This topic describes how to use %TYPE in variable declarations.

A variable is declared in an SPL program to store values from tables in a database. To ensure compatibility between table columns and SPL variables, the data types of the columns and the variables must be the same. If you change the data type of a column, you must change the variables in the corresponding SPL program. You can use the column attribute %TYPE. This way, you do not need to encode a specific column data type as variable declaration. A qualified column name in dot notation or the name of a previously declared variable must be specified as the prefix of %TYPE. The data type of the column or the variable prefixed to %TYPE is assigned to the variable to be declared. If the data type of the given column or variable changes, the new data type is associated with the variable. This eliminates the need to modify the declaration code.

Note The %TYPE attribute can also be used with formal parameter declarations.
name { { table | view }.column | variable }%TYPE;

name is the identifier that is assigned to the variable or is the formal parameter to be declared. column is the name of a column in table or a view. variable is the name of a variable that was declared prior to the variable that is identified by name.

Note The variable does not inherit other attributes of the column, such as the attributes that may be specified on the column by using the NOT NULL clause or the DEFAULT clause.

In the following example, a stored procedure queries the emp table by using an employee number and displays data about the employee. Then, the stored procedure finds the average salary of all the employees in the department to which the employee belongs and compares the salary of the selected employee with the average salary of the department.

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE emp_sal_query (
    p_empno         IN NUMBER
)
IS
    v_ename         VARCHAR2(10);
    v_job           VARCHAR2(9);
    v_hiredate      DATE;
    v_sal           NUMBER(7,2);
    v_deptno        NUMBER(2);
    v_avgsal        NUMBER(7,2);
BEGIN
    SELECT ename, job, hiredate, sal, deptno
        INTO v_ename, v_job, v_hiredate, v_sal, v_deptno
        FROM emp WHERE empno = p_empno;
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employee # : ' || p_empno);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Name       : ' || v_ename);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Job        : ' || v_job);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Hire Date  : ' || v_hiredate);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Salary     : ' || v_sal);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Dept #     : ' || v_deptno);

    SELECT AVG(sal) INTO v_avgsal
        FROM emp WHERE deptno = v_deptno;
    IF v_sal > v_avgsal THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employee''s salary is more than the '
            || 'department average of ' || v_avgsal);
    ELSE
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employee''s salary does not exceed the '
            || 'department average of ' || v_avgsal);
    END IF;
END;

You can also write the following stored procedure in the following mode. This way, you do not need to explicitly encode the data types of the emp table as the declaration section of the stored procedure.

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE emp_sal_query (
    p_empno         IN emp.empno%TYPE
)
IS
    v_ename         emp.ename%TYPE;
    v_job           emp.job%TYPE;
    v_hiredate      emp.hiredate%TYPE;
    v_sal           emp.sal%TYPE;
    v_deptno        emp.deptno%TYPE;
    v_avgsal        v_sal%TYPE;
BEGIN
    SELECT ename, job, hiredate, sal, deptno
        INTO v_ename, v_job, v_hiredate, v_sal, v_deptno
        FROM emp WHERE empno = p_empno;
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employee # : ' || p_empno);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Name       : ' || v_ename);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Job        : ' || v_job);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Hire Date  : ' || v_hiredate);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Salary     : ' || v_sal);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Dept #     : ' || v_deptno);

    SELECT AVG(sal) INTO v_avgsal
        FROM emp WHERE deptno = v_deptno;
    IF v_sal > v_avgsal THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employee''s salary is more than the '
            || 'department average of ' || v_avgsal);
    ELSE
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employee''s salary does not exceed the '
            || 'department average of ' || v_avgsal);
    END IF;
END;
Note p_empno is an example of a formal parameter that is defined by using %TYPE.

v_avgsal illustrates the usage of %TYPE that references another variable instead of a table column.

The following example shows the sample output of executing this stored procedure:

EXEC emp_sal_query(7698);

Employee # : 7698
Name       : BLAKE
Job        : MANAGER
Hire Date  : 01-MAY-81 00:00:00
Salary     : 2850.00
Dept #     : 30
Employee's salary is more than the department average of 1566.67