This topic introduces the date and time types supported by PolarDB compatible with Oracle.

Note The following discussion of the date and time types assumes that the polar_comp_redwood_date configuration parameter has been set to TRUE whenever a table is created or altered.
Table 1. Date/Time Types
Name Storage size Description Low value High value Resolution
DATE 8 bytes Date and time 4713 BC 5874897 AD 1 second
INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND [(p)] 12 bytes Period of time -178000000 years 178000000 years 1 microsecond / 14 digits
INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH 12 bytes Period of time -178000000 years 178000000 years 1 microsecond / 14 digits
TIMESTAMP [(p)] 8 bytes Date and time 4713 BC 5874897 AD 1 microsecond
TIMESTAMP [(p)] WITH TIME ZONE 8 bytes Date and time with time zone 4713 BC 5874897 AD 1 microsecond

When DATE appears as the data type of a column in the data definition language (DDL) statements, CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE, it is translated to TIMESTAMP(0) at the time the table definition is stored in the database. Therefore, a time component will also be stored in the column along with the date.

When DATE appears as a data type of a variable in an SPL declaration section, or the data type of a formal parameter in an SPL procedure or an SPL function, or the return type of an SPL function, it is always translated to TIMESTAMP(0) and thus can handle a time component if present.

TIMESTAMP accepts an optional precision value p which specifies the number of fractional digits retained in the seconds field. The valid values of p is from 0 to 6.The default value is 6.

When TIMESTAMP values are stored as double precision floating-point numbers by default, the effective limit of precision can be less than 6. TIMESTAMP values are stored as seconds before or after midnight January 1, 2000. Microsecond precision is achieved for dates within a few years of 2000-01-01, but the precision degrades for dates further away. When TIMESTAMP values are stored as eight-byte integers (a compile-time option), microsecond precision is available over the full range of values. However, eight-byte integer timestamps have a more limited range of dates than dates listed in the preceding table. It is from 4713 BC up to 294276 AD.

TIMESTAMP (p) WITH TIME ZONE is similar to TIMESTAMP (p), but includes the time zone as well.


INTERVAL values specify a period of time. Values of the INTERVAL type are composed of fields that describe the value of the data. The following table lists the fields allowed in an INTERVAL type:

Field name INTERVAL values allowed
YEAR Integer value (positive or negative)
MONTH 0 through 11
DAY Integer value (positive or negative)
HOUR 0 through 23
MINUTE 0 through 59
SECOND 0 through 59.9(p) where 9(p) is the precision of fractional seconds

The fields must be displayed in descending order, from YEARS to MONTHS, and from DAYS to HOURS, MINUTES and then SECONDS.

PolarDB-O supports two INTERVAL types compatible with Oracle databases.

  • The first variation supported by PolarDB-O is INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND [(p)]. INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND [(p)] stores a time interval in days, hours, minutes and seconds.
    Note p specifies the precision of the second field.
    PolarDB-O interprets the value:
    • INTERVAL '1 2:34:5.678' DAY TO SECOND(3)

      as 1 day, 2 hours, 34 minutes, 5 seconds and 678 thousandths of a second.


      as 1 day and 23 hours.


      as 2 hours and 34 minutes.

    • INTERVAL '2:34:56.129' HOUR TO SECOND(2)
      as 2 hours, 34 minutes, 56 seconds and 13 thousandths of a second.
      Note Note that the fractional second is rounded up to 13 because of the specified precision.
  • The second variation supported by PolarDB-O that is compatible with Oracle databases is INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH. This variation stores a time interval in years and months.
    PolarDB-O interprets the value:

      as 12 years and 3 months.

    • INTERVAL '456' YEAR(2)

      as 12 years and 3 months.

    • INTERVAL '300' MONTH

      as 25 years.

Date and time input

Date and time input is accepted in ISO 8601 SQL-compatible format, the Oracle default dd-MON-yy format, and a number of other formats provided that there is no ambiguity as to which component is the year, month, and day. However, we recommend that you use the TO_DATE function to avoid ambiguities.

Any date or time literal input needs to be enclosed in single quotation marks (') in the format of text strings. The following SQL standard syntax is also accepted:
type 'value' type
  • type is either DATE or TIMESTAMP.
  • value is a date and time text string.
  • Date
    The following table describes some input formats for dates, all of which equate to January 8, 1999.
    • January 8, 1999
    • 1999-01-08
    • 1999-Jan-08
    • Jan-08-1999
    • 08-Jan-1999
    • 08-Jan-99
    • Jan-08-99
    • 19990108
    • 990108

    The date values can be assigned to a DATE or TIMESTAMP column or variable. The hour, minute, and seconds fields will be set to zero if the date value is not appended with a time value.

  • Time
    Some examples of the time component of a date or timestamp are shown in the following table.
    Table 2. Time input
    Example Description
    04:05:06.789 ISO 8601
    04:05:06 ISO 8601
    04:05 ISO 8601
    040506 ISO 8601
    04:05 AM Same as 04:05; AM does not affect value
    04:05 PM Same as 16:05; input hour must be <= 12
  • Timestamp

    Valid input for timestamps consists of a concatenation of a date and a time. The date portion of the timestamp can be formatted based on the preceding table. The time portion of the timestamp can be formatted based on the preceding table.

    The following example uses the default format of Oracle.

    08-JAN-99 04:05:06

    The following example uses the ISO 8601 standard.

    1999-01-08 04:05:06

Date and time output

The default output format of the date and time types will be either (dd-MON-yy) referred to as the Redwood date style, compatible with Oracle databases, or (yyyy-mm-dd) referred to as the ISO 8601 format, depending upon the application interface to the database. Applications that use JDBC such as SQL Interactive always present the date in ISO 8601 form. Other applications such as psql present the date in Redwood form.

The following table lists examples of the output formats for the Redwood and ISO 8601 styles.
Table 3. Date/time output styles
Description Example
Redwood style 31-DEC-05 07:37:16
ISO 8601/SQL standard 1997-12-17 07:37:16


PolarDB-O uses Julian dates for all date and time calculations. Julian dates correctly predict or calculate any date after 4713 BC based on the assumption that the length of the year is 365.2425 days.