This topic describes how to create a managed Kubernetes cluster with field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-accelerated nodes in the Container Service for Kubernetes (ACK) console.

Prerequisites

  • Select the region where you want to create a managed Kubernetes cluster with FPGA-accelerated nodes. Only specific regions and zones support FPGA-accelerated Elastic Compute Service (ECS) instances. For more information, see ECS instance types available for each region.
  • FPGA-accelerated ECS instances must use an image that provides the Xilinx development environment. This image can be only shared to users by the FPGA as a service (FaaS) team.Submit a ticket to the FaaS team to use this image.
  • Clone a custom image named faas_f3 from the shared image. For more information, see Copy custom images.

Background information

You must perform the following steps in the ACK console to create an ACK cluster:

  • Create ECS instances, configure a public key to enable Secure Shell (SSH) logon from master nodes to other nodes, and then configure the ACK cluster by using cloud-init.
  • Create a security group that allows access to a VPC network through Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP).
  • Select a VPC network for the cluster. If no VPC network is available or you do not want to use an existing VPC network, create a VPC network and VSwitches, and create Source Network Address Translation (SNAT) entries for the VSwitches.
  • Add route entries to the VPC network.
  • Create a Network Address Translation (NAT) gateway and EIPs.
  • Create a Resource Access Management (RAM) user and an AccessKey pair. Grant the following permissions to the RAM user: permissions to query, create, and delete ECS instances, permissions to add and delete cloud disks, and full permissions on SLB, Cloud Monitor, VPC, Log Service, and Network Attached Storage (NAS). The ACK cluster automatically creates SLB instances, cloud disks, and VPC routing entries based on your configurations.
  • Create an internal SLB instance and open port 6443.
  • Create a public-facing SLB instance and open ports 6443, 8443, and 22. If you enable SSH logon when you create the cluster, port 22 is opened. Otherwise, port 22 is closed.

Limits

  • SLB instances that are created together with the ACK cluster support only the pay-as-you-go billing method.
  • ACK clusters support only VPC networks.
  • Each account can consume only a limited amount of computing resources. You fail to create clusters if you do not have sufficient computing resources. When you create clusters, make sure that you have sufficient resources.

    To increase the quota of computing resources for your account, submit a ticket.

    • You can create up to 50 clusters across regions for each account. You can deploy up to 100 nodes in each cluster. To increase the quota of clusters or nodes for your account, submit a ticket.
      Notice By default, you can add up to 48 route entries to each VPC network in an ACK cluster. This means that you can deploy up to 48 nodes in an ACK cluster that uses Flannel. An ACK cluster that uses Terway is not subject to this limit. To increase the quota of route entries for a VPC network, submit a ticket.
    • You can create up to 100 security groups under each account.
    • You can create up to 60 pay-as-you-go SLB instances under each account.
    • You can create up to 20 EIPs under each account.
  • Limits on ECS instances:

    The pay-as-you-go and subscription billing methods are supported.

    Note After an ECS instance is created, you can change its billing method from pay-as-you-go to subscription in the ECS console. For more information, see Change the billing method of an instance from pay-as-you-go to subscription.

Procedure

  1. Log on to the ACK console.
  2. In the left-side navigation pane, click Clusters.
  3. In the upper-right corner of the Clusters page, click Cluster Templates.
  4. In the Select Cluster Template dialog box, find Heterogeneous Computing Cluster in the Managed Clusters section and click Create.
  5. On the Managed Kubernetes tab, configure the cluster.
    1. Configure basic settings of the cluster.
      Parameter Description
      Cluster Name Enter a name for the cluster.
      Note The name must be 1 to 63 characters in length, and can contain digits, letters, and hyphens (-).
      Cluster Specification Select the required edition. By default, the Standard edition is selected.
      Region Select the region where you want to deploy the cluster.
      Resource Group Move the pointer over All Resources at the top of the page and select the resource group to which the cluster belongs. The name of the selected resource group is displayed in the Resource Group field.Resource group
      Kubernetes Version Select a Kubernetes version. The following versions are supported: 1.18.8-aliyun.1 and 1.16.9-aliyun.1.
      Container Runtime
      The containerd, Docker, and Sandboxed-Container runtimes are supported. For more information, see How do I choose between Docker and Sandboxed-Container?.
      Note The containerd runtime is in public preview. To use containerd, Submit a ticket to apply for it to be available for your account.
      VPC Select a virtual private cloud (VPC) to deploy the cluster. Shared VPCs and standard VPCs are supported.
      • Shared VPC: The owner of a VPC (resource owner) can share vSwitches in the VPC with other accounts in the same organization.
      • Standard VPC: The owner of a VPC (resource owner) cannot share vSwitches in the VPC with other accounts.
      Note ACK clusters support only VPCs. You can select a VPC from the drop-down list. If no VPC is available, click Create VPC to create one. For more information, see Work with VPCs.
      VSwitch Set the vSwitch.

      You can select up to three vSwitches that are deployed in different zones. If no vSwitch is available, click Create VSwitch to create one. For more information, see Create a vSwitch.

      Network Plug-in Select and configure the network plug-in. Flannel and Terway are available. For more information, see Work with Terway.
      • Flannel: an open source Container Network Interface (CNI) plug-in, which is simple and stable. Flannel provides a few simple features. However, it does not support standard Kubernetes network policies.
      • Terway: a network plug-in developed by Alibaba Cloud for ACK. Terway allows you to assign Alibaba Cloud elastic network interfaces (ENIs) to containers and use standard Kubernetes network policies to regulate how containers communicate with each other. Terway also supports bandwidth throttling on individual containers.
        Note
        • The number of pods that can be deployed on a node depends on the number of ENIs that are attached to the node and the maximum number of secondary IP addresses provided by these ENIs.
        • If you select a shared VPC for the cluster, you must select the Terway plug-in.
      Pod CIDR Block If you select Flannel, you must set the Pod CIDR Block parameter.

      The CIDR block specified by Pod CIDR Block cannot overlap with that of the VPC or the CIDR blocks of existing ACK clusters in the VPC. After you create the cluster, you cannot modify the pod CIDR block. In addition, the Service CIDR block cannot overlap with the pod CIDR block. For more information about subnetting for ACK clusters, see Plan CIDR blocks for an ACK cluster.

      Terway Mode If you select Terway, the Terway Mode parameter is available.
      When you set Terway Mode, you can select or clear Assign One ENI to Each Pod.
      • If you select Assign One ENI to Each Pod, an ENI is assigned to each pod.
      • If you clear Assign One ENI to Each Pod, an ENI is shared among multiple pods. A secondary IP address of the ENI is assigned to each pod.
      Note This feature is available to only users in the whitelist. To apply to be added to the whitelist, submit a ticket.
      Service CIDR Set the Service CIDR parameter. The CIDR block specified by Service CIDR cannot overlap with that of the VPC or the CIDR blocks of existing ACK clusters in the VPC. After you create the cluster, you cannot modify the Service CIDR block. In addition, the Service CIDR block cannot overlap with the pod CIDR block. For more information about subnetting for ACK clusters, see Plan CIDR blocks for an ACK cluster.
      IP Addresses per Node If you select Flannel, you must specify a value for the IP Addresses per Node parameter.
      Note IP Addresses per Node specifies the maximum number of IP addresses that can be assigned to each node. We recommend that you use the default value.
      Configure SNAT Specify whether to configure Source Network Address Translation (SNAT) rules for the VPC.
      • If the specified VPC has a Network Address Translation (NAT) gateway, ACK uses this NAT gateway.
      • Otherwise, the system automatically creates a NAT gateway. If you do not want the system to create a NAT gateway, clear Configure SNAT for VPC. In this case, you must manually create a NAT gateway and configure SNAT rules to enable Internet access for the VPC. Otherwise, ACK clusters in the VPC cannot access the Internet and the cluster cannot be created.
      Access to API Server
      By default, an internal-facing Server Load Balancer (SLB) instance is created for the cluster API server. You can modify the specifications of the SLB instance. For more information, see Instance types and specifications.
      Notice If you delete the SLB instance, you cannot access the API server.
      Select or clear Expose API Server with EIP. The ACK API server provides multiple HTTP-based RESTful APIs, which can be used to create, delete, modify, query, and monitor resources, such as pods and Services.
      • If you select this check box, an elastic IP address (EIP) is created and associated with an Internet-facing SLB instance. Port 6443 used by the API server is opened on master nodes. You can connect to and manage the ACK cluster by using kubeconfig over the Internet.
      • If you clear this check box, no EIP is created. You can connect to and manage the ACK cluster only by using kubeconfig from within the VPC.
      RDS Whitelist Set the Relational Database Service (RDS) whitelist. Add the IP addresses of the nodes in the cluster to the RDS whitelist.
      Security Group

      You can select Create Basic Security Group, Create Advanced Security Group, or Select Existing Security Group. For more information, see Overview.

    2. Configure advanced settings of the cluster.
      Parameter Description
      Kube-proxy Mode
      iptables and IPVS are supported.
      • iptables is a mature and stable kube-proxy mode. It uses iptables rules to conduct service discovery and load balancing. The performance of this mode is restricted by the size of the ACK cluster. This mode is suitable for ACK clusters that manage a small number of Services.
      • IPVS is a high-performance kube-proxy mode. It uses Linux Virtual Server (LVS) to conduct service discovery and load balancing. This mode is suitable for ACK clusters that manage a large number of Services. We recommend that you use this mode in scenarios where high-performance load balancing is required.
      Labels
      Add labels to the nodes in the cluster. Enter a key and a value, and click Add.
      Note
      • Key is required. Value is optional.
      • Keys are not case-sensitive. A key must be 1 to 64 characters in length, and cannot start with aliyun, http://, or https://.
      • Values are not case-sensitive. A value can be empty and can contain up to 128 characters in length. It cannot be http:// or https://.
      • The keys of labels that are added to the same resource must be unique. If you add a label with a used key, the label overwrites the one that uses the same key.
      • You can add up to 20 labels to each resource. If you add more than 20 labels to a resource, all labels become invalid. You must remove excess labels for the remaining labels to take effect.
      Cluster Domain
      Set the domain name of the cluster.
      Note The default domain name is cluster.local. You can enter a custom domain name. A domain name consists of two parts. Each part must be 1 to 63 characters in length and can contain only letters and digits. You cannot leave these parts empty.
      Custom Certificate SANs

      You can enter custom subject alternative names (SANs) for the API server certificate of the cluster to accept requests from specified IP addresses or domain names.

      Service Account Token Volume Projection

      Service account token volume projection reduces security risks when pods use service accounts to access the API server. This feature enables kubelet to request and store the token on behalf of the pod. This feature also allows you to configure token properties, such as the audience and validity duration. For more information, see Enable service account token volume projection.

      Deletion Protection

      Specify whether to enable deletion protection. If you select this check box, the ACK cluster cannot be deleted in the console or by calling the API. This prevents user errors.

  6. Click Next:Worker Configurations to configure worker nodes.
    1. Select ECS instances for worker nodes.
      • If you select Create Instance, you must set the parameters that are described in the following table.
        Parameter Description
        Billing Method The following billing methods are supported: Pay-As-You-Go and Subscription.
        Duration If you select Subscription, you must specify the subscription duration. You can select 1, 2, 3, or 6 months, or 1 to 5 years.
        Auto Renewal If you select Subscription, you must specify whether to enable Auto Renewal.
        Instance Type Choose Heterogeneous Computing GPU/FPGA/NPU > Compute Optimized Type with FPGA. In the list of available instance types, select one or more required instance types. For more information, see Instance families.
        Note If no instance type is available, you can change the vSwitch on the Cluster Configurations wizard page.
        Heterogeneous computing
        Selected Types

        The selected ECS instance types are displayed.

        Quantity

        Specify the number of worker nodes (ECS instances) to be created.

        System Disk
        Enhanced SSDs, SSDs, and ultra disks are supported.
        Note
        • You can select Enable Backup to back up disk data.
        • If you select an enhanced SSD as the system disk, you can also set a custom performance level for the disk.

          You can select higher performance levels for enhanced SSDs with larger storage capacities. For example, you can select performance level 2 for an enhanced SSD with a storage capacity of more than 460 GiB. You can select performance level 3 for an enhanced SSD with a storage capacity of more than 1,260 GiB. For more information, see Capacity and PLs.

        Mount Data Disk

        ESSD Disk, SSD Disk, and Ultra Disk are supported. You can select Encrypt Disk and Enable Backup when you mount data disks.

        Operating System
        ACK supports the following node operating systems:
        • Alibaba Cloud Linux 2. This is the default operating system.
        • CentOS 7.x
          Note CentOS 8.x and later are not supported.
        Logon Type
        • Use a key pair.

          You must select a key pair that is used to log on to the cluster when you create the cluster. If no key pair is available, click create a key pair to create one in the ECS console. For more information, see Create an SSH key pair. After the key pair is created, specify it as the credential to log on to the cluster.

        • Use a password.
          • Password: Enter the password that is used to log on to the nodes.
          • Confirm Password: Enter the password again.
        Key Pair
      • If you select Add Existing Instance, you must select ECS instances that are deployed in the specified region. Then, set the Operating System, Logon Type, and Key Pair parameters in the same way as you create ECS instances.
    2. Configure advanced settings for worker nodes.
      Parameter Description
      Node Protection
      Specify whether to enable node protection.
      Note By default, this check box is selected. This way, the nodes in the cluster cannot be deleted in the console or by calling the API. This prevents user errors.
      User Data

      For more information, see Prepare user data.

      Custom Image
      You can select a custom image for your nodes. After you select the faas_f3 image, all nodes in the cluster are deployed by using this image. For more information about how to create a custom image, see Create a Kubernetes cluster by using a custom image. Custom Image
      Note
      • Only custom images based on CentOS 7.x and Alibaba Cloud Linux 2.x are supported.
      • To use custom images, submit a ticket to apply to be added to the whitelist.
      Custom Node Name

      Specify whether to use a custom node name.

      A node name consists of a prefix, an IP substring, and a suffix.
      • Both the prefix and suffix can contain one or more parts that are separated with periods (.).These parts can contain lowercase letters, digits, and hyphens (-), and must start and end with a lowercase letter or digit.
      • The IP substring length specifies the number of digits to be truncated from the end of the returned node IP address. Valid values: 5 to 12.

      For example, if the node IP address is 192.1xx.x.xx, the prefix is aliyun.com, the IP substring length is 5, and the suffix is test, the node name will be aliyun.com00055test.

      CPU Policy
      Set the CPU policy.
      • none: This policy indicates that the default CPU affinity is used. This is the default policy.
      • Static: allows pods with specific resource characteristics on the node to be granted with enhanced CPU affinity and exclusivity.
      Taints

      Add taints to the worker nodes in the ACK cluster.

  7. Click Next:Component Configurations to configure components.
    Parameter Description
    Ingress Specify whether to install Ingress controllers. By default, Install Ingress Controllers is selected. For more information, see Configure an Ingress.
    Note If you want to select Create Ingress Dashboard, you must first enable Log Service.
    Volume Plug-in Select a volume plug-in. FlexVolume and CSI are supported. ACK clusters can be automatically bound to Alibaba Cloud disks, Apsara File Storage NAS (NAS) file systems, and Object Storage Service (OSS) buckets that are mounted to pods. For more information, see Storage management-Flexvolume and Storage management-CSI.
    Monitoring Agents

    Specify whether to install the Cloud Monitor agent. By default, Install CloudMonitor Agent on ECS Instance and Enable Prometheus Monitoring are selected. After the Cloud Monitor agent is installed on ECS instance-based nodes, you can view monitoring data about the nodes in the Cloud Monitor console.

    Log Service

    Specify whether to enable Log Service. You can select an existing Log Service project or create a new one. By default, Enable Log Service is selected. When you create an application, you can activate Log Service through a few steps. For more information, see Use Log Service to collect container logs.

    After you select Enable Log Service, you can specify whether to select Create Ingress Dashboard and Install node-problem-detector and Create Event Center.

    Workflow Engine Specify whether to enable Alibaba Cloud Genomics Compute Service (AGS).
    • If you select this check box, the system automatically installs the AGS workflow plug-in when the system creates the cluster.
    • If you clear this check box, you must manually install the AGS workflow plug-in. For more information, see Introduction to AGS CLI.
  8. Click Next:Confirm Order.
  9. Select Terms of Service and click Create Cluster.
    Note It requires about 10 minutes for the system to create an ACK cluster that contains multiple nodes.
    After the cluster is created, navigate to the Clusters page, find the created cluster, and then click the cluster name or click Details in the Actions column. In the left-side navigation pane, choose Nodes > Nodes. On the Nodes page, select a worker node and choose More > Details in the Actions column. On the page that appears, click YAML in the upper-right corner to view the FPGA resources that are mounted to the node. FPGA resources