This topic describes some basic concepts of spatio-temporal geometries.

Spatio-temporal geometries

Spatio-temporal geometries in HBase Ganos include the following items:
  • Objects of spatio-temporal geometries
    • Vector data, such as points, lines, and planes
    • spatio-temporal data, which consists of vector data and temporal attributes and is also referred to as spatio-temporal trajectory data
  • Operations that can be performed on objects of spatio-temporal geometries, such as spatial relationship verification

Spatio-temporal indexes

HBase Ganos supports high-performance data queries based on spatio-temporal indexes. Spatio-temporal indexes are stored as rowkeys in HBase Ganos. For more information, see Create an index table.

Spatio-temporal relationships

A spatio-temporal relationship describes the relative locations of two geometries in time and space. Typical spatio-temporal relationships include INTERSECT, DISJOINT, OVERLAP, and CONTAIN. A geofence usually refers to the relationships of the geofences of an area to an object. The object can be a point, line, or plane. If the object is within the geofences, the area contains the object. If the object is outside the geofences, the area and object are disjoint. HBase Ganos uses Common Query Language (CQL) to define spatio-temporal relationships. For more information, see Query spatio-temporal objects.


Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is an international voluntary consensus standards organization that has created a set of standards for data models and related operations. Geographic information system (GIS) vendors develop geographic information systems based on these standards to ensure spatial data interoperability.


The SDK of HBase Ganos is based on GeoTools. GeoTools is a library that provides tools to process geospatial data. It complies with OGC standards and can interact with standard OGC data models and interfaces. Many geographic information systems are developed based on GeoTools. For more information, visit


A geometry in OGC is defined as a spatial object, such as a point, a line, or a plane. A geometry contains only location information of a spatial object. It does not contain any attribute information. GeoTools provides tools for you to build geometries when you use HBase Ganos.


A SimpleFeature contains geometries and other attributes. A trajectory point is a SimpleFeature. The SimpleFeature contains the location information of the trajectory point, temporal information, and other attributes. The temporal information is also a part of the attribute information.


CQL is a language defined by OGC to support geospatial data queries. Extended Common Query Language (ECQL) is a more powerful extension of CQL. In most cases, ECQL is used to define filters by using SQL-like WHERE clauses based on text representation. For more information, see Query spatio-temporal objects. CQL described in this guide refers to ECQL.


Well-known text (WKT) is a text markup language defined by OGC to describe spatial objects. For example, a point can be represented by using POINT(0,0). WKT is commonly used in query statements and is much easier to read. CQL and ECQL also use WKT to describe spatial objects. For information about the detailed specifications of WKT, visit


Well-known binary (WKB) is a language defined by OGC to mark geometries by using serialized bytes. WKB data is less than WKT data. You can use WKB for data transmission. GeoTools provides a tool for you to convert between WKB data and WKT data.

Spatio-temporal geometric model of DLA Ganos

DLA Ganos uses the SimpleFeature model defined in OGC standards as its vector data model. Geometric objects include Point, LineString, Polygon, MultiPoint, MultiLineString, and MultiPolygon. Geometries are loaded by the Spark engine and used for computations in the form of UDTs.

Ganos supports the following vector data sources:
  • PolarDB
  • Lindorm (HBase Enhanced Edition)
  • HDFS
  • GeoMesa