Elastic Stack provides the integrated monitoring feature. This feature allows you to use Kibana to analyze and display the logs, metrics, and application performance monitoring (APM) data of a Container Service for Kubernetes (ACK) cluster in a centralized manner. If you deploy your applications in the pods of an ACK cluster, you can view the logs generated by the pods, event metrics of the hosts and network, and APM data in the Kibana console. This facilitates troubleshooting. This topic describes how to implement integrated monitoring for an ACK cluster.

Prerequisites

Background information

This topic describes how to use Elastic Stack to implement integrated monitoring for an ACK cluster. For more information, see the following sections:

For more information about the features of Metricbeat, Filebeat, and Elastic APM, see Infrastructure monitoring, Log monitoring, and Elastic APM.

Use Metricbeat to collect metrics

The following controllers can be used to deploy Metricbeat to the ACK cluster:
  • DaemonSet: The DaemonSet controller ensures that each node in the cluster runs one pod. This enables Metricbeat to collect host metrics, system metrics, Docker statistics, and the metrics of all the services that are run on the ACK cluster.
  • Deployment: You can use the Deployment controller to deploy a single Metricbeat shipper. The shipper is used to retrieve the unique metrics of the ACK cluster, such as metrics for Kubernetes events and the kube-state-metrics service.
Notice
  • In this example, both the DaemonSet and Deployment controllers are used to deploy Metricbeat to the ACK cluster. You can also use only the DaemonSet or Deployment controller to deploy Metricbeat.
  • Metricbeat depends on the monitoring feature provided by the kube-state-metrics service. Before you deploy Metricbeat, you must make sure that kube-state-metrics is deployed. By default, kube-state-metrics is deployed in the arms-prom namespace of a container in an ACK cluster.
  1. Use the kubectl client to access the ACK cluster and download the Metricbeat configuration file.
    curl -L -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/elastic/beats/6.8/deploy/kubernetes/metricbeat-kubernetes.yaml
  2. Modify the Metricbeat configuration file.
    Notice

    The official Metricbeat configuration file uses the extensions/v1beta1 API version for DaemonSets and Deployments. This API version is deprecated in ACK V1.18 and later. You must modify the Metricbeat configuration file to use the apps/v1 API version for Kubernetes, DaemonSets, Deployments, and ReplicaSets in ACK V1.18 and later.

    1. Modify the configurations in kind: Deployment and kind: DaemonSet.
      • Modify environment variables. The following code provides an example:
        env:
        - name: ELASTICSEARCH_HOST
          value: es-cn-nif23p3mo0065****.elasticsearch.aliyuncs.com
        - name: ELASTICSEARCH_PORT
          value: "9200"
        - name: ELASTICSEARCH_USERNAME
          value: elastic
        - name: ELASTICSEARCH_PASSWORD
          value: ****
        - name: KIBANA_HOST
          value: es-cn-nif23p3mo0065****-kibana.internal.elasticsearch.aliyuncs.com
        - name: KIBANA_PORT
          value: "5601"
        Notice By default, Kibana variables are not defined in the downloaded Metricbeat configuration file. You can use the env parameter to pass the variables.
        Parameter Description
        ELASTICSEARCH_HOST The internal endpoint of your Elasticsearch cluster.
        ELASTICSEARCH_PORT The private port of your Elasticsearch cluster.
        ELASTICSEARCH_USERNAME The username of your Elasticsearch cluster. The default value of this parameter is elastic.
        ELASTICSEARCH_PASSWORD The password that corresponds to the elastic username.
        KIBANA_HOST The internal endpoint of Kibana.
        KIBANA_PORT The private port of Kibana.
      • Add the spec.selector configurations. The following code provides an example:
        ## kind: DaemonSet
        spec:
          selector:
            matchLabels:
               k8s-app: metricbeat
          template:
            metadata:
              labels:
                k8s-app: metricbeat
        
        ## kind: Deployment
        spec:
          selector:
            matchLabels:
               k8s-app: metricbeat
          template:
            metadata:
              labels:
                k8s-app: metricbeat
    2. Configure the Kibana output information in name: metricbeat-daemonset-config and name: metricbeat-deployment-config to use the environment variables that are configured in the configuration file.
      output.elasticsearch:
            hosts: ['${ELASTICSEARCH_HOST:elasticsearch}:${ELASTICSEARCH_PORT:9200}']
            username: ${ELASTICSEARCH_USERNAME}
            password: ${ELASTICSEARCH_PASSWORD}
      setup.kibana:
            host: "https://${KIBANA_HOST}:${KIBANA_PORT}"
      setup.dashboards.enabled: true
    3. Modify configurations related to metricbeat-daemonset-modules. Define the system metrics monitored by the System module and the metrics that can be obtained by the Kubernetes module. The System module monitors the following metrics: CPU, load, memory, and network.
      Note For more information about the configurations and metrics of modules in Metricbeat, see System module and Kubernetes module.
      apiVersion: v1
      kind: ConfigMap
      metadata:
        name: metricbeat-daemonset-modules
        namespace: kube-system
        labels:
          k8s-app: metricbeat
      data:
        system.yml: |-
          - module: system
            period: 10s
            metricsets:
              - cpu
              - load
              - memory
              - network
              - process
              - process_summary
              - core
              - diskio
              - socket
            processes: ['.*']
            process.include_top_n:
              by_cpu: 5      # include top 5 processes by CPU
              by_memory: 5   # include top 5 processes by memory
      
          - module: system
            period: 1m
            metricsets:
              - filesystem
              - fsstat
            processors:
            - drop_event.when.regexp:
                system.filesystem.mount_point: '^/(sys|cgroup|proc|dev|etc|host|lib)($|/)'
        kubernetes.yml: |-
          - module: kubernetes
            metricsets:
              - node
              - system
              - pod
              - container
              - volume
            period: 10s
            host: ${NODE_NAME}
            hosts: ["localhost:10255"]
    4. Modify configurations related to metricbeat-deployment-modules to obtain the metrics for kube-state-metrics and Kubernetes events.
      Notice The Metricbeat service is deployed in the kube-system namespace. The kube-state-metrics service is deployed in the arms-prom namespace by default. The two services belong to different namespaces. Therefore, specify the hosts parameter in the format of kube-state-metrics.<namespace>:8080. If the Metricbeat and kube-state-metrics services are deployed in the same namespace, set the hosts parameter to kube-state-metrics:8080.
      apiVersion: v1
      kind: ConfigMap
      metadata:
        name: metricbeat-deployment-modules
        namespace: kube-system
        labels:
          k8s-app: metricbeat
      data:
        # This module requires `kube-state-metrics` up and running under `kube-system` namespace
        kubernetes.yml: |-
          - module: kubernetes
            metricsets:
              - state_node
              - state_deployment
              - state_replicaset
              - state_pod
              - state_container
            period: 10s
            host: ${NODE_NAME}
            hosts: ["kube-state-metrics.arms-prom:8080"]
          # Uncomment this to get k8s events:
          - module: kubernetes
            metricsets:
              - event
    5. Create a role and assign the role to Metricbeat to implement role-based access control (RBAC). This ensures that Metricbeat can obtain the resource information of the ACK cluster.
      apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
      kind: ClusterRoleBinding
      metadata:
        name: metricbeat
      subjects:
      - kind: ServiceAccount
        name: metricbeat
        namespace: kube-system
      roleRef:
        kind: ClusterRole
        name: metricbeat
        apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
      ---
      apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
      kind: ClusterRole
      metadata:
        name: metricbeat
        labels:
          k8s-app: metricbeat
      rules:
      - apiGroups: [""]
        resources:
        - nodes
        - namespaces
        - events
        - pods
        verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
      - apiGroups: ["extensions"]
        resources:
        - replicasets
        verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
      - apiGroups: ["apps"]
        resources:
        - statefulsets
        - deployments
        verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
      - apiGroups:
        - ""
        resources:
        - nodes/stats
        verbs:
        - get
      ---
      apiVersion: v1
      kind: ServiceAccount
      metadata:
        name: metricbeat
        namespace: kube-system
        labels:
          k8s-app: metricbeat
      ---
  3. Deploy Metricbeat in the ACK cluster and view the resources of the cluster.

    Use the kubectl client to run the following commands:

    kubectl apply -f metricbeat-kubernetes.yaml
    kubectl get pods -n kube-system
    Notice You must make sure that the resources in the pods are running. Otherwise, data may not be displayed in the Kibana console.
  4. View the monitored data in the Kibana console.
    1. Log on to the Kibana console of your Elasticsearch cluster.
      For more information, see Log on to the Kibana console.
    2. In the left-side navigation pane, click Infrastructure.
    3. View the statistics on the metrics of the hosts and pods in the ACK cluster.
      • View the statistics on the metrics of the hosts: On the Infrastructure page, click Hosts in the upper-right corner. On the Map View tab, click a host and select View metrics. Then, you can view the statistics on the CPU, load, and memory metrics.
        Hosts Host metrics
      • View the statistics on the metrics of the pods in the ACK cluster: On the Infrastructure page, click Kubernetes in the upper-right corner. On the Map View tab, click a pod and select View metrics. Then, you can view the statistics on the CPU, memory, and network metrics.
        Pod metrics
    4. View the overall statistics on the resources of the ACK cluster.

      Click Dashboard in the left-side navigation pane. On the Dashboards page, click [Metricbeat Kubernetes] Overview. Then, you can view the overall statistics on the resources of the ACK cluster.

      Overview

Use Filebeat to collect logs

In this example, the DaemonSet controller is used to deploy Filebeat. The DaemonSet controller ensures that each node of the ACK cluster runs a pod to collect data. The resources in the Filebeat configuration file are deployed in the kube-system namespace. If you want to change the namespace in which the resources are deployed, you can modify the configuration file.

  1. Download the Filebeat configuration file.
    Use the kubectl client to access the ACK cluster and download the Filebeat configuration file.
    curl -L -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/elastic/beats/6.8/deploy/kubernetes/filebeat-kubernetes.yaml
  2. Modify the Filebeat configuration file.
    1. Modify the configurations in kind: DaemonSet.
      env:
      - name: ELASTICSEARCH_HOST
        value: es-cn-nif23p3mo0065****.elasticsearch.aliyuncs.com
      - name: ELASTICSEARCH_PORT
        value: "9200"
      - name: ELASTICSEARCH_USERNAME
        value: elastic
      - name: ELASTICSEARCH_PASSWORD
        value: ****
      - name: KIBANA_HOST
        value: es-cn-nif23p3mo0065****-kibana.internal.elasticsearch.aliyuncs.com
      - name: KIBANA_PORT
        value: "5601"
      - name: NODE_NAME
        valueFrom:
           fieldRef:
              fieldPath: spec.nodeName
      Parameter Description
      ELASTICSEARCH_HOST The internal endpoint of your Elasticsearch cluster.
      ELASTICSEARCH_PORT The private port of your Elasticsearch cluster.
      ELASTICSEARCH_USERNAME The username of your Elasticsearch cluster. The default value of this parameter is elastic.
      ELASTICSEARCH_PASSWORD The password that corresponds to the elastic username.
      KIBANA_HOST The internal endpoint of Kibana.
      KIBANA_PORT The private port of Kibana.
      NODE_NAME The hosts in the ACK cluster.
    2. Change the ConfigMap configurations in name: filebeat-config and configure the Kibana output information to use the environment variables configured in the configuration file.
      output.elasticsearch:
            hosts: ['${ELASTICSEARCH_HOST:elasticsearch}:${ELASTICSEARCH_PORT:9200}']
            username: ${ELASTICSEARCH_USERNAME}
            password: ${ELASTICSEARCH_PASSWORD}
      setup.kibana:
            host: "https://${KIBANA_HOST}:${KIBANA_PORT}"
    3. Configure Filebeat to collect logs from the containers in the ACK cluster.
      apiVersion: v1
      kind: ConfigMap
      metadata:
        name: filebeat-inputs
        namespace: kube-system
        labels:
          k8s-app: filebeat
      data:
        kubernetes.yml: |-
          - type: docker
            containers.ids:
            - "*"
            processors:
              - add_kubernetes_metadata:
                  host: ${NODE_NAME}
                  in_cluster: true
      ---
  3. Deploy Filebeat in the ACK cluster and view the resources of the cluster.

    Use the kubectl client to run the following commands:

    kubectl apply -f filebeat-kubernetes.yaml
    kubectl get pods -n kube-system
    Notice You must make sure that the resources in the pods are running. Otherwise, data may not be displayed in the Kibana console.
  4. View real-time logs in the Kibana console.
    1. Log on to the Kibana console of your Elasticsearch cluster.
      For more information, see Log on to the Kibana console.
    2. View the logs of the hosts and pods in the ACK cluster.
      • View the logs of the hosts: On the Infrastructure page, click Hosts in the upper-right corner. On the Map View tab, click a host and select View logs. Then, you can view the real-time logs of the host.
      • View the logs of the pods in the ACK cluster: On the Infrastructure page, click Kubernetes in the upper-right corner. On the Map View tab, click a pod and select View logs. Then, you can view the real-time logs of the pod.
        View logs

Use Elastic APM to monitor the performance of applications

Elastic APM is an application performance monitoring system built on Elastic Stack. Elastic APM allows you to monitor software services and applications in real time. To implement monitoring and facilitate troubleshooting, Elastic APM collects detailed performance information about response time for requests, database queries, calls to caches, and external HTTP requests. Elastic APM also automatically collects unhandled errors and exceptions. Errors are grouped based on the stacktrace. This helps you identify new errors and understand the number of times specific errors occur.

For more information about Elastic APM, see Elastic APM Overview.

  1. Deploy APM Server to a container.
    In this example, APM Server is deployed in the ACK cluster. You can use a ConfigMap controller to define the apm-server.yml file and start APM Server by initializing the pods. Then, you can use a Service object to implement service self-discovery and load balancing.
    1. Configure the apm-server-yml file.

      The file contains the following code:

      ---
      apiVersion: v1
      kind: ConfigMap
      metadata:
        name: apm-deployment-config
        namespace: kube-system
        labels:
          k8s-app: apmserver
      data:
        apm-server.yml: |-
            apm-server.host: "0.0.0.0:8200" 
            output.elasticsearch:
               hosts: ['${ELASTICSEARCH_HOST:elasticsearch}:${ELASTICSEARCH_PORT:9200}']
               username: ${ELASTICSEARCH_USERNAME}
               password: ${ELASTICSEARCH_PASSWORD}
            setup.kibana:
               host: "https://${KIBANA_HOST}:${KIBANA_PORT}"
      
      ---
      apiVersion: apps/v1
      kind: Deployment
      metadata:
        name: apmserver
        namespace: kube-system
        labels:
          k8s-app: apmserver
      spec:
        selector:
          matchLabels:
             k8s-app: apmserver
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              k8s-app: apmserver
          spec:
            serviceAccountName: apmserver
            hostNetwork: true
            dnsPolicy: ClusterFirstWithHostNet
            containers:
            - name: apmserver
              image: docker.elastic.co/apm/apm-server:6.8.14
              args: [
                "-c", "/etc/apm-server.yml",
                "-e",
              ]
              env:
              - name: ELASTICSEARCH_HOST
                value: es-cn-oew20i5h90006****.elasticsearch.aliyuncs.com
              - name: ELASTICSEARCH_PORT
                value: "9200"
              - name: ELASTICSEARCH_USERNAME
                value: elastic
              - name: ELASTICSEARCH_PASSWORD
                value: ****
              - name: KIBANA_HOST
                value: es-cn-oew20i5h90006****-kibana.internal.elasticsearch.aliyuncs.com
              - name: KIBANA_PORT
                value: "5601"
              - name: NODE_NAME
                valueFrom:
                  fieldRef:
                    fieldPath: spec.nodeName
              securityContext:
                runAsUser: 0
              resources:
                limits:
                  memory: 50Mi
                requests:
                  cpu: 20m
                  memory: 30Mi
              volumeMounts:
              - name: config
                mountPath: /etc/apm-server.yml
                readOnly: true
                subPath: apm-server.yml
            volumes:
            - name: config
              configMap:
                defaultMode: 0600
                name: apm-deployment-config
      ---
      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Service
      metadata:
        name: apmserver
        namespace: kube-system
        labels:
          k8s-app: apmserver
      spec:
        clusterIP: None
        ports:
        - name: http-metrics
          port: 8200
          targetPort: 8200
        selector:
          k8s-app: apmserver
      ---
      apiVersion: v1
      kind: ServiceAccount
      metadata:
        name: apmserver
        namespace: kube-system
        labels:
          k8s-app: apmserver
      ---
      Notice
      • When you use the Deployment controller to deploy APM Server, the docker.elastic.co/apm/apm-server:6.8.14 image is used to deploy pods. The version of the image must be consistent with that of the Elasticsearch cluster.
      • Port 8200 is exposed to the ACK cluster by using the Service object. This ensures that APM agents can communicate with APM Server.
      Parameter Description
      ELASTICSEARCH_HOST The internal endpoint of your Elasticsearch cluster.
      ELASTICSEARCH_PORT The private port of your Elasticsearch cluster.
      ELASTICSEARCH_USERNAME The username of your Elasticsearch cluster. The default value of this parameter is elastic.
      ELASTICSEARCH_PASSWORD The password that corresponds to the elastic username.
      KIBANA_HOST The internal endpoint of Kibana.
      KIBANA_PORT The private port of Kibana.
      NODE_NAME The hosts in the ACK cluster.
    2. Deploy APM Server to a container and view the status of APM Server.

      Use the kubectl client to run the following commands:

      kubectl apply -f apm-server.yml
      kubectl get pods -n kube-system
      Notice You must make sure that the resources in the pods are running. Otherwise, data may not be displayed in the Kibana console.
  2. Configure APM agents.
    In this example, Spring Boot is used to create a simple Spring application and compress the application into a JAR package. Then, the JAR package and the latest Java agent that is downloaded from Maven Central Repository are uploaded to APM Server. For more information, see Spring Boot and Maven Central.
    1. Log on to a node of the ACK cluster and create a Dockerfile named myapply in the working directory.
      The Dockerfile must contain the following information:
      FROM frolvlad/alpine-oraclejdk8
      MAINTAINER peterwanghao.com
      VOLUME /tmp
      ADD spring-boot-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar spring-boot-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar
      ADD elastic-apm-agent-1.21.0.jar elastic-apm-agent-1.21.0.jar
      EXPOSE 8080
      ENTRYPOINT ["java","-javaagent:/elastic-apm-agent-1.21.0.jar","-Delastic.apm.service_name=my-application","-Delastic.apm.server_url=http://apmserver:8200","-Delastic.apm.application_packages=com.example","-jar","/spring-boot-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar"]
      The parameters and Java commands that are used to start the pods are defined in ENTRYPOINT. The following table describes these parameters.
      Parameter Description
      -javaagent The JAR package of the APM agents.
      -Delastic.apm.service_name The name of the Service object. The name can contain letters, digits, hyphens (-), underscores (_), and spaces.
      -Delastic.apm.server_url The URL of APM Server. http://apmserver:8200 is specified in the apm-server.yml file.
      -Delastic.apm.application_packages The basic software package of the application.
      -jar The JAR package of the application.
    2. Use the docker build command and the Dockerfile myapply to build an image.
      Run the following command in the current path:
      docker build -t myapply .
    3. Load the built image to other containers.
    4. Configure the deployment file for the pods. The file is named my-application.yaml.
      The file contains the following code:
      ---
      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Pod
      metadata:
        name: my-apply
        namespace: kube-system
        labels:
          app: my-apply
      spec:
        containers:
          - name: my-apply
            image: myapply:latest
            ports:
              - containerPort: 8080
            imagePullPolicy: Never
      ---
      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Service
      metadata:
        name: my-apply
        namespace: kube-system
        labels:
          app: my-apply
      spec:
        type: NodePort
        ports:
        - name: http-metrics
          port: 8080
          nodePort: 30000
        selector:
          app: my-apply
      
      ---
      Note image specifies the built image.
    5. Use the kubectl client to run the following command to deploy the pods:
      kubectl apply -f my-application.yaml
    6. Use a curl command to access the host over port 30000 after all resources in the pods are running.
      Run the following curl command:
      curl http://10.7.XX.XX:30000
      Note 10.7.XX.XX specifies the IP address of the node in the ACK cluster.

      If the access to the host is successful, APM agents are deployed.

  3. View the monitoring data obtained by Elastic APM in the Kibana console.
    1. Log on to the Kibana console of your Elasticsearch cluster.
      For more information, see Log on to the Kibana console.
    2. Click APM in the left-side navigation pane.
    3. Find the application whose performance is monitored and click the application name. Then, you can view the overall performance statistics of the application. In this example, my-application is used.
      APM
    4. Click the interface that is requested. Then, you can view the detailed request information.
      Interface details of APM
    5. View the statistics on the logs and metrics of the hosts and pods.
      Click Actions and select Show pod logs or Show pod metrics. Then, you can view the statistics on the logs or metrics.
      Actions Pod Logs

FAQ

  • Problem description: The resources.requests parameter is set to a large value in the configuration file of the ACK cluster. As a result, pods fail to be started.

    Solution: Change the value of the resource.requests parameter. The resources.requests parameter must be specified in the configuration files of Metricbeat, Filebeat, and Elastic APM. We recommend that you set this parameter to an appropriate value based on the specifications of the ACK cluster.

  • Problem description: Errors keep occurring when I deploy Metricbeat, Filebeat, and Elastic APM. The error message is similar to no matches for kind "DaemonSet" in version "extensions/v1beat1".

    Solution: Use the apps/v1 API version. This is because that the official configuration file uses the extensions/v1beta1 API version for DaemonSets and Deployments. However, in ACK V1.18 and later, the extensions/v1beta1 API version is deprecated for DaemonSets, Deployments, and ReplicaSets.