Storage I/O performance, also known as storage read/write performance, is the performance that can be delivered when disks are attached to instances of different ECS instance types. Metrics of storage I/O performance include IOPS and throughput.

I/O size

I/O (Input/Output or Read/Write) is random or sequential data requests initiated by an application. The volume of I/O requests is also known as the I/O size in KiB, such as 4 KiB, 256 KiB, and 1,024 KiB.

When you design the underlying storage architecture or select an instance type, you must consider metrics such as IOPS, I/O size, and throughput. You can use the following formula to calculate throughput based on the I/O size and IOPS: IOPS × I/O size = Throughput. You can select different Elastic Block Storage devices and instance types based on the I/O request features of applications to achieve the best results.
  • For the applications such as offline analysis and data warehousing applications that require a large I/O size, we recommend that you select the big data instance families that deliver high throughput.
  • For the applications such as OLTP databases and enterprise-level applications like SAP that require low-latency, random, and small-sized I/O, we recommend that you select enhanced SSDs (ESSDs) and standard SSDs that deliver high IOPS.
For more information about IOPS and throughput, see EBS performance.

Storage I/O performance of instances

Note This section and subsequent sections apply only to the new generation of enterprise-level instance families, including hfg7, hfc7, hfr7, g6e, c6e, r6e, and g5se. For more information, see Storage I/O performance of the new generation of enterprise-level instance families. These sections are not applicable to local disks.

The new generation of enterprise-level instance families of Alibaba Cloud ECS provides isolation of storage I/O performance. Dedicated storage bandwidths are assigned to ECS instances and disks to avoid storage I/O preemption among ECS instances. The new generation of enterprise-level instance families ensures consistent storage I/O performance of applications even during peak hours.

If your business application is one of the following I/O-sensitive applications that require consistent storage I/O performance, we recommend that you select a new-generation instance family that provides isolation of storage I/O performance:
  • Large and medium-sized databases, such as Oracle, MySQL, SQL Server, PostgreSQL, Cassandra, and MongoDB databases
  • Enterprise-level applications such as ERP and CRM

Relationship between instance types and storage I/O performance

The storage I/O performance of ECS instances varies based on their instance families, instance types, and attached disks. The storage I/O performance of an instance is subject to the instance type. The higher specifications an instance type has, the higher storage I/O performance (IOPS and throughput) it provides.

After you create an ECS instance and attach disks to it, the final storage I/O performance of the ECS instance is determined as described in the following section:
  • Scenario 1: If the total storage performance of the attached disks exceeds the maximum storage I/O performance that the instance type can deliver, the final storage I/O performance of the instance is limited to the maximum storage I/O performance of that instance type.
  • Scenario 2: If the total storage performance of the attached disks does not exceed the maximum storage I/O performance that the instance type can deliver, the final storage I/O performance of the instance is limited to the total storage I/O performance of the disks.
Instances and their storage I/O performance

For example, the ecs.g6.8xlarge instance type can deliver up to 60,000 IOPS. If a 1,600 GiB PL2 ESSD is attached to an instance of this instance type and the IOPS of the PL2 ESSD is 81,800, the maximum storage IOPS of the instance is still 60,000. For information about the performance levels of ESSDs, see Enhanced SSDs.

When you understand the relationship between instance storage performance and disk storage performance, you can choose instance types and Elastic Block Storage devices based on their performance specifications. This prevents performance bottlenecks caused by improper configurations.

Storage I/O performance of the new generation of enterprise-level instance families

The following tables list the storage I/O performance of the new generation of enterprise-level instance families. For information about other specifications of the instance families, see Instance families.

Note In these tables, the maximum IOPS is measured at an I/O size of 4 KiB and the maximum throughput is measured at an I/O size of 1,024 KiB. For information about test methods, see Test the performance of Elastic Block Storage devices.
Table 1. Storage I/O performance of hfg7
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.hfg7.large 20.0 1.0 125
ecs.hfg7.xlarge 30.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.hfg7.2xlarge 45.0 2.0 250
ecs.hfg7.3xlarge 60.0 2.5 312.5
ecs.hfg7.4xlarge 75.0 3.0 375
ecs.hfg7.6xlarge 90.0 4.0 500
ecs.hfg7.8xlarge 105.0 5.0 625
ecs.hfg7.12xlarge 150.0 8.0 1000
ecs.hfg7.24xlarge 300.0 16.0 2000
Table 2. Storage I/O performance of hfc7
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.hfc7.large 20.0 1.0 125
ecs.hfc7.xlarge 30.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.hfc7.2xlarge 45.0 2.0 250
ecs.hfc7.3xlarge 60.0 2.5 312.5
ecs.hfc7.4xlarge 75.0 3.0 375
ecs.hfc7.6xlarge 90.0 4.0 500
ecs.hfc7.8xlarge 105.0 5.0 625
ecs.hfc7.12xlarge 150.0 8.0 1000
ecs.hfc7.24xlarge 300.0 16.0 2000
Table 3. Storage I/O performance of hfr7
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.hfr7.large 20.0 1.0 125
ecs.hfr7.xlarge 30.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.hfr7.2xlarge 45.0 2.0 250
ecs.hfr7.3xlarge 60.0 2.5 312.5
ecs.hfr7.4xlarge 75.0 3.0 375
ecs.hfr7.6xlarge 90.0 4.0 500
ecs.hfr7.8xlarge 105.0 5.0 625
ecs.hfr7.12xlarge 150.0 8.0 1000
ecs.hfr7.24xlarge 300.0 16.0 2000
Table 4. Storage I/O performance of g6t
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.g6t.large 20.0 1.0 125
ecs.g6t.xlarge 40.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.g6t.2xlarge 50.0 2.0 250
ecs.g6t.4xlarge 80.0 3.0 375
ecs.g6t.8xlarge 150.0 5.0 625
ecs.g6t.13xlarge 240.0 8.0 1000
ecs.g6t.26xlarge 480.0 16.0 2000
Table 5. Storage I/O performance of c6t
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.c6t.large 20.0 1.0 125
ecs.c6t.xlarge 40.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.c6t.2xlarge 50.0 2.0 250
ecs.c6t.4xlarge 80.0 3.0 375
ecs.c6t.8xlarge 150.0 5.0 625
ecs.c6t.13xlarge 240.0 8.0 1000
ecs.c6t.26xlarge 480.0 16.0 2000
Table 6. Storage I/O performance of g6e
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.g6e.large 20.0 1.0 125
ecs.g6e.xlarge 40.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.g6e.2xlarge 50.0 2.0 250
ecs.g6e.4xlarge 80.0 3.0 375
ecs.g6e.8xlarge 150.0 5.0 625
ecs.g6e.13xlarge 240.0 8.0 1000
ecs.g6e.26xlarge 480.0 16.0 2000
Table 7. Storage I/O performance of c6e
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.c6e.large 20.0 1.0 125
ecs.c6e.xlarge 40.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.c6e.2xlarge 50.0 2.0 250
ecs.c6e.4xlarge 80.0 3.0 375
ecs.c6e.8xlarge 150.0 5.0 625
ecs.c6e.13xlarge 240.0 8.0 1000
ecs.c6e.26xlarge 480.0 16.0 2000
Table 8. Storage I/O performance of r6e
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.r6e.large 20.0 1.0 125
ecs.r6e.xlarge 40.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.r6e.2xlarge 50.0 2.0 250
ecs.r6e.4xlarge 80.0 3.0 375
ecs.r6e.8xlarge 150.0 5.0 625
ecs.r6e.13xlarge 240.0 8.0 1000
ecs.r6e.26xlarge 480.0 16.0 2000
Table 9. Storage I/O performance of g6
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.g6.large 10.0 1.0 125
ecs.g6.xlarge 20.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.g6.2xlarge 25.0 2.0 250
ecs.g6.3xlarge 30.0 2.5 312.5
ecs.g6.4xlarge 40.0 3.0 375
ecs.g6.6xlarge 50.0 4.0 500
ecs.g6.8xlarge 60.0 5.0 625
ecs.g6.13xlarge 100.0 8.0 1000
ecs.g6.26xlarge 200.0 16.0 2000
Table 10. Storage I/O performance of c6
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.c6.large 10.0 1.0 125
ecs.c6.xlarge 20.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.c6.2xlarge 25.0 2.0 250
ecs.c6.3xlarge 30.0 2.5 312.5
ecs.c6.4xlarge 40.0 3.0 375
ecs.c6.6xlarge 50.0 4.0 500
ecs.c6.8xlarge 60.0 5.0 625
ecs.c6.13xlarge 100.0 8.0 1000
ecs.c6.26xlarge 200.0 16.0 2000
Table 11. Storage I/O performance of r6
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.r6.large 10.0 1.0 125
ecs.r6.xlarge 20.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.r6.2xlarge 25.0 2.0 250
ecs.r6.3xlarge 30.0 2.5 312.5
ecs.r6.4xlarge 40.0 3.0 375
ecs.r6.6xlarge 50.0 4.0 500
ecs.r6.8xlarge 60.0 5.0 625
ecs.r6.13xlarge 100.0 8.0 1000
ecs.r6.26xlarge 200.0 16.0 2000
Table 12. Storage I/O performance of hfg6
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.hfg6.large 10.0 1.0 125
ecs.hfg6.xlarge 20.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.hfg6.2xlarge 25.0 2.0 250
ecs.hfg6.3xlarge 30.0 2.5 312.5
ecs.hfg6.4xlarge 40.0 3.0 375
ecs.hfg6.6xlarge 50.0 4.0 500
ecs.hfg6.8xlarge 60.0 5.0 625
ecs.hfg6.10xlarge 100.0 8.0 1000
ecs.hfg6.16xlarge 120.0 10.0 1250
ecs.hfg6.20xlarge 200.0 16.0 2000
Table 13. Storage I/O performance of hfc6
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.hfc6.large 10.0 1.0 125
ecs.hfc6.xlarge 20.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.hfc6.2xlarge 25.0 2.0 250
ecs.hfc6.3xlarge 30.0 2.5 312.5
ecs.hfc6.4xlarge 40.0 3.0 375
ecs.hfc6.6xlarge 50.0 4.0 500
ecs.hfc6.8xlarge 60.0 5.0 625
ecs.hfc6.10xlarge 100.0 8.0 1000
ecs.hfc6.16xlarge 120.0 10.0 1250
ecs.hfc6.20xlarge 200.0 16.0 2000
Table 14. Storage I/O performance of hfr6
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.hfr6.large 10.0 1.0 125
ecs.hfr6.xlarge 20.0 1.5 187.5
ecs.hfr6.2xlarge 25.0 2.0 250
ecs.hfr6.3xlarge 30.0 2.5 312.5
ecs.hfr6.4xlarge 40.0 3.0 375
ecs.hfr6.6xlarge 50.0 4.0 500
ecs.hfr6.8xlarge 60.0 5.0 625
ecs.hfr6.10xlarge 100.0 8.0 1000
ecs.hfr6.16xlarge 120.0 10.0 1250
ecs.hfr6.20xlarge 200.0 16.0 2000
Table 15. Storage I/O performance of g5se
Instance type Maximum IOPS (K, 4 KiB I/O) Maximum storage bandwidth (Gbit/s) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 1,024 KiB I/O)
ecs.g5se.large 30.0 1.0 125
ecs.g5se.xlarge 60.0 2.0 250
ecs.g5se.2xlarge 120.0 4.0 500
ecs.g5se.4xlarge 230.0 8.0 1000
ecs.g5se.6xlarge 340.0 12.0 1500
ecs.g5se.8xlarge 450.0 15.0 1875
ecs.g5se.16xlarge 900.0 30.0 3750
ecs.g5se.18xlarge 1000.0 32.0 4000