The sample database stores the information about employees in an organization.

The database contains three types of records: employees, departments, and history of employees.

Each employee has an identification number, a name, a hire date, a salary, and a manager. Some employees earn commissions in addition to their salaries. All employee information is stored in the emp table.

The sample company has bases in multiple regions, so the database tracks the locations of the departments. Each employee is assigned to a department. Each department is identified by a unique department number and a short name. Each department is associated with one location. All department information is stored in the dept table.

The company also tracks the information about jobs held by the employees. Some employees have been working for the company for a long time. They may have held different positions, received raises, or switched departments. If an employee status changes, the company records the end date of the former position for this employee. A new job record is added with the start date and the new job title, department, salary, and the reason for the status change. All employee history is maintained in the jobhist table.

The following figure shows the entity relationship of the sample database tables.

Sample database

The following example is the sample.sql script.

--
--  Script that creates the 'sample' tables, views, procedures,
--  functions, triggers, etc.
--
--  Start new transaction - commit all or nothing
--
BEGIN;
/
--
--  Create and load tables used in the documentation examples.
--
--  Create the 'dept' table
--
CREATE TABLE dept (
    deptno          NUMBER(2) NOT NULL CONSTRAINT dept_pk PRIMARY KEY,
    dname           VARCHAR2(14) CONSTRAINT dept_dname_uq UNIQUE,
    loc             VARCHAR2(13)
);
--
--  Create the 'emp' table
--
CREATE TABLE emp (
    empno           NUMBER(4) NOT NULL CONSTRAINT emp_pk PRIMARY KEY,
    ename           VARCHAR2(10),
    job             VARCHAR2(9),
    mgr             NUMBER(4),
    hiredate        DATE,
    sal             NUMBER(7,2) CONSTRAINT emp_sal_ck CHECK (sal > 0),
    comm            NUMBER(7,2),
    deptno          NUMBER(2) CONSTRAINT emp_ref_dept_fk
                        REFERENCES dept(deptno)
);
--
--  Create the 'jobhist' table
--
CREATE TABLE jobhist (
    empno           NUMBER(4) NOT NULL,
    startdate       DATE NOT NULL,
    enddate         DATE,
    job             VARCHAR2(9),
    sal             NUMBER(7,2),
    comm            NUMBER(7,2),
    deptno          NUMBER(2),
    chgdesc         VARCHAR2(80),
    CONSTRAINT jobhist_pk PRIMARY KEY (empno, startdate),
    CONSTRAINT jobhist_ref_emp_fk FOREIGN KEY (empno)
        REFERENCES emp(empno) ON DELETE CASCADE,
    CONSTRAINT jobhist_ref_dept_fk FOREIGN KEY (deptno)
        REFERENCES dept (deptno) ON DELETE SET NULL,
    CONSTRAINT jobhist_date_chk CHECK (startdate <= enddate)
);
--
--  Create the 'salesemp' view
--
CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW salesemp AS
    SELECT empno, ename, hiredate, sal, comm FROM emp WHERE job = 'SALESMAN';
--
--  Sequence to generate values for function 'new_empno'.
--
CREATE SEQUENCE next_empno START WITH 8000 INCREMENT BY 1;
--
--  Issue PUBLIC grants
--
GRANT ALL ON emp TO PUBLIC;
GRANT ALL ON dept TO PUBLIC;
GRANT ALL ON jobhist TO PUBLIC;
GRANT ALL ON salesemp TO PUBLIC;
GRANT ALL ON next_empno TO PUBLIC;
--
--  Load the 'dept' table
--
INSERT INTO dept VALUES (10,'ACCOUNTING','NEW YORK');
INSERT INTO dept VALUES (20,'RESEARCH','DALLAS');
INSERT INTO dept VALUES (30,'SALES','CHICAGO');
INSERT INTO dept VALUES (40,'OPERATIONS','BOSTON');
--
--  Load the 'emp' table
--
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7369,'SMITH','CLERK',7902,'17-DEC-80',800,NULL,20);
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7499,'ALLEN','SALESMAN',7698,'20-FEB-81',1600,300,30);
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7521,'WARD','SALESMAN',7698,'22-FEB-81',1250,500,30);
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7566,'JONES','MANAGER',7839,'02-APR-81',2975,NULL,20);
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7654,'MARTIN','SALESMAN',7698,'28-SEP-81',1250,1400,30);
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7698,'BLAKE','MANAGER',7839,'01-MAY-81',2850,NULL,30);
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7782,'CLARK','MANAGER',7839,'09-JUN-81',2450,NULL,10);
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7788,'SCOTT','ANALYST',7566,'19-APR-87',3000,NULL,20);
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7839,'KING','PRESIDENT',NULL,'17-NOV-81',5000,NULL,10);
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7844,'TURNER','SALESMAN',7698,'08-SEP-81',1500,0,30);
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7876,'ADAMS','CLERK',7788,'23-MAY-87',1100,NULL,20);
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7900,'JAMES','CLERK',7698,'03-DEC-81',950,NULL,30);
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7902,'FORD','ANALYST',7566,'03-DEC-81',3000,NULL,20);
INSERT INTO emp VALUES (7934,'MILLER','CLERK',7782,'23-JAN-82',1300,NULL,10);
--
--  Load the 'jobhist' table
--
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7369,'17-DEC-80',NULL,'CLERK',800,NULL,20,'New Hire');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7499,'20-FEB-81',NULL,'SALESMAN',1600,300,30,'New Hire');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7521,'22-FEB-81',NULL,'SALESMAN',1250,500,30,'New Hire');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7566,'02-APR-81',NULL,'MANAGER',2975,NULL,20,'New Hire');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7654,'28-SEP-81',NULL,'SALESMAN',1250,1400,30,'New Hire');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7698,'01-MAY-81',NULL,'MANAGER',2850,NULL,30,'New Hire');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7782,'09-JUN-81',NULL,'MANAGER',2450,NULL,10,'New Hire');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7788,'19-APR-87','12-APR-88','CLERK',1000,NULL,20,'New Hire');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7788,'13-APR-88','04-MAY-89','CLERK',1040,NULL,20,'Raise');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7788,'05-MAY-90',NULL,'ANALYST',3000,NULL,20,'Promoted to Analyst');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7839,'17-NOV-81',NULL,'PRESIDENT',5000,NULL,10,'New Hire');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7844,'08-SEP-81',NULL,'SALESMAN',1500,0,30,'New Hire');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7876,'23-MAY-87',NULL,'CLERK',1100,NULL,20,'New Hire');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7900,'03-DEC-81','14-JAN-83','CLERK',950,NULL,10,'New Hire');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7900,'15-JAN-83',NULL,'CLERK',950,NULL,30,'Changed to Dept 30');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7902,'03-DEC-81',NULL,'ANALYST',3000,NULL,20,'New Hire');
INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (7934,'23-JAN-82',NULL,'CLERK',1300,NULL,10,'New Hire');
--
--  Populate statistics table and view (pg_statistic/pg_stats)
--
ANALYZE dept;
ANALYZE emp;
ANALYZE jobhist;
--
--  Procedure that lists all employees' numbers and names
--  from the 'emp' table using a cursor.
--
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE list_emp
IS
    v_empno         NUMBER(4);
    v_ename         VARCHAR2(10);
    CURSOR emp_cur IS
        SELECT empno, ename FROM emp ORDER BY empno;
BEGIN
    OPEN emp_cur;
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('EMPNO    ENAME');
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('-----    -------');
    LOOP
        FETCH emp_cur INTO v_empno, v_ename;
        EXIT WHEN emp_cur%NOTFOUND;
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(v_empno || '     ' || v_ename);
    END LOOP;
    CLOSE emp_cur;
END;
/
--
--  Procedure that selects an employee row given the employee
--  number and displays certain columns.
--
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE select_emp (
    p_empno         IN  NUMBER
)
IS
    v_ename         emp.ename%TYPE;
    v_hiredate      emp.hiredate%TYPE;
    v_sal           emp.sal%TYPE;
    v_comm          emp.comm%TYPE;
    v_dname         dept.dname%TYPE;
    v_disp_date     VARCHAR2(10);
BEGIN
    SELECT ename, hiredate, sal, NVL(comm, 0), dname
        INTO v_ename, v_hiredate, v_sal, v_comm, v_dname
        FROM emp e, dept d
        WHERE empno = p_empno
          AND e.deptno = d.deptno;
    v_disp_date := TO_CHAR(v_hiredate, 'MM/DD/YYYY');
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Number    : ' || p_empno);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Name      : ' || v_ename);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Hire Date : ' || v_disp_date);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Salary    : ' || v_sal);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Commission: ' || v_comm);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Department: ' || v_dname);
EXCEPTION
    WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employee ' || p_empno || ' not found');
    WHEN OTHERS THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('The following is SQLERRM:');
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(SQLERRM);
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('The following is SQLCODE:');
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(SQLCODE);
END;
/
--
--  Procedure that queries the 'emp' table based on
--  department number and employee number or name.  Returns
--  employee number and name as IN OUT parameters and job,
--  hire date, and salary as OUT parameters.
--
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE emp_query (
    p_deptno        IN     NUMBER,
    p_empno         IN OUT NUMBER,
    p_ename         IN OUT VARCHAR2,
    p_job           OUT    VARCHAR2,
    p_hiredate      OUT    DATE,
    p_sal           OUT    NUMBER
)
IS
BEGIN
    SELECT empno, ename, job, hiredate, sal
        INTO p_empno, p_ename, p_job, p_hiredate, p_sal
        FROM emp
        WHERE deptno = p_deptno
          AND (empno = p_empno
           OR  ename = UPPER(p_ename));
END;
/
--
--  Procedure to call 'emp_query_caller' with IN and IN OUT
--  parameters.  Displays the results received from IN OUT and
--  OUT parameters.
--
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE emp_query_caller
IS
    v_deptno        NUMBER(2);
    v_empno         NUMBER(4);
    v_ename         VARCHAR2(10);
    v_job           VARCHAR2(9);
    v_hiredate      DATE;
    v_sal           NUMBER;
BEGIN
    v_deptno := 30;
    v_empno  := 0;
    v_ename  := 'Martin';
    emp_query(v_deptno, v_empno, v_ename, v_job, v_hiredate, v_sal);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Department : ' || v_deptno);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employee No: ' || v_empno);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Name       : ' || v_ename);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Job        : ' || v_job);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Hire Date  : ' || v_hiredate);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Salary     : ' || v_sal);
EXCEPTION
    WHEN TOO_MANY_ROWS THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('More than one employee was selected');
    WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('No employees were selected');
END;
/
--
--  Function to compute yearly compensation based on semimonthly
--  salary.
--
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION emp_comp (
    p_sal           NUMBER,
    p_comm          NUMBER
) RETURN NUMBER
IS
BEGIN
    RETURN (p_sal + NVL(p_comm, 0)) * 24;
END;
/
--
--  Function that gets the next number from sequence, 'next_empno',
--  and ensures it is not already in use as an employee number.
--
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION new_empno RETURN NUMBER
IS
    v_cnt           INTEGER := 1;
    v_new_empno     NUMBER;
BEGIN
    WHILE v_cnt > 0 LOOP
        SELECT next_empno.nextval INTO v_new_empno FROM dual;
        SELECT COUNT(*) INTO v_cnt FROM emp WHERE empno = v_new_empno;
    END LOOP;
    RETURN v_new_empno;
END;
/
--
--  EDB-SPL function that adds a new clerk to table 'emp'.  This function
--  uses package 'emp_admin'.
--
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hire_clerk (
    p_ename         VARCHAR2,
    p_deptno        NUMBER
) RETURN NUMBER
IS
    v_empno         NUMBER(4);
    v_ename         VARCHAR2(10);
    v_job           VARCHAR2(9);
    v_mgr           NUMBER(4);
    v_hiredate      DATE;
    v_sal           NUMBER(7,2);
    v_comm          NUMBER(7,2);
    v_deptno        NUMBER(2);
BEGIN
    v_empno := new_empno;
    INSERT INTO emp VALUES (v_empno, p_ename, 'CLERK', 7782,
        TRUNC(SYSDATE), 950.00, NULL, p_deptno);
    SELECT empno, ename, job, mgr, hiredate, sal, comm, deptno INTO
        v_empno, v_ename, v_job, v_mgr, v_hiredate, v_sal, v_comm, v_deptno
        FROM emp WHERE empno = v_empno;
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Department : ' || v_deptno);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employee No: ' || v_empno);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Name       : ' || v_ename);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Job        : ' || v_job);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Manager    : ' || v_mgr);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Hire Date  : ' || v_hiredate);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Salary     : ' || v_sal);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Commission : ' || v_comm);
    RETURN v_empno;
EXCEPTION
    WHEN OTHERS THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('The following is SQLERRM:');
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(SQLERRM);
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('The following is SQLCODE:');
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(SQLCODE);
        RETURN -1;
END;
/
--
--  PostgreSQL PL/pgSQL function that adds a new salesman
--  to table 'emp'.
--
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hire_salesman (
    p_ename         VARCHAR,
    p_sal           NUMERIC,
    p_comm          NUMERIC
) RETURNS NUMERIC
AS $$
DECLARE
    v_empno         NUMERIC(4);
    v_ename         VARCHAR(10);
    v_job           VARCHAR(9);
    v_mgr           NUMERIC(4);
    v_hiredate      DATE;
    v_sal           NUMERIC(7,2);
    v_comm          NUMERIC(7,2);
    v_deptno        NUMERIC(2);
BEGIN
    v_empno := new_empno();
    INSERT INTO emp VALUES (v_empno, p_ename, 'SALESMAN', 7698,
        CURRENT_DATE, p_sal, p_comm, 30);
    SELECT INTO
        v_empno, v_ename, v_job, v_mgr, v_hiredate, v_sal, v_comm, v_deptno
        empno, ename, job, mgr, hiredate, sal, comm, deptno
        FROM emp WHERE empno = v_empno;
    RAISE INFO 'Department : %', v_deptno;
    RAISE INFO 'Employee No: %', v_empno;
    RAISE INFO 'Name       : %', v_ename;
    RAISE INFO 'Job        : %', v_job;
    RAISE INFO 'Manager    : %', v_mgr;
    RAISE INFO 'Hire Date  : %', v_hiredate;
    RAISE INFO 'Salary     : %', v_sal;
    RAISE INFO 'Commission : %', v_comm;
    RETURN v_empno;
EXCEPTION
    WHEN OTHERS THEN
        RAISE INFO 'The following is SQLERRM:';
        RAISE INFO '%', SQLERRM;
        RAISE INFO 'The following is SQLSTATE:';
        RAISE INFO '%', SQLSTATE;
        RETURN -1;
END;
$$ LANGUAGE 'plpgsql';
/
--
--  Rule to INSERT into view 'salesemp'
--
CREATE OR REPLACE RULE salesemp_i AS ON INSERT TO salesemp
DO INSTEAD
    INSERT INTO emp VALUES (NEW.empno, NEW.ename, 'SALESMAN', 7698,
        NEW.hiredate, NEW.sal, NEW.comm, 30);
--
--  Rule to UPDATE view 'salesemp'
--
CREATE OR REPLACE RULE salesemp_u AS ON UPDATE TO salesemp
DO INSTEAD
    UPDATE emp SET empno    = NEW.empno,
                   ename    = NEW.ename,
                   hiredate = NEW.hiredate,
                   sal      = NEW.sal,
                   comm     = NEW.comm
        WHERE empno = OLD.empno;
--
--  Rule to DELETE from view 'salesemp'
--
CREATE OR REPLACE RULE salesemp_d AS ON DELETE TO salesemp
DO INSTEAD
    DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = OLD.empno;
--
--  After statement-level trigger that displays a message after
--  an insert, update, or deletion to the 'emp' table.  One message
--  per SQL statement is displayed.
--
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER user_audit_trig
    AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON emp
DECLARE
    v_action        VARCHAR2(24);
BEGIN
    IF INSERTING THEN
        v_action := ' added employee(s) on ';
    ELSIF UPDATING THEN
        v_action := ' updated employee(s) on ';
    ELSIF DELETING THEN
        v_action := ' deleted employee(s) on ';
    END IF;
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('User ' || USER || v_action || TO_CHAR(SYSDATE,'YYYY-MM-DD'));
END;
/
--
--  Before row-level trigger that displays employee number and
--  salary of an employee that is about to be added, updated,
--  or deleted in the 'emp' table.
--
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER emp_sal_trig
    BEFORE DELETE OR INSERT OR UPDATE ON emp
    FOR EACH ROW
DECLARE
    sal_diff       NUMBER;
BEGIN
    IF INSERTING THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Inserting employee ' || :NEW.empno);
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('..New salary: ' || :NEW.sal);
    END IF;
    IF UPDATING THEN
        sal_diff := :NEW.sal - :OLD.sal;
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Updating employee ' || :OLD.empno);
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('..Old salary: ' || :OLD.sal);
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('..New salary: ' || :NEW.sal);
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('..Raise     : ' || sal_diff);
    END IF;
    IF DELETING THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Deleting employee ' || :OLD.empno);
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('..Old salary: ' || :OLD.sal);
    END IF;
END;
/
--
--  Package specification for the 'emp_admin' package.
--
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE emp_admin
IS
    FUNCTION get_dept_name (
        p_deptno        NUMBER
    ) RETURN VARCHAR2;
    FUNCTION update_emp_sal (
        p_empno         NUMBER,
        p_raise         NUMBER
    ) RETURN NUMBER;
    PROCEDURE hire_emp (
        p_empno         NUMBER,
        p_ename         VARCHAR2,
        p_job           VARCHAR2,
        p_sal           NUMBER,
        p_hiredate      DATE,
        p_comm          NUMBER,
        p_mgr           NUMBER,
        p_deptno        NUMBER
    );
    PROCEDURE fire_emp (
        p_empno         NUMBER
    );
END emp_admin;
/
--
--  Package body for the 'emp_admin' package.
--
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_admin
IS
    --
    --  Function that queries the 'dept' table based on the department
    --  number and returns the corresponding department name.
    --
    FUNCTION get_dept_name (
        p_deptno        IN NUMBER
    ) RETURN VARCHAR2
    IS
        v_dname         VARCHAR2(14);
    BEGIN
        SELECT dname INTO v_dname FROM dept WHERE deptno = p_deptno;
        RETURN v_dname;
    EXCEPTION
        WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
            DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Invalid department number ' || p_deptno);
            RETURN '';
    END;
    --
    --  Function that updates an employee's salary based on the
    --  employee number and salary increment/decrement passed
    --  as IN parameters.  Upon successful completion the function
    --  returns the new updated salary.
    --
    FUNCTION update_emp_sal (
        p_empno         IN NUMBER,
        p_raise         IN NUMBER
    ) RETURN NUMBER
    IS
        v_sal           NUMBER := 0;
    BEGIN
        SELECT sal INTO v_sal FROM emp WHERE empno = p_empno;
        v_sal := v_sal + p_raise;
        UPDATE emp SET sal = v_sal WHERE empno = p_empno;
        RETURN v_sal;
    EXCEPTION
        WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
            DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employee ' || p_empno || ' not found');
            RETURN -1;
        WHEN OTHERS THEN
            DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('The following is SQLERRM:');
            DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(SQLERRM);
            DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('The following is SQLCODE:');
            DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(SQLCODE);
            RETURN -1;
    END;
    --
    --  Procedure that inserts a new employee record into the 'emp' table.
    --
    PROCEDURE hire_emp (
        p_empno         NUMBER,
        p_ename         VARCHAR2,
        p_job           VARCHAR2,
        p_sal           NUMBER,
        p_hiredate      OUT    DATE,
        p_comm          NUMBER,
        p_mgr           NUMBER,
        p_deptno        NUMBER
    )
    AS
    BEGIN
        INSERT INTO emp(empno, ename, job, sal, hiredate, comm, mgr, deptno)
            VALUES(p_empno, p_ename, p_job, p_sal,
                   p_hiredate, p_comm, p_mgr, p_deptno);
    END;
    --
    --  Procedure that deletes an employee record from the 'emp' table based
    --  on the employee number.
    --
    PROCEDURE fire_emp (
        p_empno         NUMBER
    )
    AS
    BEGIN
        DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = p_empno;
    END;
END;
/
COMMIT;