This topic describes how to create a dedicated Kubernetes cluster that supports sandboxed containers in the Container Service for Kubernetes (ACK) console.
- Server Load Balancer (SLB) instances that are created along with an ACK cluster support only the pay-as-you-go billing method.
- ACK clusters support only VPCs.
- By default, each account is subject to specific quotas on cloud resources that can
be created. You cannot create clusters if the quota limit is exceeded. Make sure that
you have sufficient resource quotas before you create a cluster. To increase the quota
of cloud resources for your account, submit a ticket.
- By default, you can create up to five clusters across all regions with each account.
Each cluster can contain up to 40 nodes. To increase the quota of clusters or nodes,
submit a ticket.
Notice By default, you can add up to 48 route entries to the virtual private cloud (VPC) where an ACK cluster is deployed. This means that you can configure up to 48 route entries for ACK clusters deployed in a VPC. To increase the quota of route entries for a VPC, submit a ticket.
- By default, you can create up to 100 security groups with each account.
- By default, you can create up to 60 pay-as-you-go SLB instances with each account.
- By default, you can create up to 20 elastic IP addresses (EIPs) with each account.
- By default, you can create up to five clusters across all regions with each account. Each cluster can contain up to 40 nodes. To increase the quota of clusters or nodes, submit a ticket.
- To create an ACK cluster that runs sandboxed containers, you must set the parameters
as described in the following table. Otherwise, the cluster cannot run sandboxed containers.
Parameter Description Zone Only Elastic Compute Service (ECS) Bare Metal instances support sandboxed containers. Make sure that you can purchase ECS Bare Metal instances in the selected zone. Kubernetes Version Select 1.14.6-aliyun.1 or later. Container Runtime Select Sandboxed-Container. Worker Instance Add worker nodes by creating new ECS instances. Instance Type Select ECS Bare Metal Instance. Mount Data Disk Mount a data disk of at least 200 GiB. We recommend that you mount a data disk of at least 1 TB. Operating System By default, the Alibaba Cloud Linux operating system is used. You cannot not change the operating system.
- Log on to the ACK console.
- In the left-side navigation pane of the ACK console, click Clusters.
- In the upper-right corner of the Clusters page, click Cluster Template.
- In the Select Cluster Template dialog box, find Standard Dedicated Cluster in the Other Clusters section and click Create.
- On the Dedicated Kubernetes tab, configure the cluster.
- Configure basic settings of the cluster.
Parameter Description Cluster NameEnter a name for the ACK cluster.Note The name must be 1 to 63 characters in length, and can contain digits, letters, and hyphens (-). Region
Select a region to deploy the cluster.
Resource GroupMove the pointer over All Resources at the top of the page and select the resource group that you want to use. After you select a resource group, virtual private clouds (VPCs) and vSwitches are filtered based on the selected resource group. When you create a cluster, only the VPCs and vSwitches that belong to the selected resource group are displayed in the console. Kubernetes Version Select a Kubernetes version. Container Runtime Select Sandboxed-Container. VPCSelect a VPC to deploy the cluster. Standard VPCs and shared VPCs are supported.
Note ACK clusters support only VPCs. You can select a VPC from the drop-down list. If no VPC is available, click Create VPC to create one. For more information, see Create a VPC.
- Shared VPC: The owner of a VPC (resource owner) can share the vSwitches in the VPC with other accounts in the same organization.
- Standard VPC: The owner of a VPC (resource owner) cannot share the vSwitches in the VPC with other accounts.
You can select up to three vSwitches that are deployed in different zones. If no vSwitch is available, click Create VSwitch to create one. For more information, see Create a vSwitch.
Network Plug-inSelect a network plug-in. Flannel and Terway are supported. For more information, see Terway and Flannel.
- Flannel: a simple and stable Container Network Interface (CNI) plug-in that is developed by open source Kubernetes. Flannel provides a few simple features. However, it does not support standard Kubernetes network policies.
- Terway: a network plug-in that is developed by ACK. Terway allows you to assign elastic
network interfaces (ENIs) of Alibaba Cloud to containers. It also allows you to customize
Kubernetes network policies to regulate how containers communicate with each other and implement bandwidth throttling
on individual containers.
- The number of pods that can be deployed on a node depends on the number of ENIs that are attached to the node and the maximum number of secondary IP addresses that are provided by these ENIs.
- If you select a shared VPC for an ACK cluster, you must select Terway as the network plug-in.
- If you select Terway, an ENI is shared among multiple pods. A secondary IP address of the ENI is assigned to each pod.
IP Addresses per NodeIf you select Flannel as the network plug-in, you must set IP Addresses per Node.Note
- IP Addresses per Node specifies the maximum number of IP addresses that can be assigned to each node. We recommend that you use the default value.
- After you select the VPC and specify the number of IP addresses per node, recommended values are automatically generated for Pod CIDR block and Service CIDR block. The system also provides the maximum number of nodes that can be deployed in the cluster and the maximum number of pods that can be deployed on each node. You can modify the values based on your business requirements.
Pod CIDR Block
If you select Flannel as the network plug-in, you must set Pod CIDR Block.
The CIDR block specified by Pod CIDR Block cannot overlap with that of the VPC or those of the existing clusters in the VPC. The CIDR block cannot be modified after the cluster is created. The Service CIDR block cannot overlap with the pod CIDR block. For more information about subnetting for ACK clusters, see Plan CIDR blocks for an ACK cluster.
If you select Terway as the network plug-in, you must allocate vSwitches to pods. For each vSwitch that allocates IP addresses to worker nodes, you must select a vSwitch in the same zone to allocate IP addresses to pods.
The elastic network interfaces (ENI) used by a pod must be deployed in the zone where the node that hosts the pod is deployed. Therefore, you must select another vSwitch in the zone where the node vSwitch is deployed. This vSwitch assigns IP addresses to pods. To ensure sufficient IP addresses for all pods, we recommend that you set the mask length of the CIDR block to a value no greater than 19 for the vSwitch.
Set Service CIDR. The CIDR block specified by Service CIDR cannot overlap with that of the VPC or those of the existing clusters in the VPC. The CIDR block cannot be modified after the cluster is created. The Service CIDR block cannot overlap with the pod CIDR block. For more information about subnetting for ACK clusters, see Plan CIDR blocks for an ACK cluster.
By default, an ACK cluster cannot access the Internet. If the VPC that you select for the ACK cluster cannot access the Internet, you can select Configure SNAT for VPC. This way, ACK will create a NAT gateway and configure Source Network Address Translation (SNAT) rules to enable Internet access for the VPC.
Access to API ServerBy default, an internal-facing Server Load Balancer (SLB) instance is created for the cluster API server. You can modify the specification of the SLB instance. For more information, see Instance types and specifications.Notice If you delete the SLB instance, you cannot access the cluster API server.Select or clear Expose API Server with EIP. The ACK API server provides multiple HTTP-based RESTful APIs, which can be used to create, delete, modify, query, and monitor resources, such as pods and Services.
- If you select this check box, an elastic IP address (EIP) is created and associated with an Internet-facing SLB instance. Port 6443 used by the API server is opened on master nodes. You can connect to and manage the ACK cluster by using kubeconfig over the Internet.
- If you clear this check box, no EIP is created. You can connect to and manage the ACK cluster by using kubeconfig only within the VPC.
To enable SSH logon, you must first select Expose API Server with EIP.
- If you select Use SSH to Access the Cluster from the Internet, you can access the cluster by using SSH.
- If you clear this check box, you cannot access the cluster by using SSH or kubectl. If you want to access an Elastic Compute Service (ECS) instance in the cluster by using SSH, you must manually associate an elastic IP address (EIP) with the instance and configure security group rules to open SSH port 22. For more information, see Use SSH to connect to an ACK cluster.
RDS WhitelistSet the Relational Database Service (RDS) whitelist. Add the IP addresses of the nodes in the cluster to the RDS whitelist.Note To enable an RDS instance to access the cluster, you must deploy the RDS instance in the VPC where the cluster is deployed. Security Group
- Configure advanced settings of the cluster.
Parameter Description Time Zone
Select a time zone for the ACK cluster. By default, the time zone configured for your browser is selected.
Kube-proxy Modeiptables and IPVS are supported.
- iptables is a mature and stable kube-proxy mode. It uses iptables rules to conduct service discovery and load balancing. The performance of this mode is restricted by the size of the ACK cluster. This mode is suitable for ACK clusters that manage a small number of Services.
- IPVS is a high-performance kube-proxy mode. It uses Linux Virtual Server (LVS) to conduct service discovery and load balancing. This mode is suitable for ACK clusters that manage a large number of Services. We recommend that you use this mode in scenarios where high-performance load balancing is required.
LabelsAdd labels to the cluster. Enter a key and a value, and click Add.Note
- Key is required. Value is optional.
- Keys are not case-sensitive. A key must be 1 to 64 characters in length, and cannot start with aliyun, http://, or https://.
- Values are not case-sensitive. A value can be empty and can contain up to 128 characters in length. It cannot be http:// or https://.
- The keys of labels that are added to the same resource must be unique. If you add a label with a used key, the label overwrites the others that use the same key.
- If you add more than 20 labels to a resource, all labels become invalid. You must remove excess labels for the remaining labels to take effect.
Cluster DomainSet the domain name of the cluster.Note The default domain name is cluster.local. You can enter a custom domain name. A domain name consists of two parts. Each part must be 1 to 63 characters in length and can contain only letters and digits. You cannot leave these parts empty. Custom Certificate SANs
You can enter custom subject alternative names (SANs) for the API server certificate of the cluster to accept requests from specified IP addresses or domain names.
Service Account Token Volume Projection
Service account token volume projection reduces security risks when pods use service accounts to access the API server. This feature enables kubelet to request and store the token on behalf of the pod. This feature also allows you to configure token properties, such as the audience and validity duration. For more information, see Enable service account token volume projection.
Cluster CA If you select this check box, upload a Certificate Authority (CA) certificate for the ACK cluster to ensure secure data transmission between the server and client. Deletion Protection
- Configure basic settings of the cluster.
- Click Next:Master Configurations to configure master nodes.
Parameter Description Billing MethodThe pay-as-you-go and subscription billing methods are supported. If you select pay-as-you-go, you must set the following parameters:
- Duration: You can select 1, 2, 3, or 6 months. If you require a longer duration, you can select 1 to 5 years.
- Auto Renewal: Specify whether to enable auto-renewal.
Master Node Quantity Specify the number of master nodes. You can create three or five master nodes. Instance Type Select an instance type for the master nodes. For more information, see Instance families. System Disk By default, system disks are mounted to master nodes. Standard SSDs and ultra disks are supported.Note You can select Enable Backup to back up disk data.
- Click Next:Worker Configurations to configure worker nodes.
- Configure basic settings of worker nodes.
Parameter Description Worker Instance By default, Create Instance is selected. You cannot select Add Existing Instance. Instance Type Select ECS Bare Metal Instance. Only ECS bare metal instances are supported. Selected Types The selected instance type is displayed. You can select only one instance type of ECS Bare Metal Instance. Quantity
Specify the number of worker nodes (ECS instances) to be created.
System DiskEnhanced SSDs, standard SSDs, and ultra disks are supported.Note
- You can select Enable Backup to back up disk data.
- If you select enhanced SSD as the system disk type, you can set a custom performance level for the system disk.
You can select higher performance levels for enhanced SSDs with larger storage capacities. For example, you can select performance level 2 for an enhanced SSD with a storage capacity of more than 460 GiB. You can select performance level 3 for an enhanced SSD with a storage capacity of more than 1,260 GiB. For more information, see Capacity and PLs.
Mount Data Disk
Enhanced SSDs, standard SSDs, and ultra disks are supported. You can enable disk encryption and disk backup when you mount a data disk.Notice The data disk is used to store the root file systems of all containers on the node. Therefore, you must mount a data disk of at least 200 GiB. We recommend that you mount a data disk of at least 1 TB.
Operating System By default, the AliyunLinux operating system is used. You cannot change the operating system. Logon Type
- Key pair logon
- Key Pair: Select an SSH key pair from the drop-down list.
- create a key pair: Create an SSH key pair if none is available. For more information about how to create an SSH key pair, see Create an SSH key pair. After the key pair is created, set it as the credential that is used to log on to the cluster.
- Password logon
- Password: Enter the password that is used to log on to the nodes.
- Confirm Password: Enter the password again.
- Configure advanced settings of worker nodes
Parameter Description Node ProtectionSpecify whether to enable node protection.Note By default, this check box is selected. Node protection prevents nodes from being accidentally deleted in the console or by calling the API. This prevents user errors. User Data
For more information, see Overview of ECS instance user data.
Custom Node Name
Specify whether to use a custom node name.A node name consists of a prefix, an IP substring, and a suffix.
- Both the prefix and suffix can contain one or more parts that are separated by periods (.).These parts can contain lowercase letters, digits, and hyphens (-), and must start and end with a lowercase letter or digit.
- The IP substring length specifies the number of digits to be truncated from the end of the returned node IP address. Valid values: 5 to 12.
For example, if the node IP address is 192.1xx.x.xx, the prefix is aliyun.com, the IP substring length is 5, and the suffix is test, the node name will be aliyun.com00055test.
Node Port Range Set the node port range. CPU PolicySet the CPU policy.
- none: This policy indicates that the default CPU affinity is used. This is the default policy.
- static: This policy allows pods with specific resource characteristics on the node to be granted with enhanced CPU affinity and exclusivity.
Add taints to the worker nodes in the ACK cluster.
- Configure basic settings of worker nodes.
- Click Next:Component Configurations to configure components.
Parameter Description Ingress
Specify whether to install Ingress controllers. By default, Install Ingress Controllers is selected. For more information, see Advanced Ingress configurations.
Volume Plug-in Select CSI. Only the Container Storage Interface (CSI) plug-in is supported by sandboxed containers in ACK clusters. ACK clusters can be automatically bound to Alibaba Cloud disks, Apsara File Storage NAS (NAS) file systems, and Object Storage Service (OSS) buckets that are mounted to pods. For more information, see Storage management-CSI. Monitoring Agents
Specify whether to install the CloudMonitor agent. By default, Install CloudMonitor Agent on ECS Instance and Enable Prometheus Monitoring are selected. After the CloudMonitor agent is installed on ECS nodes, you can view monitoring data about the nodes in the CloudMonitor console.
Specify whether to enable Log Service. You can select an existing Log Service project or create one. By default, Enable Log Service is selected. When you create an application, you can enable Log Service through a few steps. For more information, see Collect log files from containers by using Log Service.
By default, Install node-problem-detector and Create Event Center is selected. You can also specify whether to create Ingress dashboards in the Log Service console.
Workflow EngineSpecify whether to enable Alibaba Cloud Genomics Service (AGS).Note To use this feature, submit a ticket to apply to be added to a whitelist.
- If you select this check box, the system automatically installs the AGS workflow plug-in when the system creates the cluster.
- If you clear this check box, you must manually install the AGS workflow plug-in. For more information, see Introduction to AGS CLI.
- Click Next:Confirm Order.
- Select Terms of Service and click Create Cluster. Note It requires approximately 10 minutes for the system to create a managed Kubernetes cluster that contains multiple nodes.
- After the cluster is created, you can view the newly created cluster on the Clusters page in the ACK console.
- Click View Logs in the Actions column. On the page that appears, you can view the cluster log. To view detailed log information, click Stack events.
- On the Clusters page, find the newly created cluster and click Details in the Actions column. On the details page of the cluster, click the Basic Information tab to view basic information about the cluster and click the Connection Information tab to view information about how to connect to the cluster.
The following information is displayed:
- API Server Public Endpoint: the IP address and port that the API server uses to provide services over the Internet. It allows you to manage the cluster by using kubectl or other tools on the client.
- API Server Internal Endpoint: the IP address and port that the API server uses to provide services within the cluster. The endpoint belongs to the SLB instance that is bound to the cluster. Three master nodes work as the backend servers of the SLB instance.
- Testing Domain: the domain name that is used to test Services. The suffix of the domain name is
<cluster_id>.<region_id>.alicontainer.com.Note To rebind the domain name, click Rebind Domain Name.
You can Connect to Kubernetes clusters by using kubectl and run the
kubectl get nodecommand to view information about the nodes in the cluster.