This topic provides answers to the FAQ about Server Migration Center (SMC).

What scenarios can I use SMC for?

SMC can be used to migrate both Windows-based and Linux-based physical servers, VMware virtual machines (VMs), Xen, KVM, or Hyper-V VMs, and VMs running in public clouds. For more information, see What is SMC?

What migration modes does SMC support?

SMC supports the daemon mode. In this mode, you can import the migration source information by using the SMC client, and then log on to the SMC console to create and complete a migration task. For more information, see Migration process.

I have a single Oracle database instance on a physical server. Should I migrate the entire server to Alibaba Cloud (including the operating system and database) or only the database? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods?

Select a migration method based on your needs. The two methods have the following advantages and disadvantages:
  • If you need only the Oracle database, we recommend that you migrate the database. However, you need to deploy the database in a new environment.
  • If you need both the database and its operating environment, we recommend that you migrate the entire server to Alibaba Cloud. However, if the server has a large volume of resources, the migration may require much time to complete.

What migration process does SMC use?

SMC uses the following migration process:
  1. You import the migration source information to the SMC console.
  2. The SMC backend service prepares the intermediate instance.
  3. The SMC client transfers data from the migration source to the intermediate instance.
  4. SMC creates an image from the migration source and installs the image on Alibaba Cloud.

How do I estimate the time that is required for a migration task? How do I test the data transfer rate?

You can estimate the time that is required for a migration task based on the migration period. The migration is divided into three periods: pre-migration, migration, and post-migration. The migration period is proportional to the number of servers you want to migrate and the volume of data to be migrated. We recommend that you perform a test migration to estimate the time that is required for a migration task.

For more information, see Estimate the time required for migration and test the transmission speed.

Does SMC support resumable data transfer?

Yes, SMC supports resumable data transfer. If data transfer is interrupted, you can restart the client and migration task to resume migration.

Does SMC support incremental data migration?

Yes. SMC supports incremental data migration. For more information, see Migrate incremental data from a source server.

What can I do if a migration task is interrupted or fails?

If a migration task is interrupted or fails, use the following troubleshooting methods:

  • If the SMC client exits due to an exception or the migration process stalls, restart the client and migration task to resume the migration.
  • If the migration task is in the InError state, check the log file of the migration task in the SMC console to locate the cause.

    If the problem persists, we recommend that you join the SMC support group on DingTalk. For more information, see Contact us.

How does SMC create an intermediate instance?

SMC attempts to create an intermediate instance based on the following specifications in sequence until an intermediate instance is created.
  • 1 vCPU 2 GiB
  • 1 vCPU 4 GiB
  • 2 vCPU 2 GiB
  • 2 vCPU 4 GiB
  • t6, burstable instance family
  • t5, burstable instance family
  • 2 vCPU 8 GiB

If the preceding instance specifications are unavailable, SMC selects other cost-effective instance specifications.

What do I need to know about intermediate instances?

You need to know the following information about intermediate instances:
  • SMC creates, starts, stops, and releases an intermediate instance named No_Delete_SMC_Transition_Instance. To ensure a smooth migration, do not perform operations on the intermediate instance.
  • The default security group of the intermediate instance allows access to ports 8080 and 8703. The ports are the migration service ports of the intermediate instance. Do not modify or delete the security group.
  • After the migration is complete, the intermediate instance is automatically released. If the migration fails, you must manually release the instance. For more information, see Release an instance.

What public endpoints and ports does my source server need to access?

A source server needs to access the following endpoint and ports:
  • The SMC endpoint https://smc.aliyuncs.com:443 that is used to access SMC.
  • Ports 8080 and 8703 of the intermediate instance. If the migration is performed over a virtual private cloud (VPC), the source server also needs to access the private IP address of the intermediate instance. For more information, see Migrate services to the cloud by using Alibaba Cloud VPC.
Note You do not need to enable inbound ports for the source server. However, make sure that the server can access the preceding endpoint and ports.

What Windows Server licenses does Alibaba Cloud support?

Alibaba Cloud supports licenses for Windows Server 2003, 2008, 2012, and 2016. To migrate servers that run other versions of Windows operating systems to Alibaba Cloud, you must apply for license mobility. For more information, see Apply for License Mobility through Software Assurance.

How do I install Rsync?

To install Rsync, run one of the following commands. Select the command based on the operating system of your source server.
  • CentOS: yum -y install rsync.
  • Ubuntu: apt-get -y install rsync.
  • Debian: apt-get -y install rsync.
  • SUSE: zypper install rsync.
  • Other operating systems: See the installation documentation on the official website.

How do I disable SELinux?

To temporarily disable SELinux, run the setenforce 0 command. To permanently disable SELinux, open the configuration file in the /etc/selinux/config directory, and then set SELINUX to disabled.

How do I exclude files or directories from a migration task?

To exclude files and directories from a migration task, add the paths to the files and directories to the following configuration files. The configuration files reside in the Excludes directory of the client.
  • A system disk configuration file: rsync_excludes_win.txt (for Windows servers) or rsync_excludes_linux.txt (for Linux servers)

  • A data disk configuration file: named by adding a suffix disk [disk index number] to the system disk, such as rsync_excludes_win_disk1.txt (for Windows servers) or rsync_excludes_linux_disk1.txt (for Linux servers).

Note If a configuration file is lost or deleted by accident, you can create another one.
  • Example 1: Exclude files or directories from migration of a Windows Server
    • System disk:
      • Specify the files or directories to be excluded:
        C:\MyDirs\Docs\Words
        C:\MyDirs\Docs\Excels\Report1.txt
      • Add the following information to the rsync_excludes_win.txt file:
        /MyDirs/Docs/Words/
        /MyDirs/Docs/Excels/Report1.txt
    • Data disk:
      • Specify the files or directories to be excluded:
        D:\MyDirs2\Docs2\Words2
        D:\MyDirs2\Docs2\Excels\Report2.txt
      • Add the following information to the rsync_excludes_win_disk1.txt file:
        /MyDirs2/Docs2/Words2/
        /MyDirs2/Docs2/Excels2/Report2.txt
      Note
      To exclude a Windows directory, you must perform the following operations:
      • Remove the prefix of the directory (scr_path). In the preceding example, you must remove D:.
      • Replace \ with /.
  • Example 2: Exclude files or directories from migration of a Linux server
    • System disk (root directory/):
      • Specify the files or directories to be excluded:
        /var/mydirs/docs/words
        /var/mydirs/docs/excels/report1.txt
      • Add the following information to the rsync_excludes_linux.txt file:
        /var/mydirs/docs/words/
        /var/mydirs/docs/excels/report1.txt
    • Data disk:
      • Specify the files or directories to be excluded:
        /mnt/disk1/mydirs2/docs2/words2
        /mnt/disk1/mydirs2/docs2/excels2/report2.txt
      • Add the following information to the rsync_excludes_linux_disk1.txt file:
        /mydirs2/docs2/words2/
        /mydirs2/docs2/excels2/report2.txt
      Note To exclude a Linux directory, you must remove the prefix of the directory (scr_path). In the preceding example, you must remove /mnt/disk1.

What can I do if I want to reimport a migration source?

You must delete the migration source, restart the client, and then reimport the migration source. If the migration source is associated with a migration task, you must delete the migration task before you delete the migration source.

What can I do if I have released an intermediate instance by mistake?

If you have released an intermediate instance by mistake, delete the current migration task, and then create and start a new migration task for the migration source. If the problem persists, you can submit a ticket.

What can I do if I cannot create a migration task because a migration source is not in the Active state?

Restore the migration source to the Active state, and then create a migration task. Perform the following operations to fix the issue:
  • If the migration source is in the Inactive state:

    This status indicates that the migration source is disconnected from the SMC console. You must restart the SMC client and wait until the migration is complete before you close the client. For more information, see Step 1: Import the information about a migration source.

  • If the migration source is in the InError state: You must check the console logs. You must also check the client logs in the Logs directory and the error message on the client UI. Resolve the error based on the logs. You can also view the error codes and troubleshooting methods in this topic. If the problem persists, contact Alibaba Cloud. For more information, see Contact us.

Why am I unable to delete a migration source?

You cannot delete a migration source if it is associated with an unfinished migration task. You must stop and delete the migration task before you can delete the migration source.

Why are no data disk parameters displayed in the Create Migration Task pane? How can I resolve this issue?

This is because your migration source is not equipped with or no data disk is attached to the migration source. If your migration source is not equipped with or no data disk is attached to the migration source, the data disk parameters are not displayed in the Create Migration Task pane. To resolve this problem, perform the following operations:
  1. Attach the data disk to a migration source.
  2. Restart the SMC client.
  3. Refresh the Migration Sources page in the SMC console, and open the Create Migration Task pane again.

Can I create a migration task for a migration source that has another migration task in progress or a migration task with an error?

No, you cannot create a migration task for the migration source in this case. However, you can create a migration task after you perform the following operations:
  • If an existing migration task is in progress, stop and delete the migration task.
  • If an error occurs on an existing migration task, delete the migration task.

What is the validity period of a migration task? What happens after a migration task expires?

A migration task expires 30 days after it is created in the SMC console. The expiration time cannot be changed in the console. If you call the CreateReplicationJob operation to create a migration task, you can set the validity period based on your needs. The validity period ranges from 7 to 90 days. For more information, see CreateReplicationJob.

The validity period starts from the time when the migration task is created. The following two methods are used to process an expired migration task:
  • If the migration task is in the Running state, no operations are performed.
  • If the migration task is in the Ready, Stopped, or InError state, it enters the Expired state. SMC deletes the migration task seven days after the task expires.

What are the statuses of migration tasks? What do these statuses indicate?

The statuses of a migration task are divided into the following two types:
  • Migration task status: the status of the migration task throughout the entire lifecycle. For more information, see Migration task status.
  • Migration task business status: the status of the migration task in the Running stage. For more information, see Migration task business status.
The following figure shows the relationship between migration task statuses and business statuses.job_status
Table 1. Migration task statuses
Status Description Supported operation
Ready The migration task is created but is not started. Start the migration task.
Running The migration task is running. The business status rather than Running is displayed in the Status column of the SMC console. Stop the migration task when it is completed or when it is in the Syncing state.
Note You cannot delete a migration task in the Running state.
Stopped The migration task is stopped. Restart or delete the migration task.
InError The migration task fails. View the error message or migration logs in the client or console to identify the cause for the failure and resolve the issue. If the migration failure is caused by the SMC client, restart the client before you restart the migration task. For example, the migration source is in the Inactive or InError state.
Finished The migration task is completed. Go to the Custom Images tab in the Elastic Compute Service (ECS) console to view the image that is generated by SMC.
Waiting The task is pending execution. Only incremental migration tasks can reach this status. For more information, see Migrate incremental data from a source server. If the migration task is in the Waiting state, you can perform the following operations:
  • Use the image that is generated by the migration task to create an ECS instance.
  • Stop the migration task.
  • Delete the migration task.
  • Perform incremental migration of source servers.
  • Modify the settings of automatic incremental migration. The settings include the interval at which the migration task runs and the maximum number of images that can be retained for the task.
Expired The migration task has expired. Delete the migration task.
Note Each migration task is valid for 30 days. When a migration task expires, the status of the task changes to Expired and the task is retained for another seven days. SMC deletes the migration task seven days after the task expires. For more information, see What is the validity period of a migration task? What happens after a migration task expires?
Deleting The migration task is being deleted. Wait until the migration task is deleted, or create a new migration task for the migration source.
Note After a migration task is deleted, SMC releases the resources such as the intermediate instance that are used during the migration process. This process may take a while to complete.
Table 2. Migration task business status
Business status Description Supported operation
Preparing After you start a migration task, the status of the task changes to Preparing. None.
Syncing The migration task is uploading data from the migration source. Stop the migration task.
Processing The migration task is creating an image of the migration source. None.
Cleaning The intermediate instance is being released, and the migration task is almost completed. None.

How do I find a migration source in the SMC console?

To find a migration source, perform the following operations:
  1. Log on to the SMC console.
  2. In the left-side navigation pane, click Migration Sources.
  3. On the Migration Sources page, click the search box and select a search item from the drop-down list.

    Search items include Migration Source Name, Migration Source ID, Status, and Latest Migration Task ID. All search queries return exact matches of the search items.

  4. Enter a value for the selected search item and press Enter.

Why do I receive a "Forbidden.Subuser" error?

You receive the error because SMC used an account that has no permissions to purchase instances. SMC must use the AccessKey pair of an account to call the ECS API and create resources such as intermediate instances and disks. Service provider accounts may not have the permissions to purchase instances. If you need to migrate resources, contact Alibaba Cloud. For more information, see Contact us.

Why do I receive a Forbidden.Unauthorized error?

You receive the error because the current RAM user does not have the permissions to access SMC. For more information about the authorization methods, see Prepare an Alibaba Cloud account.

Why do I receive a Your Account Haven't Completed Real-name Authentication error?

You receive the error because your account has not passed real-name verification. For more information about how to complete real-name verification, see Prepare an Alibaba Cloud account.

Why do I receive a Your Account Doesn't Have Enough RAM Authority For SMC error?

You receive the error because the required role is not created or assigned to SMC For more information about how to create and assign a role to SMC, see Prepare an Alibaba Cloud account.

Why do I receive an IllegalTimestam error?

You receive the error because the system time of a migration source is inconsistent with the standard time of the region where the migration source is located. Make sure that the system time is consistent with the standard time of the region.

Why do I receive an InvalidAccountStatus.NotEnoughBalance error?

You receive the error because your account balance is insufficient. The default billing method of intermediate instances is pay-as-you-go. If your account balance is insufficient, migration cannot be completed. You must add funds to your account and try again. For more information, see Pay-as-you-go.

Why do I receive a Forbidden.RAM error?

You receive the error because the current RAM user does not have the permission to call the operation.

You must grant full access permissions on ECS and VPC to the current RAM user by attaching the AliyunECSFullAccess and AliyunVPCFullAccess policies to the RAM user. For more information, see Account access control.

Why do I receive an InvalidImageName.Duplicated error?

You receive the error because the specified image_name already exists.

Why do I receive an InvalidAccountStatus.SnapshotServiceUnavailable error?

You receive the error because the snapshot service may not be activated by your Alibaba Cloud account. For more information, see Activate ECS Snapshot.

Why do I receive a Connect to Server Failed error?

You receive the error because SMC cannot connect to the intermediate instance. Perform the following operations to troubleshoot the error:
  1. Check the detailed migration logs.
  2. Perform the following operations:
    • Check whether the status of the intermediate instance is normal.
    • Check whether the network of the on-premises server is connected. Check whether TCP ports 80, 443, 8703, and 8080 are enabled on your server. SMC must have access permissions on these ports.
  3. After you resolve the error, run the SMC client again.

Why do I receive a Create transition vpc failed error message? (QuotaExceeded.Vpc: VPC quota exceeded.)

You receive the error because your VPC quota is reached. If you do not specify a VPC and VSwitch for your migration task, SMC creates an intermediate VPC and VSwitch during the migration. After the migration task is completed, the intermediate VPC and VSwitch are deleted.

Each Alibaba Cloud account has a maximum of 10 VPCs in a region. If you want to perform multiple migration tasks at a time or the number of VPCs in the destination region reaches the quota, we recommend that you multiplex VPC resources. To do so, you can specify the same VPC and VSwitch when you create migration tasks. For more information, see Migration task parameters.

If the VPC quota is reached, perform one of the following operations:

Why do I receive an InvalidAccessKeyId.NotFound error?

You receive the error because the AccessKey pair you specified is invalid. To resolve this error, perform the following operations:
  1. Open the user_config.json file.
  2. Delete the values of AccessKeyId and AccessKeySecret.
  3. Save and close the file.
  4. Run the SMC client and enter a new AccessKey pair.

Why do I receive a Do Rsync Disk x Failed error?

You receive the error because the data transfer is interrupted. Perform the following operations to troubleshoot the error:
  1. Check the migration logs for migration exceptions. If the log file contains return: 3072 or return: 7680, check whether the database or container services such as Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, MongoDB, and Docker are enabled on the source server. If the services are enabled, disable these services or exclude the related directories before you perform migration.
  2. Perform the following operations:
    • Check whether the status of the intermediate instance is normal.
    • Check whether the network of the on-premises server is connected. Check whether TCP ports 80, 443, 8703, and 8080 are enabled on your server. SMC must have access permissions on these ports.
  3. After you resolve the error, run the SMC client again.

Why do I receive a check rsync failed or rsync not found error on my Linux server?

You receive the error because you do not install the Rsync component on the migration source system. For more information, see How do I install Rsync?

Why do I receive a check virtio failed error on my Linux server?

You receive the error because you do not install the VirtIO driver on the migration source system. For more information, see VirtIO driver.

Why do I receive a check selinux failed error message on my Linux server?

You receive the error because you enable SELinux on the migration source system. For more information, see How do I disable SELinux?

Why do I receive a Do Grub Failed error on my Linux server?

You receive the error because you do not install GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB) on the source server. If GRUB is not installed, install GRUB and restart the SMC client and migration task. For more information, see Install GRUB in a Linux server.

What can I do if Windows server migration stops in the "Prepare For Rsync Disk 0" stage?

Windows server migration stops in the "Prepare For Rsync Disk 0" stage, and VssSnapshotul::VssSnapshotul GetSnapshotul Failed: 0x80042308 is displayed in the log file. Perform the following operations:
  1. Enable the Volume Shadow Copy service.
    1. Log on to your on-premises server. Click Start, enter services.msc in the search box, and then press Enter.
    2. Find the Volume Shadow Copy service and click Start the service.
  2. Uninstall the QEMU Guest Agent software.
    1. Log on to your on-premises server. Click Start, enter services.msc in the search box, and then press Enter.
    2. Check whether the QEMU Guest Agent VSS Provider service is running. If this service is unavailable, restart the SMC client.
    3. Find the uninstall program in the C:\Program Files (x86)\virtio\monitor\uninstall.bat directory, and execute the program to uninstall QEMU Guest Agent.
  3. Restart the SMC client.

What can I do if I am prompted to activate the Windows service after I migrate a Windows server?

You can reinstall Key Management Service (KMS) to activate the Windows service.
  1. Connect to the Windows instance.
  2. On the Microsoft KMS Client Setup Keys page, find your KMS client key. For example, the key is xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx.
  3. Open the command prompt as an administrator, and run the following commands:
    slmgr /upk
    slmgr /ipk xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx
  4. Use KMS to activate the Windows service.

What can I do if the drive letters of data disks are missing or invalid after I migrate a Windows server?

  • If the drive letters are missing, add them in the Disk Management utility.
    1. Choose Control Panel > System and Security > Administrative Tools > Computer Management.
    2. In the Disk Management utility, find and right-click the data disk whose drive letter is missing, and click Change Drive Letters and Path.
    3. Click Add and specify a drive letter.
  • If the drive letters are invalid, you can change them in the Disk Management utility.
    1. Choose Control Panel > System and Security > Administrative Tools > Computer Management.
    2. In the Disk Management utility, find and right-click the data disk whose drive letter is missing, and click Change Drive Letters and Path.
    3. Click Change and assign a drive letter.

What can I do if the file system access is abnormal or system menus are displayed in different languages during instance startup after I migrate a Windows server?

You must wait until the file system access automatically recovers. For more information, see How do I check my system after I migrate a Windows server?

How do I check my system after I migrate a Windows server?

After you migrate your Windows server, you must perform the following operations when you start the created instance for the first time:
  1. Check whether the system disk data is complete.
  2. If a data disk is missing, go to the Disk Management utility to check whether the drive letter is missing.
  3. After the file system access permission automatically recovers, select whether to restart the instance.Windows system check
    Note If the Goto Aliyun Restore Tool does not start during first startup, run the C:\go2aliyun_prepare\go2aliyun_restore.exe command to invoke the recovery process. Before you run the command, ensure that the number of disks and drive letter paths on the instance is consistent with that of disks and drive letter paths on the source system.
  4. Check whether the network is connected.
  5. Check whether other system services are running as expected.

How do I check my system after I migrate a Linux server?

After you migrate your Linux server, you must perform the following operations when you start the created instance for the first time:
  1. Check whether the system disk data is complete.
  2. If data disks exist, you must attach them. For more information, see Attach a data disk.
  3. Check whether the network is connected.
  4. Check whether other system services are running as expected.

Why does no data exist in the original data disk directory during instance startup after I migrate a Linux server?

This is because the data disks are not attached during instance startup by default after you migrate a Linux server with data disks. To resolve this issue, run the ls /dev/vd* command to view the data disks. Attach the data disks based on your needs. Edit the configuration file in the /etc/fstab directory to allow the data disks to be attached during instance startup.

What can I do if I am unable to start the ECS instance that is created based on the custom image after a Linux server migration?

To resolve this issue, perform the following operations:
  • Check the driver. Before you create an I/O optimized instance, ensure that the VirtIO driver is installed on the source server.
  • Check whether the boot configurations of the source server are valid.
  • Upgrade GRUB to version 1.9 or later, and then perform the migration again after the following conditions are met: The operating system of your source server is CentOS 5 or Debian 7, the GRUB version is earlier than 1.9, and the following output appears when you connect to the ECS instance by using the Management Terminal in the ECS console.Linux server check upon startup

    For more information, see Install GRUB in a Linux server.

Why is the network abnormal when the Others Linux instances are started?

This is because Alibaba Cloud does not perform configurations such as network or Secure Shell (SSH) configurations on ECS instances that are created from imported images of the Others Linux type. To resolve this issue, you can change the network configurations.

After March 31, 2018, the network configurations of images that are generated by the SMC client are changed. By default, IP addresses are allocated by using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

How do I perform another migration on the same migration source?

To migrate a migration source again, create and start a new migration task for the migration source.

What do I do after a migration task is completed and a custom image is generated?

We recommend that you use the image to create a pay-as-you-go instance, and then check the system is running as expected. Select instance types that meet your business requirements and create ECS instances. For more information, see Instance families and Create an instance by using the provided wizard.

What happens after a migration task is completed?

After a migration task is completed, SMC generates a custom image for your migration source. You can find your migration task on the Migration Tasks page, and click the link in the Migration Result column to view the custom image.

Why does the hostname of the ECS instance that is created after a migration task contain the name of another cloud platform?

This is because cloud_init is not installed or started on the ECS instance, or the cloud-init versions of the source server and Alibaba Cloud are incompatible. To resolve this issue, you can install cloud-init and then restart the instance to update the hostname. For more information, see Install cloud-init.