After you set up Web Application Firewall (WAF) for a website, you can enable data risk control to protect the website. Data risk control helps you protect crucial website services, such as registrations, logons, activities, and forums, against fraud. You can customize data risk control rules based on your actual requirements.

Notice This topic uses the new version of the WAF console released in January 2020. If your WAF instance was created before January 2020, see Data risk control.


  • A Web Application Firewall instance is available. For more information, see Activate a WAF instance.
  • The website is associated with the Web Application Firewall instance. For more information, see Add domain names.
  • If the billing method of the instance is subscription, the edition of the instance must be Business or Enterprise.

Background information

Data risk control is based on Alibaba Cloud big data. It uses industry-leading engines for risk decision-making and integrates with human-machine identification technologies to protect crucial services in different scenarios against fraud. To use data risk control, set up WAF for your website. No further configurations are required on the server or client side.

Data risk control is suitable in a wide array of scenarios, including but not limited to: malicious registrations, SMS verification code abuse, credential stuffing, brute-force attacks, fraud in flash sales, second kills, bargain manipulation, red envelope lucky draws, ticket snapping by using bots, vote rigging, and spam.

For details about scenarios and protection effects of data risk control, see Examples.


Data risk control is only supported by web pages and HTML5 environments. In some cases, the JavaScript plug-in inserted into web pages may be incompatible with the web pages and cause errors during CAPTCHA verification. Currently, web pages that may encounter incompatibility with data risk control include:

  • Static web pages that can be directly accessed through its URL by visitors, such as HTML details page, shared pages, website homepages, and documents. Web pages that have adopted redirection methods such as direct modifications of location.href, and uses of and anchor tags.
  • Web pages where you can rewrite service code and submit requests by using request methods or custom methods, such as submitting forms, rewriting XMLHttpRequest (XHR), and sending custom Ajax requests.
  • Requests in the service code contain hooks.


We recommend that after you enable data risk control, choose the detection mode and use data risk control together with real-time log analysis to run a compatibility test. For more information, see Real-time log analysis.

If incompatibility occurs, use Alibaba Cloud Human-Machine Validation together with WAF to protect your websites.

To protect native applications, we recommend that you use the Anti-Bot SDK. For more information, see Configure application protection.


  1. Log on to the Web Application Firewall console.
  2. In the top navigation bar, select the resource group to which the instance belongs and the region, Mainland China or International, in which the instance is deployed.
  3. In the left-side navigation pane, choose Protection Settings > Website Protection.
  4. In the upper part of the Website Protection page, select the domain name for which you want to configure the whitelist.Switch Domain Name
  5. Click the Bot Management tab and find the Data Risk Control section. Set the following parameters and click Settings.Data risk control
    Parameter Description
    Status Enable or disable data risk control. After you enable data risk control for a website, WAF inserts a JavaScript plug-in into all pages of the website. Web pages are returned to visitors as compressed data in formats other than GZIP. If your website uses non-standard ports, no further configurations are required.
    Note You must enable data risk control before you can set the mode and protection rules.
    Mode Specify a protection mode for data risk control. Supported modes:
    • Strict Interception: If WAF determines that the workloads are under attack, visitors are required to pass strict two-factor authentication.
    • Block: If WAF determines that the workloads are under attack, visitors are required to pass two-factor authentication.
    • Warn: If WAF determines that the workloads are under attack, requests are forwarded to your website but relevant events are recorded. You can view detailed information in risk reports.
      Note The warning mode is selected by default. In this mode, data risk control does not block requests, but inserts a JavaScript plug-in into static web pages to analyze client behaviors.
  6. Add a data risk control request.
    1. On the Data Risk Control page, click the Protection Request tab, and then click Add Protection Request.
    2. In the Add Protection Request dialog box, enter the URL that you want to protect in the Protection Request URL field.
    3. Click Confirm.
    A newly added request takes effect after 10 minutes. You can view newly added requests in the request list, and modify or delete requests.Add a data risk control request
  7. Optional:Specify the web page into which you want to insert the JavaScript plug-in.
    Some web page code may be incompatible with JavaScript. In this case, we recommend that you insert JavaScript into specific pages that are compatible with JavaScript.
    Note When JavaScript is inserted into specific pages, data risk control may fail to obtain all visitor behaviors and reduce protection capabilities.

    Limits: You can insert JavaScript into a maximum of 20 URLs.

    1. On the Data Risk Control page, click the Insert JavaScript into Webpage tab.
    2. Select Insert JavaScript into Specific Webpage and click Add Webpage.Insert JavaScript into specific pages
    3. In the Add URL dialog box, enter the URL to which you want to insert JavaScript, and click Confirm. The URL must start with a forward slash (/). Add a URL
    After you add the URL, data risk control inserts JavaScript into all pages under this URL.

After data risk control is enabled, you can use the logs feature provided by WAF to monitor the protection status. For more information, see View protection results.

What is a protected URL in a protection request

A protected URL in a protection request is the endpoint where operations are performed on a service. It is not the URL of the web page. As shown in the following figure, the URL of the registration page is The endpoint where you can obtain verification codes is, and the endpoint where you can register is

In this example, you need to add a protection request to protect the endpoints and, respectively. WAF protects these URLs from SMS message abuse and malicious registrations. If you set the protected URL to, general visitors are also required to pass CAPTCHA verification, which may adversely affect the user experience.

Notes on protected URLs
  • The protected URL must be specific. Fuzzy match is not supported.

    For example, if you set the protected URL to, data risk control only filters request sent to this URL. Data risk control does not filter requests sent to the sub-directories of this URL.

  • Data risk control only protects website directories.

    For example, if you set the protected URL to*, data risk control filters requests sent to all pages under We recommend that you do not set data risk control to monitor the entire website. If you set the protected URL to*, general visitors need to pass CAPTCHA verification to visit the website homepage. This adversely affects the user experience.

  • Requests sent to a protected URL always trigger CAPTCHA verification. Make sure that the protected URL is not directly requested by general visitors in normal cases. Otherwise, general visitors must pass multiple layers of verification before they can visit the URL.
  • Data risk control does not support API calls. API calls are directly initiated machine actions and cannot pass the CAPTCHA verification of data risk control. However, if an API operation is called by general visitors clicking a button on a page, you can implement data risk control.

View protection results

You can use the logs feature provided by WAF to monitor the protection status and view blocked requests.

  • Allowed requests

    The following figure shows a request that has passed data risk control verification. The URL of a request from a general visitor that has passed data risk control verification contains a parameter that starts with u_a. This request is forwarded to the origin server by WAF and the origin server returns a response to the visitor.

    Logs, data risk control, passed verification
  • Blocked requests

    The following figure shows a request that has been blocked by data risk control. Typically, a request directly sent to the URL of a service does not start with u_a, or starts with a forged User-Agent parameter. This type of request is blocked by WAF and the origin server does return any response.

    Logs, data risk control, block

After you enable the logs feature, you can navigate to Advanced Search > URL Key Words and set the endpoints to be protected by data risk control. This feature helps you monitor the status of data risk control and records blocked requests. For more information, see Log search.


User Tom has a website and the website domain is General visitors can register as website members at User Tom noticed that attackers can use malicious scripts to submit registration requests. These accounts are used to participate in prize draws held by the website. The registration requests are highly similar to normal requests, and the request rate is maintained at a normal level. Compared to traditional HTTP flood attacks, this type of malicious request is difficult to identify.

Sample configurations

User Tom set up WAF for the website and enabled data risk control for the domain The URL of the most crucial registration service is Therefore, User Tom set the protected URL to this URL.

Protection results

After the configurations take effect, data risk control inserts a JavaScript plug-in into all web pages of the website to monitor and analyze the behaviors of each visitor that visits, including the homepage. Data risk control then determines whether a visitor behavior is normal. Data risk control also determines whether a source IP address is malicious based on data provided by the Alibaba Cloud big data reputation library.

When a visitor sends a registration request to, WAF determines whether the visitor is a potential attacker based on the visitor behavioral data generated from the visitor visiting the website to submitting the registration request. For example, if a visitor directly submits a registration request without performing other operations first, the request is potentially malicious.
  • If data risk control determines that the request is from a general visitor based on previous visitor behaviors, the visitor can register accounts without verification.
  • If data risk identifies a request as potentially malicious, or the source IP address has a record of sending malicious requests, CAPTCHA is triggered to verify the identity of the visitor. Only visitors that pass the verification can register accounts.
    • If CAPTCHA verification captures suspicious visitor behaviors, such as using scripts to simulate real visitor behaviors to pass CAPTCHA verification, data risk control requires two-factor authentication to verify the visitor identity until the visitor passes verification and is identified as a general visitor.
    • If the visitor fails the verification, data risk control blocks the request.

During this process, data risk control is enabled for the entire website ( Data risk control inserts a JavaScript plug-in into every page of the website to analyze visitor behaviors. However, protection and verification are only enabled for the URL where visitors submit registration requests. Data risk control is triggered only after a registration request is submitted.