over a TCP connection.
    msec The time when the log was written. Unit: seconds. It can be accurate to milliseconds.
    pipe Indicates whether the HTTP request is pipelined. If the HTTP request is pipelined, the parameter value is p. Otherwise, the parameter value is ..
    httpreferer The URL of the web page. The URL is linked to the resource that is requested.
    http_user_agent The browser information of the client. The information must be enclosed in double quotation marks (").
    request_length The length of the request. The length includes the request line, request header, and request body.
    request_time The period of time used to process requests from the client. Unit: seconds. It can be accurate to milliseconds. The time period starts when the first byte is read from the client and ends when the log is written after the last byte is sent to the client.
    time_local The system time of the server. The parameter must be enclosed in brackets [].
  • Log sample entry
    192.168.1.2 - - [10/Jul/2015:15:51:09 +0800] "GET /ubuntu.iso HTTP/1.0" 0.000 129 404 168 "-" "Wget/1.11.4 Red Hat modified"

Procedure

  1. Log on to the Log Service console.
  2. In the Import Data section, select Nginx - Text Log.
  3. In the Specify Logstore step, select the target project and Logstore, and click Next.
    You can also click Create Now to create a project and a Logstore. For more information, see Step 1: Create a project and a Logstore.
  4. In the Create Machine Group step, create a machine group.
    • If a machine group is available, click Using Existing Machine Groups.
    • This section uses ECS instances as an example to describe how to create a machine group. To create a machine group, perform the following steps:
      1. Install Logtail on ECS instances. For more information, see Install Logtail on ECS instances.

        If Logtail is installed on the ECS instances, click Complete Installation.

        Note If you need to collect logs from user-created clusters or servers of third-party cloud service providers, you must install Logtail on these servers. For more information, see Install Logtail in Linux or Install Logtail in Windows.
      2. After the installation is complete, click Complete Installation.
      3. On the page that appears, specify the parameters for the machine group. For more information, see Create an IP address-based machine group or Create a custom ID-based machine group.
  5. In the Machine Group Settings step, apply the configurations to the machine group.
    Select the created machine group and move the group from Source Server Groups to Applied Server Groups.
  6. In the Logtail Config step, create a Logtail configuration.
    Parameter Description
    Config Name The name of the Logtail configuration. The name cannot be modified after the Logtail configuration is created.

    You can also click Import Other Configuration to import Logtail configurations from other projects.

    Log Path The directory and name of the log file.
    The file names can be complete names or names that contain wildcards. For more information, visit Wildcard matching. The log files in all levels of subdirectories under a specified directory are monitored if the log files match the specified pattern. Examples:
    • /apsara/nuwa/ … /*.log indicates that the files whose extension is .log in the /apsara/nuwa directory and its subdirectories are monitored.
    • /var/logs/app_* … /*.log* indicates that each file that meets the following conditions is monitored: The file name contains .log. The file is stored in a subdirectory (at all levels) of the /var/logs directory. The name of the subdirectory matches the app_* pattern.
    Note
    • Each log file can be collected by using only one Logtail configuration file.
    • You can include only asterisks (*) and question marks (?) as wildcard characters in the log path.
    Blacklist If this switch is turned on, you can configure a blacklist in the Add Blacklist section. You can configure a blacklist to skip the specified directories or files during log data collection. The names of the specified directories and files support exact match and wildcard match. Examples:
    • If you select Filter by Directory from the Filter Type drop-down list and enter /tmp/mydir in the Content column, all files in the directory are skipped.
    • If you select Filter by File from the Filter Type drop-down list and enter /tmp/mydir/file in the Content column, only the specified file is skipped.
    Docker File If the file in the Docker container is a log file, you can directly specify the log path and container tags. Logtail automatically monitors the creation and destruction of containers, and collects log entries of the specified containers based on the specified tags. For more information about container text logs, see Use the console to collect Kubernetes text logs in the DaemonSet mode.
    Mode The default value is NGINX Configuration Mode. You can select other modes. For more information about how to configure other modes, see Overview.
    NGINX Log Configuration Enter the log configuration section that is specified in a standard NGINX configuration file. The section starts with the log_format command. Examples:
    log_format main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                     '$request_time $request_length '
                     '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                     '"$http_user_agent"';
    Regular expression Regular expression is automatically generated based on the contents that you entered for NGINX Log Configuration.
    Log sample entry Log sample entry is used to verify whether the NGINX log configuration matches the generated regular expression. Enter a sample NGINX log entry, and click Validate. If the validation is passed, the log sample entry is automatically extracted as the NGINX Key value.
    NGINX Key The NGINX key is automatically generated based on the NGINX log configuration.
    Drop Failed to Parse Logs
    • Specifies whether to drop failed-to-parse logs. If you enable the Drop Failed to Parse Logs feature, logs that fail to be parsed are not uploaded to Log Service.
    • If you disable the Drop Failed to Parse Logs feature, raw logs are uploaded to Log Service when the raw logs fail to be parsed.
    Maximum Directory Monitoring Depth The maximum number of directory layers that can be recursively monitored during log collection. Valid values: 0 to 1000. The value 0 indicates that only the directory specified in the Log Path parameter is monitored.
    You can configure advanced options based on your business requirements. We recommend that you do not modify the settings. The following table describes the parameters in the advanced options.
    Parameter Description
    Enable Plug-in Processing Specifies whether to enable the plug-in processing feature. If you enable this feature, plug-ins are used to process logs. For more information, see Process data.
    Upload Raw Log Specifies whether to upload raw logs. If you enable this feature, raw logs are written to the __raw__ field and uploaded together with the parsed logs.
    Topic Generation Mode
    • Null - Do not generate topic: This mode is selected by default. In this mode, the topic field is set to an empty string. You can query logs without the need to enter a topic.
    • Machine Group Topic Attributes: This mode is used to differentiate logs that are generated by different servers.
    • File Path Regex: In this mode, you must configure a regular expression in the Custom RegEx field. The part of a log path that matches the regular expression is used as the topic name. This mode is used to differentiate logs that are generated by different users or instances.
    Log File Encoding
    • utf8: indicates that UTF-8 encoding is used.
    • gbk: indicates that GBK encoding is used.
    Timezone The time zone where logs are collected. Valid values:
    • System Timezone: This option is selected by default. It indicates that the time zone where logs are collected is the same as the time zone to which the server belongs.
    • Custom: Select a time zone.
    Timeout The timeout period of log files. If a log file is not updated within the specified period, Logtail considers the file to be timed out. Valid values:
    • Never: All log files are continuously monitored and never time out.
    • 30 Minute Timeout: If a log file is not updated within 30 minutes, Logtail considers the file to be timed out and no longer monitors the file.

      If you select 30 Minute Timeout, you must specify the Maximum Timeout Directory Depth parameter. Valid values: 1 to 3.

    Filter Configuration The filter conditions that are used to collect logs. Only logs that match the specified filter conditions are collected. Examples:
    • Collect logs that meet a condition: Specify the filter condition to Key:level Regex:WARNING|ERROR if you need to collect only logs of only the WARNING or ERROR severity level.
    • Filter out logs that do not meet a condition:
      • Specify the filter condition to Key:level Regex:^(?!. *(INFO|DEBUG)). * if you need to filter out logs of the INFO or DEBUG severity level.
      • Specify the filter condition to Key:url Regex:. *^(?!.*(healthcheck)). * if you need to filter out logs whose URL contains the keyword healthcheck. For example, logs in which the value of the url key is /inner/healthcheck/jiankong.html are not collected.

    For more examples, visit regex-exclude-word and regex-exclude-pattern.

  7. In the Configure Query and Analysis step, configure the indexes.
    Indexes are configured by default. You can re-configure the indexes based on your business requirements. For more information, see Enable and configure the index feature for a Logstore.
    Note
    • You must configure Full Text Index or Field Search. If you configure both of them, the settings of Field Search are applied.
    • If the data type of index is long or double, the Case Sensitive and Delimiter settings are unavailable.

After all configurations are completed, Log Service starts to collect logs.